Fish processing

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Fish Processing Bacis.

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  • India is bordered by Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean and has a coastline of more than 7,000 kms. It has an extensive network of inland waterways and seaports. The inland waterways include rivers, canals, backwaters and creeks. The total navigable length of inland waterways is 14,500 km. Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) is the statutory authority in charge of the waterways in India. There are three national waterways in India: Allahabad Haldia stretch of the Ganga Bhagirathi Hooghly river, SadiyaDhubri stretch of the Brahmaputra river system and KollamKottapuram stretch of West Coast Canal along with Champakara canal and Udyogmandal canal. These waterways also attract tourists from all parts of the world, thus promoting Indian travel & Tourism. There are also many hotels and resorts in these areas to cater to the lodging needs of the tourists. There are 12 major ports and about 180 minor and intermediate ports in India. With the ports handling more than 95% of the trade in India, they act as the major gateway for trade. The major ports in India are Calcutta, Haldia, Paradip, Visakhapatanam, Ennore, Chennai, Tuticorin, Cochin, New Mangalore, Mormugao, JNPT, Mumbai and Kandla. 
  • Enzyme actionThe Rigor mortis is a physical effect on the muscle tissue of fish caused by chemical changes following the death. In live fish, its movements are controlled by chemical signals which cause the eythmic contraction (stiffing) and relaxation of the muscles. This produces swimming action. After the death, the normal circulatory system breaks down and chemical signals leak into the muscle causing them to stiffen. This process is known as Rigor Mortis. In other words, in live fish the glycogen present in the muscle is converted to carbon dioxide and water after supply of oxygen to the cells. After the death of fish, the blood circulation stops and the supply of oxygen is prevented. The enzymes present in the muscle convert glycogen into lactic acid. The pH of the fish muscle falls. The formation of the lactic acid continues till the supply of glycogen is completely used up.After the completion of rigor mortis, muscle stiffness gradually decreases accompanied by increase in pH, ending up in softening of muscle. This is followed by breakdown of proteins by enzymes. This process is called as autolysis.Thus autolysis can be described as an internal breakdown of the structure of the protein and fats due to a complex series of reactions by enzymes. Autolysis of protein starts immediately after rigor and creates favorable conditions for the growth of bacteria.Another important action of the enzymes is that it affects the flavor of fish. The components responsible for the taste and flavor of the fish are changed by the enzymatic action. An example is the progressive, degradation of ATP to AMP and Hypoxanthine. Hypoxanthine is produced by the breakdown of ATP which is a main component of fish muscle nucleotide. The accumulation of Hypoxanthine imparts a bitter taste in the fish muscle accompanied by loss of fresh fish flavor. Thus the estimation of Hypoxanthine content in fish indicates the degree of freshness.Enzymatic action also causes decomposition in the fish known as belly bursting. The belly bursting is caused by the action of digestive enzymes present in the gut of the fish.The black spot formation in shrimps is also caused by the action of the enzymes on the amino acid. The black colour is due to the formation of Melanin (Black Pigment) by the action of enzyme tyrosinase on tyrosin present in the shrimps. Black spots present a poor appearance and therefore, are not acceptable.
  • Trimethylamine (TMA)TMAO trimethyamine oxid
  • Effect of heat stress on mixed cultures of bacteria isolated from horse mackerel (Trachurustrachurus) and on subsequent growth of the bacteria in nutrient broth on ice. o, 30°C and D, 60°C (::!:20n-I).
  • Effect of heat stress on mixed cultures of bacteria isolated from horse mackerel (Trachurustrachurus) and on subsequent growth of the bacteria in nutrient broth on ice. o, 30°C and D, 60°C (::!:20n-I).
  • Also, a significant proportion of the world catch (20 percent) is still processed into fishmeal and fish oil. Fishmeal is a ground solid product that is obtained by removing most of the water and some or all of the oil from fish or fish waste. This industry was launched in the 19th century, based mainly on surplus catches of herring from seasonal coastal fisheries to produce oil for industrial uses in leather tanning and in the production of soap, glycerol and other non-food products. Presently, it uses small oily fish to produce fishmeal and oil. It is worthy to mention that, only where it is uneconomic or impracticable for human consumption, should the catch be reduced to fishmeal and oil. Indeed, cycling fish through poultry or pigs is a loss because there is a need for 3 kg of edible fish to produce approximately 1 kg of edible chicken or pork.
  • Fish processing

    1. 1. Fish Processing Presented by Aditya Parmar Food Safety and Quality Chains UniHohenheim
    2. 2. ContentsIndustry SenarioDecomposition ProcessPreservation ProcessTake Home Messages
    3. 3. HistoryA medieval view of fishprocessing, by Peter Brueghel theElder (1556). Source: Wikipedia Fishermen and sea creatures, mosaic, 1st century AD Copyright 2004 Bridgeman
    4. 4. World Fish ProductionIndia has a coastline of more than 7,000 km. The total navigable length of inland waterways is 14,500 km.
    5. 5. Per Capita Consumption 5kg
    6. 6. Industry SenarioSource: FishStat FAOThe bulk of the catch comprises oil sardines, followed by penaeidand non-penaeid shrimp, Indian mackerel, Bombay duck, croakers,smaller quantities of cephalopods, other sardines and threadfinbreams.(CMFRI 2008).
    7. 7. World ComparisionSource: DAHD&F 2005 Source: Wikipedia India reprents about 5-6 % of the world fishing production
    8. 8. World TradeThe share of Indian fish exports in world trade isonly about 6.5%. This invites urgent steps toincrease the share from India.
    9. 9. Domestic DemandThe projected demand for fish in the country by 2012 is 9.74 million tons,which can be met by the projected supply of fish of 9.60 million tons by 2012
    10. 10. Composition 65-80% Water Sea Food is Highgly perishable due to: 1-20% Fats 1. High moisture content . 2. Avialability of nutrients for the growth of micro Protien organisms. 14-20% 3. Ambient temperature.VitaminsMinerals
    11. 11. Fatty and White Fish
    12. 12. DecompositionSpoilage Indications: Enzymatic1. Change in colour.2. Odour, texture.3. Colour of eyes.4. Colour of gills.5. Softness of the muscle. Oxidative Bacterial
    13. 13. Enzymatic spoilage1. After the death, the normal circulatory system breaks down and chemicalsignals leak into the muscle causing them to stiffen. This process is known asRigor Mortis.2. The blood circulation stops and the supply of oxygen is prevented. Theenzymes present in the muscle convert glycogen into lactic acid. The pH of thefish muscle falls.3. After the completion of rigor mortis, muscle stiffness gradually decreasesaccompanied by increase in pH, ending up in softening of muscle. This isfollowed by breakdown of proteins by enzymes. This process is called asautolysis. Autolysis of protein starts immediately after rigor and createsfavourable conditions for the growth of bacteria.4. ATP to AMP and Hypoxanthine. Thus the estimation of Hypoxanthine contentin fish indicates the degree of freshness.5. Enzymatic action also causes decomposition in the fish known as bellybursting.
    14. 14. Oxidative Deterioration The most common chemical action which causes spoilage is the oxidative rancidity in fatty fishes. The levels of peroxide value and free fatty acid content both a measure of oxidative rancidity are considered an index of quality of fat fishes.Oil – Mainly TriglyceridesTriglycerides  Free Fatty Acids  Peroxides, Ketones andAldehydesOxidation results in:1. Rancid Odors2. Colour Changes
    15. 15. Bacterial SpoilageReduction of TMAO to TMAOdourless TMAO which is reduced to an offensive smelling TMA.Breakdown of Amino Acids and formation of Primary AminesExamples are formation of histamine from histidine, arginine fromglutamic acid etc. This bacterial action may cause food poisoning inextreme cases.Breakdown in UreaThe high concentration of urea in the flesh of some fishes is degradedto ammonia by the microorganisms. The formation of ammonia isaccompanied by an offensive odour.
    16. 16. Decomposition ProcessesDeterioration processes in fish Lipids Proteins Chemical, bacterial and endogeneous enzyme reactionsOxidation of fatty acids Hydrolysation of proteins to peptides andHydrolysation of lipids to free fatty acids amino acids Deamination of amino acids Decarboxylation of amino acids
    17. 17. So, the answer is - Preservation
    18. 18. 1. Temperature controlPrinciple - Decrease the fish temperature to levels where metabolicactivities are reduced or completely stopped (0 C or < - 18 C) .1. The design (size, insulation, palletization) and management ofcold stores are key for fish quality and energy saving.2. Development of alternative refrigerants to replace thechlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) which are damaging to ozone layers.
    19. 19. 2. Control of water activity Water activity (aw) is a parameter that measures the availability of water in fish flesh. Water is necessary for microbial and enzymatic reactions and several preservation techniques have been developed to tie up this water (or remove it) and thus reduce the aw. 1. Drying 2. Salting 3. Smoking 4.Freeze-dryinghttp://www.aqualab.com
    20. 20. 3. Physical controlUse of heat (cooking, blanching, pasteurizing, sterilizing), ionizingirradiation (for pasteurization or sterilization) or microwaveheating.Refrigeration is required to preserve fish products and increase theirshelf life.Sterilised products and which are stable at ambient temperatures (<40 C). These require packaging in metal cans or retortable pouchesbefore the heat treatment, thus the term "canning". 30° 60° Source: Paulo et al.
    21. 21. 4. Chemical controlPrinciple: These techniques are designed to add anti-microbialagents or decrease the fish muscle pH.•Most bacteria stop multiplying at pH < 4.5.•The decrease of pH is obtained by fermentation, marinades or byadding acids (acetic, citric, lactic, etc.) to fish products. Thistechnique is often referred to as bio-preservation.•Preservatives include nitrites, sulphites, sorbates, benzoates ornatural ones such as essential oils. http://www.microscopesblog.com
    22. 22. 4. Other Methods1. Techniques based on the control of the oxydo-reductionpotentialReducing the oxygen around fish will increase its shelf life. Byvacuum packaging or by controlling or modifying the atmospherearound the fish. Specific combinations of CO2, O2 and N2characterize controlled (CA) or modified atmosphere (MA).Vacuum packaging, CA and MA storage are often combined withrefrigeration for fish preservation2. Combination of several preservation techniquesTwo or more of the above-described techniques can be combined toimprove preservation efficiency . Combinations already in use includepasteurization-refrigeration, CA (or MA)-refrigeration, salting-drying,salting-smoking, drying-smoking and salting-marinating.
    23. 23. Fish Meal and Fish Oil20 percent of world catch processed into fishmeal and fish oil. Oil is forindustrial uses in leather tanning and in the production of soap, glyceroland other non-food products.Only where it is uneconomic or impracticable for humanconsumption, should the catch be reduced to fishmeal and oil.Cycling fish through poultry or pigs is a loss because there is a need for 3kg of edible fish to produce approximately 1 kg of edible chicken or pork. 1. Feed for Domestic Animals 2. High Quality Organic Fertilizer
    24. 24. Take Home MessageMost spoilage of fish is due to bacterial breakdown.One spoilage characteristic found in fish and not in muscle foodsis trimethylamine (TMA) formation.This odoriferous amine is responsible for the fish smell associatedwith spoiling fish.Fish meat has high level of polyunsaturated fatty acids,which are unstable.Chilling of fish immediately after harvest is very importantpart of preservation.
    25. 25. Thankyou for your attention

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