It is the 7th largest country in the world area
2nd most populous country (1.18 billion).
It has 29 states and 6 union territories.
18 official languages, 114 languages, 216 mother
tongues, 900 dialects.
3rd highest GDP in the world with 4 trillion dollars
and 128th position in per-capita income with 2941
We are going to see the
Aerospace research in India.
Missiles research and manufacture.
Fighter planes research and manufacture.
What is aerospace?
Aerospace comprises the atmosphere of
Earth and surrounding space. Typically
the term is used to refer to the industry
that researches, designs, manufactures,
operates, and maintains vehicles moving
through air and space. Aerospace is a
very diverse field, with a multitude of
commercial, industrial and military
INDIAN AEROSPACE RESEARCH:
The Indian aerospace research began as soon as 1958,
when DRDO was established.
It is now one of the most active aerospace research
centers in India and it is one of Asia's largest defence
The organized Indian civil aerospace research dates
back to 1969, when ISRO was formed.
The Indian aerospace sector grew very fast under the
abled scientists of ISRO, DRDO, HAL….etc
The Indian aerospace research sector can be divided
Fighter planes research and
Manufacturing of normal planes.
SPACE RESEARCH OF INDIA:
As in the previous slides, the Indian space research
was started in the year 1969 with the establishment
The father of Indian space research and the main
person behind the establishment of ISRO is ―Dr.
Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai‖.
In his memory, the centre for the development of
satellite launch vehicles and associated technologies
was named after him ―Vikram Sarabhai Space
India is one of the few countries to have its own
OVERVIEW OF INDIAN SPACE EXPLORATION MISSIONS:
Indian Space Program (ISP)
Application Oriented - Telecom, Remote Sensing, Meteorology
Strategic Framework – Space Policy Goals
Emerging Trend –Space Exploration Missions
Indian Space Exploration Program (ISEP) – Mission Architecture
Lunar Exploration – Chandrayaan 1 (2008/09) & Chandrayaan 2 (2013)
Space Astronomy – Astrosat (2010), Aditya (2012)
– Space Capsule Recovery Experiment: SRE 1 (2007) & SRE 2 (2010)
Human Spaceflight Program – first LEO mission by 2015-20
– Future Missions to Mars (2014), Asteroids/ Comets (2016)
and Outer Solar System (2018+)
Place an unmanned spacecraft in polar orbit
around the moon
Conduct mineralogical and chemical mapping
of the entire lunar surface (95%)
Upgrade technological base for future
Orbit: Lunar Polar Orbit at 100 KM Circular
Launched by Indian PSLV XL.
Timeline: Oct 22, 2008 - Aug 29, 2009
Basic architecture derived from the IRS satellite
bus, Spacecraft weight 1380 kg.
Single solar panel generated 700 W power.
Onboard liquid engine with 440 N performed
orbit raising maneuvers.
Eleven Science Instruments (six foreign)
Investigate the origin and evolution of the Moon
Chandrayaan-2 Indian Lunar Rover
with improved versions of Chandrayaan-1
instruments for imaging, mineralogy and chemical
Study of lunar radiation environment with alpha
and neutron spectrometers
Timeline: 2013 (Launch by Indian PSLV/ GSLV)
Lunar Orbiter basic architecture derived from the
IRS satellite bus.
Russian Lunar Lander & Rover
Indian Lunar Orbiter & Mini-Rover
In-situ analysis of lunar regolith by instruments
carried by rovers.
Simultaneous multi-wavelength monitoring of
intensity variations in a broad range of cosmic sources
Multi-wavelength Indian (but not the best sensitivity/ resolution)
Astronomy Satellite Monitoring the X-ray sky for new transients
Sky surveys in the hard X-ray and UV bands
Broadband spectroscopic studies of X-ray binaries,
AGN, SNRs, clusters of galaxies and stellar coronae
Study of periodic and non-periodic variability of X-ray
Timeline: 2010-2015 (Launch by Indian PSLV)
Orbit: 650 km altitude circular orbit, with an orbital
inclination of 8°
Basic architecture consists of a three-axis stabilized
satellite (1650 kg), with a capability for orientation
maneuvers and attitude control.
Pointing accuracy of about one arc-second.
SRE 1 & 2 Missions:
Develop and demonstrate capability to recover an
orbiting capsule back to earth and to carryout micro-
Space Capsule Recovery gravity experiments in orbit.
SRE-1 (Jan. 10-22, 2007); Polar SSO at 635 km.
Launched as a co-passenger on PSLV-C7. Recovered
from Indian Ocean
SRE-2 (2010); LV: PSLV
Technologies tested in SRE-1 include navigation,
guidance and control systems, hypersonic aero-
thermo dynamics, communication black-out
management, deceleration and flotation systems.
SRE-2: Three experiments to be conducted
(1) Growth of E-coli cells in a bio-reactor
(2) Effect of space radiation and micro-gravity on
seeds of rice and medicinal plants (JAXA)
(3) Study the effect of microgravity on
photosynthesis on a culture of bacteria
Human Spaceflight Program: Develop a fully autonomous manned space
vehicle to carry two crew to 400 km LEO and
safe return to earth after mission duration of
Indian Human Spaceflight Program few orbits to 2 days extendable up to 7 days.
(Phase 1 – LEO Mission) Rendezvous and docking capability with
space station/ orbital platform, safety
provisions and provision for extra vehicular
Timeline: 2015-20 (Launch by Indian GSLV mk2)
Human Rated GSLV mk2 & mk3
Crew Module and escape system (for 2 to 3)
Critical technology development areas,
astronaut training, new launch pad for HSF
Collaboration with Russia for a 2013 Soyuz
Mission with Indian cosmonaut and Technical
Indian troops rout the British. The English
confrontation with Indian rockets came in
1780 at the Battle of Guntur. The closely
massed, normally unflinching British
troops broke and ran when the Indian
Army laid down a rocket barrage in their
However, the modern missile s
research or the technology was
pioneered by our former president
Dr.A.P.J.Abdul Kalam, popularly known
as ―The Missile Man of India‖.
The most prominent missile program
of India is Integrated Guided Missile
Development Program. This program
was under the leadership of
The program aimed at development
of a comprehensive range of missiles.
Integrated Guided Missile Development
The Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP) was an Indian
Ministry of Defence program between the early 1980s and 2007 for the
development of a comprehensive range of missiles.
The program was managed by Defence Research and Development
Organization (DRDO) in partnership with other Indian government labs and
The project was started in early 1980s and resulted in the development of
several key strategic missiles.
The last major missile developed under the program was Agni-3
intermediate-range ballistic missile which was successfully tested on 9
the DRDO announced that it will be closing the IGMDP program formally
since most of the missiles in the program have been developed and
inducted into Indian armed forces.
MISSILES DEVELOPED IN THE IGMDP:
Aakash(Surface to Air missile):
Missile -- Aakash
Type -- Surface- to-Air
Range -- Medium
Speed -- Mach 2.5
Used in Indian Army.
Developed under the IGMDP.
VARIENTS OF PRITHIVE MISSILES:
The Prithvi missile project encompassed
developing three variants for use by the Indian
Army, Indian Air Force and the Indian Navy,
outlined in the initial project framework of the
Prithvi I - Army Version (150 km range with a
payload of 1000 kg)
Prithvi II - Air Force Version (200 km range
with a payload of 500 kg)
Prithvi III - Naval Version (350 km range with
a payload of 500 kg)
VARIENTS OF AGNI MISSILES:
The Agni missile is a family of Medium to Intercontinental range ballistic
missiles developed by India under the Integrated Guided Missile Development
Agni-I short range ballistic missile, 500 – 700 km range.
Agni-II medium range ballistic missile, 2,000- 2,500 km range.
Agni-II Advanced 2,750- 3,000 km range.
Agni-III intermediate range ballistic missile, 3,000 - 5,500 km range.
Agni-V intercontinental ballistic missile, 5000 – 6000 km [ range
The missile is a short range surface-to-air missile
developed by India as a part of the Integrated Guided
Missile Development Program.
