Q1. What are the consequences of conflict in organizations?Answer: Consequences of conflict in organizationsOrganizational Conflict can have both positive and negative consequences.Negative consequences: Increased costs (time, money) devoted to dealing with the conflict, wasted resources and energy spent dealing with the conflict, Decreased productivity, Lowered motivation, Decreased morale, Poor decision-making, Withdrawal and miscommunication or non-communication, Complaints and blaming, Backstabbing and gossip, Attitudes of distrust and hostility (that may influence all future interactions, (Permanent) erosion to personal, work, and community relationships, Harm to others not directly involved in the conflict, Damaged emotional and psychological well-being of those involved in the conflict, Dissatisfaction and stress.Positive consequences: Leads to new ideas, Stimulates creativity, Motivateschange, Promotes organizational vitality, Helps individuals and groups toestablish identities, Serves as a safety valve indicate problems, Buildscooperation, Helps individuals to develop skills on how to conflicts, Improving quality decisions.
Q2. State the characteristics of management.Answer: The main characteristics of management are as follows:I. Management is an activity: Management is an activity which is concerned with the efficient utilization of human and non-human resources of productionII. Invisible Force: Management is an invisible force. Its existence can be felt through the enterprise or institution it is managing.III. Goal Oriented: Management is goal oriented as it aims to achieve some definite goals and objectives. According to the Hayman, "Effective management is always management by objectives". Managers and other personnel officers apply their knowledge, experience and skills to achieve the desired objectivesIV. Accomplishment through the efforts of others: Managers cannot do everything themselves. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others.V. Universal activity: Management is universal. Management is required in all types or organizations. Wherever there are some activities, there is management. The basic principles of management are universal and can be applied anywhere and in every field, such as business, social, religious, cultural, sports, administration, educational, politics or military.VI. Art as well as Science: Management is both an art and a science. It is a science as it has an organized body of knowledge which contains certain universal truths and an art as managing requires certain skills which apply more or less in every situation.
VII. Multidisciplinary Knowledge: Though management is a distinct discipline, it contains principles drawn from many social sciences like psychology, sociology etc.VIII. Management is distinct from ownership: In modern times, there is a divorce of management from ownership. Today, big corporations are owned by a vast number of shareholders while their management is in the hands of paid qualified, competent and experienced managerial personnelIX. Need at all levels: According to the nature of task and scope of authority, management is needed at all levels of the organization, i.e., top level, middle and lower levelX. Integrated process: Management is an integrated process. It integrates the men, machine and material to carry out the operations of the enterprise efficiently and successfully. This integrating process is result oriented.
Q4. What are the 14 principles of management of Henri Fayol?Answer: Following are the 14 principles of management of Henri Fayol:1. DIVISION OF WORK: Work should be divided among individuals and groups to ensure that effort and attention are focused on special portions of the task. Fayol presented work specialization as the best way to use the human resources of the organization.2. AUTHORITY: The concepts of Authority and responsibility are closely related. Authority was defined by Fayol as the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience. Responsibility involves being accountable, and is therefore naturally associated with authority. Whoever assumes authority also assumes responsibility.3. DISCIPLINE: A successful organization requires the common effort of workers. Penalties should be applied judiciously to encourage this common effort.4. UNITY OF COMMAND: Workers should receive orders from only one manager.5. UNITY OF DIRECTION: The entire organization should be moving towards a common objective in a commondirection.6. SUBORDINATION OF INDIVIDUAL INTERESTS TO THE GENERALINTERESTS: The interests of one person should not take priority over the interests of the organization as a whole.7. REMUNERATION: Many variables, such as cost of living, supply of qualified personnel, general business conditions, and success of the business, should be considered in determining a worker’s rate of pay.8. CENTRALIZATION: Fayol defined centralization as lowering the importance of the subordinate role. Decentralization is increasing the importance. The degree to which centralization or decentralization should be adopted depends on the specific organization in which the manager is working.9. SCALAR CHAIN: Managers in hierarchies are part of a chain like authority scale. Each manager, from the first line supervisor to the president, possesses certain amounts of authority. The President possesses the most authority; the first line supervisor the least. Lower level managers should always keep upper level managers informed of their work activities. The existence of a scalar chain and adherence to it are necessary if the organization is to
be successful.10. ORDER: For the sake of efficiency and coordination, all materials and people related to a specific kind of work should be treated as equally as possible.11. EQUITY: All employees should be treated as equally as possible.12. STABILITY OF TENURE OF PERSONNEL: Retaining productive employees should always be a high priority of management. Recruitment and Selection Costs, as well as increased product-reject rates are usually associated with hiring new workers.13. INITIATIVE: Management should take steps to encourage worker initiative, which is defined as new or additional work activity undertaken through self direction.14. ESPIRIT DE CORPS: Management should encourage harmony and general good feelings among employees.
