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Indian aerospace research

  1. India It is the 7th largest country in the world area wise(32,87,240 2nd most populous country (1.18 billion). It has 29 states and 6 union territories. 18 official languages, 114 languages, 216 mother tongues, 900 dialects. 3rd highest GDP in the world with 4 trillion dollars and 128th position in per-capita income with 2941 dollars.
  3. We are going to see the followInG…. Introduction aerospace. Aerospace research in India. Space research. Missiles research and manufacture. Fighter planes research and manufacture. Conclusion..
  4. AEROSPACE: What is aerospace? Aerospace comprises the atmosphere of Earth and surrounding space. Typically the term is used to refer to the industry that researches, designs, manufactures, operates, and maintains vehicles moving through air and space. Aerospace is a very diverse field, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications.
  5. INDIAN AEROSPACE RESEARCH: The Indian aerospace research began as soon as 1958, when DRDO was established. It is now one of the most active aerospace research centers in India and it is one of Asia's largest defence contractors . The organized Indian civil aerospace research dates back to 1969, when ISRO was formed. The Indian aerospace sector grew very fast under the abled scientists of ISRO, DRDO, HAL….etc
  6. ConTInUE… The Indian aerospace research sector can be divided into parts: Space research. Missiles. Fighter planes research and manufacturing. Manufacturing of normal planes.
  7. SPACE RESEARCH OF INDIA: As in the previous slides, the Indian space research was started in the year 1969 with the establishment of ISRO. The father of Indian space research and the main person behind the establishment of ISRO is ―Dr. Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai‖. In his memory, the centre for the development of satellite launch vehicles and associated technologies was named after him ―Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre‖. India is one of the few countries to have its own space program.
  8. OVERVIEW OF INDIAN SPACE EXPLORATION MISSIONS: Indian Space Program (ISP)  Application Oriented - Telecom, Remote Sensing, Meteorology  Strategic Framework – Space Policy Goals  Emerging Trend –Space Exploration Missions Indian Space Exploration Program (ISEP) – Mission Architecture  Lunar Exploration – Chandrayaan 1 (2008/09) & Chandrayaan 2 (2013)  Space Astronomy – Astrosat (2010), Aditya (2012)  Microgravity Research – Space Capsule Recovery Experiment: SRE 1 (2007) & SRE 2 (2010)  Human Spaceflight Program – first LEO mission by 2015-20  Planetary Exploration – Future Missions to Mars (2014), Asteroids/ Comets (2016) and Outer Solar System (2018+)
  10. Chandrayaan-1 Mission Objectives: Place an unmanned spacecraft in polar orbit around the moon Conduct mineralogical and chemical mapping of the entire lunar surface (95%) Upgrade technological base for future planetary missions Orbit: Lunar Polar Orbit at 100 KM Circular Launched by Indian PSLV XL. Timeline: Oct 22, 2008 - Aug 29, 2009 Spacecraft: Basic architecture derived from the IRS satellite bus, Spacecraft weight 1380 kg. Single solar panel generated 700 W power. Onboard liquid engine with 440 N performed orbit raising maneuvers. Eleven Science Instruments (six foreign)
  11. Chandrayaan-2 Mission: Objectives:  Investigate the origin and evolution of the Moon Chandrayaan-2 Indian Lunar Rover with improved versions of Chandrayaan-1 instruments for imaging, mineralogy and chemical analysis  Study of lunar radiation environment with alpha and neutron spectrometers Timeline: 2013 (Launch by Indian PSLV/ GSLV) Spacecraft: Lunar Orbiter basic architecture derived from the IRS satellite bus. Russian Lunar Lander & Rover Indian Lunar Orbiter & Mini-Rover In-situ analysis of lunar regolith by instruments carried by rovers.
  12. ASTROSAT Mission: Objectives:  Simultaneous multi-wavelength monitoring of intensity variations in a broad range of cosmic sources Multi-wavelength Indian (but not the best sensitivity/ resolution) Astronomy Satellite Monitoring the X-ray sky for new transients Sky surveys in the hard X-ray and UV bands Broadband spectroscopic studies of X-ray binaries, AGN, SNRs, clusters of galaxies and stellar coronae Study of periodic and non-periodic variability of X-ray sources Timeline: 2010-2015 (Launch by Indian PSLV) Orbit: 650 km altitude circular orbit, with an orbital inclination of 8° Spacecraft: Basic architecture consists of a three-axis stabilized satellite (1650 kg), with a capability for orientation maneuvers and attitude control. Pointing accuracy of about one arc-second.