The range of the missile is 12 km and is fitted with a 15 kg
warhead. The weight of the missile is 130 kg. The length of
the missile is 3.1 m.
Nag is India's third generation "Fire-
and-forget" anti-tank missile. It is an all
weather, top attack missile with a
range of 3 to 7 km.
Total length: 1.90 m (6.23 ft.)
Diameter: 190 mm (7.5 in)
Weight: 42 kg (93 lb.)
Warhead Weight: 8 kg (17.6 lb.)
Propellant: Tandem Propulsion solid
(Nitra mine based smokeless extruded
double band sustainer propellant)
Maximum effective range: 4 km
SUPERSONIC MISSILE-- BRAHMOS
BrahMos is a supersonic cruise missile that can be
launched from submarines, ships, aircraft or land. It is a
joint venture between India's DRDO and Russia's NPO
Mashinostroeyenia who have together formed BrahMos
Aerospace Private Limited.
It travels at speeds of Mach 2.5 to 2.8.
It is the India’s supersonic cruise missile.
The Shaurya missile is a short-range surface-to-surface
ballistic missile developed by DRDO for use by the Indian
Capable of hypersonic speeds, it has a range of 600 km.
Shaurya missile is a land version of the under-water
launched K-15 missile, Sagarika (missile).
The research and manufacture of fighter planes is mainly done
by the defence organizations.
Indian Air Force is the 4th largest in the world with over 1300
fighter planes .
The Indian Air Force has aircraft of British, French and Russian
(erstwhile Soviet) origins. However, Russian aircraft dominate
its inventory. HAL produces some of the Russian and British
aircraft in India under license.
LIST OF INDIAN FIGHTER PLANES:
The Indian fighter planes can be
divided into two:
FIGHTER AIRCRAFTS OF INDIA:
BOMBER AIRCRAFTS OF INDIA:
MIRKOYAN – GUREVICH MIG-21:
This fighter plane belongs to the
It is a interceptor/fighter.
It has two versions:1.Mig- 21 Bison
2.Mig- 21 Bis
It is bought by the Indian Air Force.
Still in the active duty.
MIRKOYAN- GUREVICH MIG-29:
Mikoyan MIG-29 (Fulcrum).
It is known as Bazz in IAF.
This flight is also the one bought
from Soviet Union.
It is an air superiority fighter.
Only one version of Mig-29 is
there i.e., Mig-29.
Sukhoi Su-30MKI (Flanker-H)
This plane is manufactured by
India and Russia jointly.
It is an air superiority fighter.
This is only as SU-30MKI.
DASSAULT MIRAGE -2000:
This fighter plane is bought
Dassault Mirage 2000 is
known as Vajra in IAF.
It is a multi role fighter.
The plane is available in one
version i.e., Mirage 2000H.
This is the new LCA(Light
It is the product of
Still being tested.
It is a Multi Role Fighter.
MIKOYAN GUREVICH MIG-27:
It is known as Bahadur in IAF service.
It is the Soviet Union’s plane bought by the
It is used for ground attack.
The only version of MIG-27 is MIG-27UPG.
The Jaguar is developed by
France and UK jointly.
It is known as Shamsher in
the IAF service.
This is a bomber.
The only version of Jaguar is
India is one among only 6 countries that launches its own satellites and
also for Germany, Belgium, South Korea, Singapore and EU countries.
India’s INSAT is among the world’s largest domestic satellite systems.
The country is having one of the largest growing aerospace research
and development institutions of the world such as Boeing, HAL…etc.
India has one of the highest research intensities in space.
Many leading foreign companies are coming to open aerospace
research centers in India.
India is planning a manned space mission, with the success of
which it becomes the 4th country to send a manned flight to
The Indian missile program is the most advanced in the world.
It is having the supersonic(brahmos) and hypersonic
(shaurya) missiles which are far superior than most of the
missiles of the world.
The IAF is upgrading all the fighter and other planes which are
India also sent an university satellite (ANUSAT) to space.
The GSLV which is one of the successful launch vehicles of
India has the parts mostly manufactured in India.