Q5. Distinguish between internal and external forces of change.Answer: Internal and external forces of change:Internal Forces: Poor financial performance Employee dissatisfaction Inefficiency of existing business processes and systems Need to increase profitability Existence of cultural misfits to organization goals and objectivesExternal Forces: Changes in technology Political factors General macro-economic environment Changes in consumer tastes, preferences, purchasing patterns & frequencies Declining market shares due to competition.
Q6. Ms. Chanchal Das Gupta is a recruitment specialist. For the post of QC Manager, sheinterviews three candidates. Given below are the physical characteristics of thecandidates.CANDIDATE Physical CharacteristicsMR. RAVI Muscular, thick skin, rectangular shapedMR. GINEESH Thin, delicate build, large brain, tallMR. RAMGOPAL Soft, round shaped, underdeveloped musclesFrom the above descriptions, what personalitytraits can Ms. Chanchal derive out of thecandidates as per Sheldon’s theory ofpersonality?Answer. Per Sheldon`s theory of personality, below are the traits that Ms. Chanchalcan derive:CANDIDATE Physical CharacteristicsMR. RAVI Muscular, thick skin, rectangular shapedMR. GINEESH Thin, delicate build, large brain, tallMR. RAMGOPAL Soft, round shaped, underdeveloped muscles Mr. Ravi represents Mesomorph body type. He is “well-proportioned”. Psychologically he is Adventurous, Courageous, Indifferent to what others think or want, Assertive/bold, Zest for physical activity, Competitive, With a desire for power/dominance, And a love of risk/chance Mr. Gineesh represents Ectomorph body type. Psychologically he is Self-conscious, Private, Introverted, Inhibited, Socially anxious, Artistic, Intense, Emotionally restrained, Thoughtful Mr. Ramgopal represents Endomorph body type. Psychologically he is Sociable, Fun- loving, Love of food, Tolerant, Even-tempered, Good humored, Relaxed, with a love of comfort, and has a need for affection.
Q3. Explain the four process of Social Learning Theory.Answer: PROCESS OF SOCIAL LEARNING THEORYThe social learning theory was proposed by Bandura. It recognizes the importance ofobserving and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. According to Bandura (1977), most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action. Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences.Social learning has four processes: Attention processes People learn from a model only when they recognize and pay attention to its critical features. In order to learn, it is required to pay attention. Anything that detracts the attention is going to have a negative effect on observational learning. If the is model interesting or there is a novel aspect to the situation, it is more likely to dedicate the full attention to learning. Retention processes A model’s influence will depend on how well the individual remembers the model’s action after the it is no longer readily available. The ability to store information is also an important part of the learning process. Retention can be affected by a number of factors, but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning. Motor reproduction processes after a person has seen a new behavior by observing the model, the watching must be converted to doing. The ability to store information is also an important part of the learning process. Retention can be affected by a number of factors, but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning. Reinforcement processes Individuals will be motivated to exhibit the modeled behavior if positive incentives or rewards are provided. Finally, in order for
observational learning to be successful, you have to be motivated to imitate the behavior that has been modeled. Reinforcement and punishment play an important role in motivation. While experiencing these motivators can be highly effective, so can observing other experience some type of reinforcement or punishment? For example, if you see another student rewarded with extra credit for being to class on time, you might start to show up a few minutes early each day.Principles of social learning are as follows: The highest level of observational learning is achieved by first organizing and rehearsing the modeled behavior symbolically and then enacting it overtly. Coding modeled behavior into words, labels or images results in better retention than simply observing. Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior, if it results in outcomes they value. Individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior, if the model is similar to the observer and has admired status and the behavior has functional value.
Master of Business Administration- MBA Semester 1MB0038 –Management Process and Organizational Behaviour – 4 Credits (Book ID:B1127) Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks)