Published on

1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Inclusion in Special Education: Is it effective? By: Erica Parr Edu 613 Fall 2012
  2. 2. I. Introduction
  3. 3. What is it?● “Inclusion is when a student with special learning and/or behavioral needs is educated full time in the general education program.” (Idol 2006)● “All students regardless of strengths and weakness part of school community” (Obiakor 2012 )● “...students’ attending the same schools as siblings and neighbors, being members in general education classrooms with chronological age-appropriate classmates, having individualized and relevant learning objectives, and being provided with the support necessary to learn.” – Teaching style “strengthened (though not specifically required) by No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and Individuals With Disabilities Act (2004)” (Kimbrough 2012)
  4. 4. What is it?● To me as an educator: – Modifying lessons to accommodate students of all levels, abilities, and learning styles – Special education students are in regular education classroom the entire school day
  5. 5. Challenges and Problems● Do students benefit from placement in regular classrooms?● Often requires more than one teacher per classroom● Teachers must undergo professional development to reach special education students● Individualized Education Programs (IEP) must be well developed (Cromwell 2004)● Effectively teaching all students
  6. 6. Challenges and Problems● Time to collaborate with special education teacher● Special education students disrupting regular education students● Time spent by teacher assisting students with disabilities vs. the rest of the class (Kimbrough 2012)
  7. 7. Research Support,Evidence, and Effect
  8. 8. Educator Perception of InclusionAccording to the article “TowardInclusion of Special Education Students...”by Idol: ● Eight schools evaluated (4 elementary, 4 secondary schools) ● Each school had a well developed special education program ● Data collected regarding staff perception and state test scores
  9. 9. ● Findings strongly support inclusionaccording to interviews of staff● Teachers became more skilled atdelivering lessons that accommodatestudents at various levels of learning andperformance● (Idol 2006)
  10. 10. Social Effects● Students create long-term friendships thatwould not be possible without inclusion.● Peers can act as role models for social skills(Inclusion for Special, n.d.)● Teaches “respect, care, recognition, empathy”(Obiakor 2012)● Special education students “happier, moreindependent, and more motivated to go toschool [and] participate in class” (Kimbrough2012)
  11. 11. Academic Effects● Class state test scores not affected (Idol 2006)● Improved post school outcomes, especially invocational programs● Teacher is “more apt to break instructions intofiner parts or repeat instructions”, thusbenefiting all students(Sharpe, n.d.)● Higher expectations for special educationstudents (Inclusion for Special Education, n.d.)
  12. 12. Discussion
  13. 13. Harbor Beach Middle Schools Approach● Uses the inclusion model● All students attend the same regular education classes(Math, ELA, Science, Social Studies, PE, Technology)● Special Education teacher team teaches with Mathand ELA teachers● Aides assist in Science and Social Studies classrooms● Teachers modify assignments based on students IEPs(less questions, more time, tests read aloud, etc)● Teachers differentiate instruction to accommodatelearning styles● Some professional development provided to assist inunderstanding how to accommodate, modify, anddifferentiate instruction
  14. 14. My Personal Approach● Willing to make necessary accommodations toensure student success● Instruction should be differentiated regardless;all students learn differently● Training is absolutely necessary; I amcontinuing to grow in my ability to reach allstudents● Amount of success also depends on supportfrom administrators, special educationteachers, parents, and instructional aides● Not an easy task, but I feel the benefitsoutweigh the difficulties
  15. 15. Strategies and Solutions to Challenges● Special Education students should be distributedacross all teachers● “Teachers use a variety of strategies, includingcurriculum and instructional adaptations, peertutoring, cooperative learning, and layeredcurriculum” ● (Sharpe, n.d.)● Class size needs to be reduced according toseverity of special education students● Teachers need time to meet, plan, and evaluatestudents progress● IEPs must be well designed ● (Cromwell, 2011)
  16. 16. Conclusion● Inclusion is an effective strategy forteaching special education students. ● Benefits outweigh negative implications when strategy is used properly ● Though it requires intensive preparation on the teachers end, helping students of all ability levels succeed is one of the highlights of teaching
  17. 17. ReferencesCromwell, S. (2011) Inclusion in the classroom: Has it gone too far? Retrieved from, L. (2006) Toward Inclusion of Special Education Students in General Education: Program Evaluation of Eight Schools. Remedial and Special Education, , 77-94.Inclusion for Special Education Students: Advantage and Benefits.(n.d.) Retrieved from advantages-and-benefits/Kimbrough, R., & Mellen, K. (2012). Research summary: Perceptions of inclusion of students with disabilities in the middle school. Retrieved from /pdf/research/Research_Summaries/Inclusion.pdfObiakor, F., Harris, M., Mutua, K., Rotatori, A., Algozzine, B., (2012) Making Inclusion Work in General Education Classrooms. Education and Treatment of Children. , 477-490.Sharpe, Wesley. Special Education Inclusion. (n.d.) Retrieved from /curr320.shtml