  13. SRE 1 & 2 Missions: Objectives:  Develop and demonstrate capability to recover an orbiting capsule back to earth and to carryout micro- Space Capsule Recovery gravity experiments in orbit. Experiment Timeline: SRE-1 (Jan. 10-22, 2007); Polar SSO at 635 km. Launched as a co-passenger on PSLV-C7. Recovered from Indian Ocean SRE-2 (2010); LV: PSLV Spacecraft: Technologies tested in SRE-1 include navigation, guidance and control systems, hypersonic aero- thermo dynamics, communication black-out management, deceleration and flotation systems. SRE-2: Three experiments to be conducted (1) Growth of E-coli cells in a bio-reactor (2) Effect of space radiation and micro-gravity on seeds of rice and medicinal plants (JAXA) (3) Study the effect of microgravity on photosynthesis on a culture of bacteria
  14. Objectives: Human Spaceflight Program:  Develop a fully autonomous manned space vehicle to carry two crew to 400 km LEO and safe return to earth after mission duration of Indian Human Spaceflight Program few orbits to 2 days extendable up to 7 days. (Phase 1 – LEO Mission)  Rendezvous and docking capability with space station/ orbital platform, safety provisions and provision for extra vehicular activity. Timeline: 2015-20 (Launch by Indian GSLV mk2) Technology Development: Human Rated GSLV mk2 & mk3 Crew Module and escape system (for 2 to 3) Critical technology development areas, astronaut training, new launch pad for HSF Missions Collaboration with Russia for a 2013 Soyuz Mission with Indian cosmonaut and Technical cooperation
  15. Indian Space Program – Economics:
  16. Introduction Indian troops rout the British. The English confrontation with Indian rockets came in 1780 at the Battle of Guntur. The closely massed, normally unflinching British troops broke and ran when the Indian Army laid down a rocket barrage in their midst.
  17.  However, the modern missile s research or the technology was pioneered by our former president Dr.A.P.J.Abdul Kalam, popularly known as ―The Missile Man of India‖.  The most prominent missile program of India is Integrated Guided Missile Development Program. This program was under the leadership of Dr.A.P.J.Abdul Kalam.  The program aimed at development of a comprehensive range of missiles.
  18. Integrated Guided Missile Development Program: The Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP) was an Indian Ministry of Defence program between the early 1980s and 2007 for the development of a comprehensive range of missiles. The program was managed by Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) in partnership with other Indian government labs and research centres. The project was started in early 1980s and resulted in the development of several key strategic missiles. The last major missile developed under the program was Agni-3 intermediate-range ballistic missile which was successfully tested on 9 July 2007. the DRDO announced that it will be closing the IGMDP program formally since most of the missiles in the program have been developed and inducted into Indian armed forces.
  19. MISSILES DEVELOPED IN THE IGMDP: Aakash Agni—I Agni----II Agni----III Agni----V Prithive---I Prithive---II Prithive---III Trishul NAG
  20. Aakash(Surface to Air missile): Missile -- Aakash Type -- Surface- to-Air Missile Range -- Medium Speed -- Mach 2.5 Used in Indian Army. Developed under the IGMDP.
  21. VARIENTS OF PRITHIVE MISSILES: The Prithvi missile project encompassed developing three variants for use by the Indian Army, Indian Air Force and the Indian Navy, outlined in the initial project framework of the IGMDP. Prithvi I - Army Version (150 km range with a payload of 1000 kg) Prithvi II - Air Force Version (200 km range with a payload of 500 kg) Prithvi III - Naval Version (350 km range with a payload of 500 kg)
  22. VARIENTS OF AGNI MISSILES: The Agni missile is a family of Medium to Intercontinental range ballistic missiles developed by India under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program.  Agni-I short range ballistic missile, 500 – 700 km range.  Agni-II medium range ballistic missile, 2,000- 2,500 km range.  Agni-II Advanced 2,750- 3,000 km range.  Agni-III intermediate range ballistic missile, 3,000 - 5,500 km range.  Agni-V intercontinental ballistic missile, 5000 – 6000 km [ range
  23. TRISHUL MISSILE: The missile is a short range surface-to-air missile developed by India as a part of the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program. The range of the missile is 12 km and is fitted with a 15 kg warhead. The weight of the missile is 130 kg. The length of the missile is 3.1 m.
