State Party Report to the UnitedNations Human Rights Committee.CAMEROON (2010-2011)FAO Right to Food – Voluntary Guideline No. 10(Nutrition)This is the Cameroon’s government annual report on the compliance ofFAO Right to Food Voluntary Guideline No. 10 (Nutrition) for the year2010-2011. In this comprehensive report state party has explicitlyelaborated the ongoing efforts and endeavors to comply with the UnitedNations norms in terms of health and nutritional status of Cameroonianpeople. 1. Aditya Parmar 2. Johannes Augustin 3. Virginia Marinho Moura 4. Fanka Ayena5/21/2011
INTRODUCTIONCameroon is party to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR). In Article11 of the ICESCR, the States parties guarantee the right to freedom from hunger and the right to adequate food.More specifically, the right to adequate food derives from the obligations of States elucidated in Article 11: TheFocus will be on guideline 10 which places an obligation on states to take all necessary action including anenabling environment, assistance and accountability to ensure adequate food in terms of quality and quantity,accessibility at all times to all members of the state. The government of Cameroon is well aware of theobligations that arise from the ICESCR treaty and those that go inline with the Right to Food. It is committedtowards the progressive realization of the right to food using the maximum resources available. Furthermore theState of Cameroon is devoted to ensure eradication of all kinds and types of discrimination with regard to theRight to Food or productive resources. The Government is well prepared to respect, protect and fulfil the rightsof its people.A) To address Basic Malnutrition and encouragement of Breastfeeding 1. The Ministry of Basic Education coordinates the implementation of the School Meal Project to tackle production and consumption difficulties of adequate food at its very grass root level. By this program a total of 53’000 students in the local public community schools of the rural areas in the northern provinces receive daily meals. Furthermore take-home food rations will be supplied to families who allow their daughters to attend the last three grades of the primary school cycle Cameroon’s Ministry of Finance allocates a total budget of US$ 11.9 million for the realisation of this goal. 2. The Government of Cameroon initiated the National Control Program in 1991- treaty no. 0133/A/MSP/SG/DSFM/SDSF/SN to foster the consumption of iodine-enriched salt in all households on a country wide scale and protect the people from Iodine Deficiency Diseases. Whereas the Total Goitre Rate (TGR) in 1984 before the program got into action was determined at around 70%, we can state a reduction to around 10% in 2003 while almost 90% of all households consumed iodized salt. 3. Under the umbrella of the Growth and Employment Strategy Document (GESD), the government will implement programs in a participatory approach, with the support of development partners which, by 2011 will help to eradicate vitamin A deficiency among children under the age 5 years and eradicate iodine deficiency-related difficulties. Figures like those of 99% of the children receiving at least one dose of Vitamin A per year show that the distinctive programs considerably improve the situation. 4. August 1st, 2009 under the theme "Breastfeeding: a vital emergency response-are you ready?" With respect to the agenda of the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Alliance (WABA), the Cameroon Minister of Public Health, launched the campaigns. Apart from that since 1993 Cameroon, International code of marketing of breastmilk substitutes was made legislation, so that no private company can go beyond the code of marketing to sell their products. 5. Current statistics indicate that the exclusive breastfeeding rate in Cameroon stands at 24 per cent, an index considered relatively too low compared to other African countries, but if this percentage is compared with what the situation was 10 years ago there is a increase of 50%. By adopting global strategies we are able to achieve: a) Excellent initiation of breastfeeding with one hour of birth (95.6) b) Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is increasing even though slowly. c) The World breastfeeding Week is celebrated nationally annually (1 to 7 August).
