1. lack of transfer of records 2. difficult to place student in proper grade/program 3. programs (such as ESL)may become unnecessary or new programs may be needed 4. difficult to integrate student into class routines 5. difficult to integrate new students into ongoing curriculum 200 census showed 15-18% of students change schools every year, however the range is great between schools and districts - Enrollment patterns in Chicago public schools over 2 years showed that more than 36% of students had changed schools at least once. In Minneapolis - one third of minority students change shcools each year. In migrant areas like Florida,studen tturnover can go as high as
less likely to be living with two biological parents
coping ( a move because of one of more factors, e.g., poor housing, abuse, drug dependency) forced (e.g., eviction) upward (e.g., a new job, a better home) lifestyle (e.g., &quot;It’s what we do.&quot;) to escape problems, generate excitement In many cases, stress was caused by multiple factors not easily separable from the move. Mobile families reported significantly more stressful events in their lives than did families who had been stable for more than two years. Ninety percent of the mobile families had experienced at least one family change event in the past year, with over 50% reporting a personal stress issue, such as chemical dependency, death of a relative or friend, or legal problems. Minnesapolis Kids Mobility Project discovered that mobility was indeed a factor affecting achievement. Two major reasons for frequent moves emerged: family instability insufficient safe, affordable housing Family instability includes a wide range of conditions including poverty, chemical abuse, physical abuse, and divorce. These conditions lead to frequent moves as families adjust to change or cannot afford to pay for adequate housing. In addition, inadequate housing options often force families into a cycle of moving to escape substandard living conditions and problems with landlords.
Researchers found that students who moved often had lower attendance rates and that attendance levels were important to achievement.
Providing convenient support services for low-income families who have recently moved, as well as families already settled in the community, will reduce the likelihood that families will need to move as often. There is an urgent need for more units that are large enough for families with children. Low-income families need easier access to safe, affordable, adequate and available housing so that frequent moves do not become a way of life.
Texas school district: has parent liaisons—certified teachers at each campus who monitor attendance, facilitate school supply drives, and connect with business and community organizations to help provide students with shelter, food, furniture, and clothing,” The district provides busing for students who move so that they can remain at one school the entire school year. Furthermore, district standards drive the curriculum at all campuses. These safety nets are designed to ensure that students who do change campuses do not experience gaps in learning, a synchronous curriculum is sometimes a mobile student's best defense To ensure that mobile students succeed, &quot;it's important for schools to get involved early to support and retain new students and their families,&quot; says Fowler-Finn. In Victoria, Texas, educators have implemented extensive programs—including parenting and literacy classes—to encourage mobile families to participate in the school community Less-formal strategies nurture family involvement, too. In Fowler-Finn's district, Weisser Park Elementary extends support by introducing newcomers to another family that has had a student at the school for a year or more. Such a relationship builds a bridge from the new family to caring people in the school community.
What have you seen teachers do to help the new student? 1. maintain high expectations for new students (tendency toward unfavorable judgements.) 2. be explicit about expectations – convey during entire year, not just beginning 3. give mobile students opportunities for initiative, responsibility, competence 4 . be knowledgeable about curriculum at other schools (for example, reading approaches) 5 . use variety of assessments, rather than end of chapter tests 6. use flexible classroom organization, small group instruction, smaller class sizes, peer tutors 7 . prepare students when moving to another school (folders, portfolios) 8. watch for signs of distress
Student Mobility Stability is fundamental to progress
Wholeness <ul><li>Solutions to problems of student mobility are based on improving the broader social problems of which student mobility is a reflection. Stability, the foundation of the fundamentals of progress, supports adaptability, integration, purification and growth </li></ul>
The Problem <ul><li>What are some problems associated with student mobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for the mobile student? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for the teacher? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for the school? </li></ul></ul>
The mobile student is... <ul><li>more likely </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to be low-income, migrant, LEP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to have lower grades and test scores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to be retained a grade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to be in special education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to have behavior problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to dropout </li></ul></ul><ul><li>less likely to be living with two biological parents </li></ul>
Main Point #1 <ul><li>Student mobility affects not only the mobile student, but the teacher, the class, the school and society. An examination of student mobility shows clearly how stability is the foundation of the steps of progress. </li></ul>
Recommendations for community organizations: <ul><li>school attendance: a strong social value </li></ul><ul><li>integrate social services between communities </li></ul><ul><li>safe, quality, affordable housing </li></ul>
Recommendations for Schools: <ul><li>effective, proactive monitoring of student attendance </li></ul><ul><li>integrated transition policies between districts </li></ul>
Recommendations for Schools <ul><li>later starting time </li></ul><ul><li>letters home describing negative effects of mobility on grades/learning </li></ul><ul><li>state-national record transfer system </li></ul><ul><li>keep students in the same school for the whole year, even when they move. </li></ul><ul><li>core district curriculum w/ consistent standards </li></ul><ul><li>examine patterns of mobility within the school and adjust curriculum (length of unit, pacing) </li></ul>
Recommendations for Teachers <ul><li>maintain high expectations </li></ul><ul><li>be explicit about expectations </li></ul><ul><li>give mobile students opportunities for responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>be knowledgeable about curriculum at other schools </li></ul><ul><li>use variety of assessments </li></ul><ul><li>use flexible classroom organization </li></ul><ul><li>prepare students when moving to another school </li></ul><ul><li>watch for signs of distress </li></ul>
Main Point #2 <ul><li>The proactive support of the whole community, including community organizations, school districts, teachers and parents can profoundly improve student mobility problems. Enlightened educators will naturally have a positive effect on student mobility. </li></ul>
Co nnecting the Parts to the Whole <ul><li>Many urban and migrant families have a mobile lifestyle. </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions to student mobility involve communities working together to improve life for all members. </li></ul><ul><li>-------------------------------------------------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>Transcendental Consciousness is the home of all knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>The enlightened individual expresses the values of stability, adaptability, integration, purification and growth </li></ul>