  24. NAG MISSILE: Nag is India's third generation "Fire- and-forget" anti-tank missile. It is an all weather, top attack missile with a range of 3 to 7 km. Total length: 1.90 m (6.23 ft.) Diameter: 190 mm (7.5 in) Weight: 42 kg (93 lb.) Warhead Weight: 8 kg (17.6 lb.) Propellant: Tandem Propulsion solid (Nitra mine based smokeless extruded double band sustainer propellant) Maximum effective range: 4 km
  25. SUPERSONIC MISSILE-- BRAHMOS  BrahMos is a supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarines, ships, aircraft or land. It is a joint venture between India's DRDO and Russia's NPO Mashinostroeyenia who have together formed BrahMos Aerospace Private Limited.  It travels at speeds of Mach 2.5 to 2.8.  It is the India’s supersonic cruise missile.
  26. Shaurya Missile:  The Shaurya missile is a short-range surface-to-surface ballistic missile developed by DRDO for use by the Indian Army.  Capable of hypersonic speeds, it has a range of 600 km.  Shaurya missile is a land version of the under-water launched K-15 missile, Sagarika (missile).
  28. INTRODUCTION: The research and manufacture of fighter planes is mainly done by the defence organizations. Indian Air Force is the 4th largest in the world with over 1300 fighter planes . The Indian Air Force has aircraft of British, French and Russian (erstwhile Soviet) origins. However, Russian aircraft dominate its inventory. HAL produces some of the Russian and British aircraft in India under license.
  29. LIST OF INDIAN FIGHTER PLANES: The Indian fighter planes can be divided into two: Fighter Aircraft  Bomber Aircraft
  31. MIRKOYAN – GUREVICH MIG-21: This fighter plane belongs to the Soviet Union. It is a interceptor/fighter.  It has two versions:1.Mig- 21 Bison 2.Mig- 21 Bis It is bought by the Indian Air Force. Still in the active duty.
  32. MIRKOYAN- GUREVICH MIG-29: Mikoyan MIG-29 (Fulcrum). It is known as Bazz in IAF. This flight is also the one bought from Soviet Union. It is an air superiority fighter. Only one version of Mig-29 is there i.e., Mig-29.
  33. SUKHOI SU-30MKI:  Sukhoi Su-30MKI (Flanker-H)  This plane is manufactured by India and Russia jointly.  It is an air superiority fighter.  This is only as SU-30MKI.
  34. DASSAULT MIRAGE -2000: This fighter plane is bought from France. Dassault Mirage 2000 is known as Vajra in IAF. It is a multi role fighter. The plane is available in one version i.e., Mirage 2000H.
  35. HAL TEJAS: This is the new LCA(Light combat Aircraft). It is the product of Hindustan Aeronauticals Limited. Still being tested. It is a Multi Role Fighter.
  36. MIKOYAN GUREVICH MIG-27: It is known as Bahadur in IAF service. It is the Soviet Union’s plane bought by the IAF. It is used for ground attack. The only version of MIG-27 is MIG-27UPG.
  37. JAGUAR IS/IM:  The Jaguar is developed by France and UK jointly.  It is known as Shamsher in the IAF service.  This is a bomber.  The only version of Jaguar is Jaguar IS/IM.
  39. India is one among only 6 countries that launches its own satellites and also for Germany, Belgium, South Korea, Singapore and EU countries. India’s INSAT is among the world’s largest domestic satellite systems. The country is having one of the largest growing aerospace research and development institutions of the world such as Boeing, HAL…etc. India has one of the highest research intensities in space. Many leading foreign companies are coming to open aerospace research centers in India.
  40. India is planning a manned space mission, with the success of which it becomes the 4th country to send a manned flight to space. The Indian missile program is the most advanced in the world. It is having the supersonic(brahmos) and hypersonic (shaurya) missiles which are far superior than most of the missiles of the world.
  41. The IAF is upgrading all the fighter and other planes which are in service. India also sent an university satellite (ANUSAT) to space. The GSLV which is one of the successful launch vehicles of India has the parts mostly manufactured in India.
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