B) HIV Epidemic and Mother to Child Transmission: 6. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWAH) often bear food and nutrition insecurity due to a loss of productivity in labour and income. A lack of food for PLWAH is often most likely the cause of non- adherence their drug therapy. So preventing malnutrition for those vulnerable groups requires special concentration. Therefore the National AIDS Control Committee launched the Control Strategy Plan to fulfil the special nutritional needs and combat dietary insufficiencies among these people. 7. In response to the limitations of the two short term national AIDS plan of 1988 to 1992 and 1993 to 1999, and the growing social and economic threat of the HIV/AIDS epidemic to the population, the Prime Minister launched the Plan Strategique National de Lutte Contre le SIDA, 2000-2005 later extended to 2006. According to this plan, HIV/AIDS is the priority number one of the national health development plan and it proposes strategies and programs in 20 different areas to address the epidemic. Some examples of those activities are programs that focus on illiteracy, gender issues, human rights, substance abuse, and mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS.C) Health and Sanitation Infrastructure: 8. In the field of sanitary infrastructure, the state together with the African Development Bank (ADB) in May 2010 started a project to raise the supply of drinking water in rural areas from 30% to 80% in households and sanitation access from 22% to 60% respectively in the project areas. With provision of 188 drinking water supply networks and 1332 ventilated pit toilets beneficial to 52% of rural women.D) Discriminatory and Violence against women: 9. Cameroon has signed and ratified CEDAW. The measures taken by the state to eradicate all forms of discriminatory practices regarding women by, increasing the number of women’s participation in the parliament, as well as in the ministries of health and agricultural sector. In July 2009, the parliament drafted a Family Code, meant to protect women’s rights, including the right to live free from violence. The State still has much to do as far as violence against women is concerned, because most of the violence inflicted on women is a result of discriminatory traditional beliefs and practices, which needs a human face. 10. A draft Act is being put in place on measures to prevent sexual violence and combat violence against women and girls. The Draft Act has as objective to introduce measures that will shape ways of conduct towards women, with punishment being the only ultimate recourse against perpetrators of violent acts. 11. Gender disparities have been reduced in schools by allowing pregnant girls to continue with Schooling during pregnancy. The establishment and re-organisation of the Ministry of Women’s Affairs into the Ministry of Womens Empowerment and the Family. The Ministry’s objective is to better address Women’s problems, promote women and the family, develop the family and set up Institutional reforms and a governance strategy regarding the women. The budget of this ministry was recently raised from 0.25% as was the case between 2006 and 2009 to 0.27% in 2010.E) Refugee Camps: 12. In 2009, more than 18’250 additional refugees from the Central African Republic (CAR) were registered by the UNHCR. A total number of 80’880 refugees were already settled in Cameroon’s East and Adamaoua regions. Actions were made to promote and respect their basic needs on health and nutritional services, education, sanitation, food production, community services and income generation. In addition to food, supplementary food supplies were given to groups with specific needs in the camp and all persons living with HIV and AIDS received regular monthly subsistence allowances and supplementary food items.
References:U.N. (United Nations). 2000. United Nations Millennium Declaration. United Nations, NewYork. [Online] [Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/millennium/declaration/ares552e.ht].[2010, March 16].United Nations. 2004. Cameroon. [Online] [Accessed from:http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/Review/responses/CAMEROON-English.pdf][2010, June 12].U.N.A.F.A.S. 2008. Promoting Cameroon’s Cultural Heritage. Yaoundé: CVP Publication.U.N.F.P.A. (United Nations Population Fund). 2000. Chapter 3. Ending Violence AgainstWomen and Girls. State of World Population. [Online]. [retrievedfrom:www.unfpa.prg/swp/2000/English/cho3.html. [2010, March 18].U.N.I.C.E.F. (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2000. Domestic Violence Against Women andGirls. Innocenti Digest. Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.U.N.I.F.E.M. (United Nation’s Development Fund for Women) 2010. Traditional Leaders inCameroon Make Advances towards Gender Equality. [ online ] [retrieved from:http://www.unifem.org/cedaw30/success_stories] [2010, May 12]Vubo, E. Y. 2005. Matriliny and Patriliny between Cohabitation-Equilibrium and Modernity inthe Cameroon Grassfields. African Studies Monographs, 26(3): 145 – 182.WHO, 2002. World Report on Violence and Health [Online] [Retrieved from:http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2002/9241545615.pdf] [2010, May 21].WHO/UNICEF/UNFPA. 1997. Female Genital Mutilation: A Joint WHO/UNICEF/UNFPAStatement. Geneva: World Health Organization.http://www.wfp.org/content/country-programme-cameroon-2008-2012http://www.codexafrica.org/en/docs/CRD%208%20CAMEROON%20NATIONAL%20POSITION_french.pdfhttp://www.tulane.edu/~internut/FNB_26_1_MI_SUPPL_FOR_APPROVAL.pdfhttp://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2010/cr10257.pdfhttp://www.micronutrient.org/CMFiles/PubLib/Report-67-VMD-A-Global-Damage-Assessment-Report1KSB-3242008-http://digitalcollections.sit.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1258&context=isp_collection&sei-redir=1#search=%22Nutrient+requirements+for+people+living+with+HIV/AIDS+cameroon%22http://www.worldbreastfeedingtrends.org/report/WBTi-Cameroon-2009.pdfhttp://www.bioline.org.br/pdf?jh07018Ministry of Public Health, CameroonMinistry of Women’s Affairs, Cameroon