A PRESENTATION ONDOORS & WINDOWS By Er. PARTEEK SINGLA B.Tech(CE)BABA FARID COLLEGE OF ENGG. & TECHNOLOGY
Doors may be defined as an openable barrier secured in a wall opening. It is provided to give an access to inside of a room.It consists of two parts:-1. Door frame2. Door shutter
A WINDOW is also a vented barrier secured in a wall opening. The functionof the window is to admit light and air to the building and to give a view to the outside.WINDOW consists of two parts:-1. Window frame2. Window shutter
SOME TECHNICAL TERMS FRAME:- It is an assembly of horizontal and vertical members, forming an enclosure,to which the shutters are fixed SHUTERS:-These are the openable parts of a door or window. HEAD:-This is the top or uppermost horizontal part of frame
SILL:-This is the lowest orbottom horizontal part of awindow frame, not providedin door frames.HORN:- These are thehorizontal projections of aframe..REBATE :- It is thedepression or recess madeinside the door frame toreceive the door shutter.
The number of should be kept minimum The location of door & window should meet functional requirements of the room. The door should not be kept in the centre of the wall. The window should be located in opposite wall, facing a door or another window, to achieve cross ventilation. From the point of view of fresh air, a window should be located on the northern side of of a room. The sill should be located about 70 t0 80 cm about floor level of the room.
Types of doors mainly classified on the basis of- Arrangement of components Method or menner of construction Working operations Metal doors
This includes four types:-1. Battened & ledged doors2. Battened, ledged and braced doors3. Battened, ledged and framed doors4. Battened, ledged,braced and framed doors
Battened & ledged doors These doors consist of vertical boards called battens which are nailed or screwed to the horizontal members, called ledges . Often the battens are a-bout 15 to 18 cm wide and 2 to 3 cm thick. Doors made with narrow battens like these have a better appearance.
Battened, ledged and braced doors This is a ledged and battened door to which braces have been added to prevent sagging. These braces must slope upwards from the hinge edge of the door, and they are housed with a skew notch into the ledges.
Battened, Ledged & Framed Doors It is improved version of battened and ledged doors with provision of frame. Two vertical members known as styles are provided
Battened, Ledged , Braced & Framed Doors Same as above with extra braces.
Framed & Panelled Door These doors consist of a frame made up of stiles (a), a top rail (b), a bottom rail (c) and sometimes an intermediate rail (d). into this framework a plywood panel (e) is fitted. This panel may fit into a groove or a rebate.
Glazed or Sash Doors These are provided where the visibility of the interior of the room is required.
Flush Doors The flush door with a framed core is a type of door that we frequently make in Rural Building. This door consists of a frame which has stiles, top and bottom rails, and narrow intermediate rails. It is covered on each side by a sheet of plywood Plywood-covered flush doors cannot be used where they will be exposed to rain and sun.
Louvered Doors These permit free ventilation through them and at the same time maintain the privacy of the room.
Wire gauged doorsWire gauge or fly proofdoor shutters are fixed toprovide free aircirculation and preventmosquitoes, flies, insects etc. from entering intothe building.
Revolving Doors These are provided only at public places to provide entrance to one and exit to the other person.
Sliding Doors A sliding door is a type of door which opens horizontally by sliding, whereby the door is either mounted on or suspended from a track
Swing Doors A door that swings on a double hinge; opens in either direction
Collapsible Steel Doors Mainly provided in godowns, workshop, public windows and etc.
Rolling Steel Shutter Door A roller shutter, roller door or sectional overhead door is a type of door or window shutter consisting of many horizontal slat hinged together. The door is raised to open it and lowered to close it. On large doors, the action may be motorized. It provides protection against wind and rain.
Mild Steel Sheet Door Mainly provided in godowns, workshop, public windows and etc. It is quite strong.
Corrugated Steel Doors Exactly same as the above type, except that corrugated steel sheets are welded to shutter frame instead of MI sheets.
Hollow Metal Doors Appearance as wooden door but have more strength.
Metal Covered Plywood Door These are composite doors of plywood and mild steel and are reasonably fire proof.
Windows A window is comprised of two parts:-1. Window Frame2. Sashes or Shutter Frame
Fixed windowsA window that cannot beopened, whose function islimited to allowing light toenter. This type of windowis used in situations wherelight or vision alone isneeded as no ventilation ispossible through fixedwindows
Pivoted Window A window having a section which is pivoted near the center so that the top of the section swings in and the bottom swings out.
Double hung windows A window with two parts that overlap slightly and slide up and down inside the frame. The two parts are not necessarily the same size.
Sliding WindowsTheir shutters move eitherhorizontally or vertically.
Casement Window A casement window to its frame by one or more hinges.. They are used singly or in pairs within a common frame.
Sash Window A sash window or hung sash window is made of one or more movable panels or "sashes" that form a frame to hold panes of glass, which are often separated from other panes (or "lights") by narrow muntins
Louvred Window A louver is a window, blind with horizontal slats that are angled to admit light and air, but to keep out rain, direct sunshine, and noise. The angle of the slats may be adjustable, usually in blinds and windows, or fixed.
Metal Windows Metal windows, made up of mild steel having lesser cost and more strength.
Bay Window A multi-panel window, with at least three panels set at different angles to create a protrusion from the wall line.
Clere Storey Window These are provided in a room which has greater ceiling height than the surrounding rooms
Corner Window This type of window has two faces in perpendicular directions and these are provided in the corner of room.
Dormer window Dormer window is a window provided on the sloping roof as shown in fig.
Gable Window It is a vertical window provided in the gable end of a pitched roof.
Lantern Window Such windows are provided over the flat roof, to provide more light and air to the inner room. The windows project above the roof level.
Ventilators Ventilators are small windows, fixed at a greater height than the window, generally about 30 t0 50 cm below roof level.
INSTALLING DOOR FRAMESFrames which are improperly built-in can causeproblems later, when the plastering is done or thedoors are hung. Therefore we must give specialattention to setting the frames properly.A door frame should be fixed in such a way that thedoor can open flat to the wall. Otherwise, the door willform a lever to the frame, and the hinges will be forcedout when the door swings wide open suddenly.Door frames can be fixed in position either during themasonry construction or after the walling has beencompleted.
INSTALLING WINDOW FRAMESInstalling window frames is similar to installing doorframes (see Door Frames section). A window frameshould be fixed in such a way that the casement canopen flat to the wall, otherwise the casement willforui a lever with the edge of the wall. This can causethe hinges to be forced out when the window is blownopen by the wind.Window frames can be installed either during theconstruction of the walls, or after the walling has beencompleted.