Taxonomy

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  • Have students come up with a pneumonic device to help them remember the order of all the taxas.
  • Reasons for using Latin: 1. universal – all scientists study Latin at some point or at least are familiar with the Latin names in their specific field. This way when scientists get together from different countries they can be sure they are discussing the same tree or plant. If I were to mention the name Red Maple to a French botanist, he/she will not know what I am speaking about. But if I were to say Acer rubrum , then the scientist will know exactly what I am talking about. 2. Very descriptive – you can figure out the common name of a plant by deciphering the Latin name. For example Trifolium grandiflora: tri means 3; folium means foliage (– 3 leafed); grand means large and flora means flower (-large flower) 3. Unchanged – Latin has been unspoken for thousands of years, so there are no slang words or changes in their meanings. This makes the language very consistent around the globe.
  • Emphasize to the class that non-vascular means that they have no conducting tissue. This allows them to remain small and low to the ground.
  • The common name for Pinus contorta is the lodgepole pine. See if the students are familiar with Ginkgo biloba. Ask them where they have heard it before. It is a broadleaf evergreen as opposed to a needle or scale.
  • This is the oldest living organism on the Earth. It is estimated to be more than 4,500 years old!
  • Make a copy of the overhead blocking out the names. Have the students copy down the information.
  • Read each question individually. Allow the students to think of the answer before calling out. Then select different students to get a feel for their understanding. Then use these same questions on a quiz.
  • Taxonomy

    1. 1. Lesson 1 Classifying Ornamental Plants
    2. 2. How Are Plants Named and Classified? <ul><li>Plants are classified by their similarities within their characteristics. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>flower patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stem and leaf structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>life cycles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>genetic similarities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They are then grouped in specific categories, or taxas: </li></ul>
    3. 3. Kingdom Plantae Phylum (Division) Magnoliophyta Class Liliopsida Order Cyperales Family Poaceae Genus Triticum Species aestivum *Sample classification of bread wheat Categories/Taxas Example *
    4. 4. <ul><li>Botanists call plants by their last two taxas – genus and species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This system is known as binomial nomenclature (two-word naming system) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by Carolus Linnaeus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses Latin for three reasons: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Universal (known by all scientists) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very descriptive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unchanged (contains no slang words) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genus is capitalized; Species lower case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Triticum aestivum </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. What Are Some Ways That We Can Put Plants Into Groups? <ul><li>Plants live in a variety of climates and niches </li></ul><ul><li>The adaptations that plants have made to survive in different climates allows for them to be classified into one of four major groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bryophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Bryophytes <ul><li>Belong to the phylum Bryophyta </li></ul><ul><li>Non-vascular plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No conducting tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Live in damp places </li></ul><ul><li>Limited in size due to lack of conducting tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Mosses and liverworts </li></ul>Liverwort Moss Courtesy of Wm. C. Brown Publishers
    7. 7. Ferns <ul><li>Vascular plants </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduce by spores </li></ul><ul><li>Have no true leaves; 0nly fronds </li></ul><ul><li>Fronds produce food and spores </li></ul><ul><li>New fronds called fiddleheads </li></ul>Ferns in the forest Fiddleheads Spores on underside of frond Courtesy of Wm. C. Brown Publishers
    8. 8. Gymnosperms <ul><li>Reproduce with seeds found in cones </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as a conifer </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves reduced to scales or needles </li></ul><ul><li>Most are evergreen – hold on to their green color year round </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Pines, spruce, cedar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some can be deciduous - lose their leaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Ginkgo, larch </li></ul></ul>Coniferous evergreen – Pinus contorta Deciduous conifer – Ginkgo biloba Courtesy of Wm. C. Brown Publishers
    9. 9. Angiosperms <ul><li>Plants that reproduce by flowers </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types: monocotyledons (monocots) & dicotyledons (dicots) </li></ul><ul><li>A cotyledon is a food storage structure in the seed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monocots have a single cotyledon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Grasses, corn and lilies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dicots have two cotyledons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Roses, petunias and geraniums, beans </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Angiosperms - Monocot <ul><li>Parallel venation within the leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Stems with scattered vascular bundles </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrous root system </li></ul>Orchid – Paphiopedilum curtisii Courtesy of Wm. C. Brown Publishers
    11. 11. Angiosperms - Dicot <ul><li>Netted veins </li></ul><ul><li>Vascular bundles are in rings around the stem </li></ul><ul><li>Have broad leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Taproot system </li></ul>Hibiscus sp. Courtesy of Wm. C. Brown Publishers
    12. 12. Monocot vs. Dicot Courtesy of Wm. C. Brown Publishers
    13. 13. What Is the Difference Between Annuals, Biennials and Perennials? <ul><li>Plants are often classified based on their life cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Even though gymnosperms and angiosperms reproduce by seed, there are different strategies for passing the seeds on to future generations </li></ul>
    14. 14. Annuals <ul><li>Plants grow from seed, flower, produce new seeds all in one season </li></ul><ul><li>It dies after producing new seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Have an herbaceous stem – green & fleshy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Impatiens, corn, snapdragons </li></ul></ul>Courtesy of Wm. C. Brown Publishers Corn – Zea mays See life cycle
    15. 15. Biennials <ul><li>Plants that live for two years, then flower and die </li></ul><ul><li>Food is produced during the first year, flowers the second year </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Foxglove, carrot, queen Anne’s lace </li></ul></ul>Foxglove – Digitals purpurea Courtesy of Wm. C. Brown Publishers See life cycle
    16. 16. Perennials <ul><li>Plants that live for three or more years </li></ul><ul><li>Flower for a short time </li></ul><ul><li>Do not die after flowering </li></ul><ul><li>Can be herbaceous or woody – having thick stems made of wood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Tulips, Kentucky bluegrass, trees and shrubs </li></ul></ul>Bristlecone pine – Pinus longaeva Courtesy of Wm. C. Brown Publishers See life cycle
    17. 17. Courtesy of Interstate Publishing Germination----Growth---Flowering----Death Germination---- Growth---Flowering----Dormancy One or more flowering cycles Germination---Growth---Dormancy---Growth---Flowering---Death Season 1 Season 2 Back to Annuals Back to Perennials Back to Biennials
    18. 18. Summary <ul><li>What is the difference between an angiosperm and a gymnosperm? </li></ul><ul><li>How is a monocot different from a dicot? </li></ul><ul><li>Are evergreens herbaceous or woody plants? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you classify the grass found outside on the lawn? </li></ul>
    19. 19. Summary Cont. <ul><li>What makes up the scientific name of a plant? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are scientific names written in Latin? </li></ul><ul><li>In what group would you find mosses? Describe their habitat. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the life cycle of a perennial. </li></ul><ul><li>Name all 7 taxas in the classification system. </li></ul>

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