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Unit 4 - Civil War

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US History, Civil War

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Unit 4 - Civil War

  1. 1. Unit 4 Notes Civil War – Reconstruction
  2. 2. Election of 1848 • Whig Party Split • Free-Soil Party – opposed slavery in the western territories • Martin Van Buren elected president
  3. 3. California Gold Rush • 1848 Gold is discovered in California • By 1849 more than 80,000 Forty-Niners arrived looking for Gold • Led to one of the largest migrations in American history
  4. 4. Slavery in the Territories • Wilmot Proviso - Proposed that any territory gained from Mexico “neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist.” • Popular Sovereignty – Citizens in each territory should be allowed to decide if they wanted to permit slavery
  5. 5. The Great Debate • Secession – taking their states out of the Union • Compromise of 1850 – California entered the Union as a Free State – Popular Sovereignty in the Territories – Fugitive Slave Law – Slave Trade in D.C. Abolished
  6. 6. Uncle Tom’s Cabin • Uncle Tom’s Cabin - Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. Changed the perception of African -Americans and Slavery • African – Americans were presented as real people for the first time • Southerners tried to have the book banned
  7. 7. Western Expansion • Transcontinental Railroad – wanted to connect the whole country – Debate began over where it should run • Gadsden Purchase – America bought the southern tips of Arizona and New Mexico form Mexico for $10 million
  8. 8. Kansas - Nebraska Act • Kansas - Nebraska Act - Stephen Douglas argued that Nebraska and Kansas should be allowed popular sovereignty. • Douglas wanted to undo the Missouri Compromise and allow slavery in Kansas but not Nebraska
  9. 9. Bleeding Kansas • Kansas become the first battle ground for those favoring the expansion of slavery • Southerners rushed to the territory with their slaves and Northerners rushed with the intent of creating an antislavery majority
  10. 10. Harpers Ferry • Incident at Harpers Ferry - Plan that was led by John Brown that wanted to raid the federal arsenal and “free and arm the enslaved people” • Robert E. Lee led the US Army to put down the insurrection. • Brown’s plan to leave a slave insurrection ended with his capture
  11. 11. Harpers Ferry • John Brown was tried and convicted on a Virginia court • He was sentenced to death • Northerners saw his as a martyr for a noble cause • Southerners believed that Northerners were plotting to murder slaveholders
  12. 12. Dred Scott vs. Sanford • What are the issues before the supreme court? • How did the court rule? • What effects did this have on the country? • In your opinion could the outcome of the case been politically motivated?
  13. 13. Dred Scott Decision • Dred Scott Decision – was a slave from Missouri – Sued for his freedom – Declared that slaves were property – Slaves were not citizens and could not use the court system
  14. 14. Election of 1860 • Southerners blamed Republicans for what happened at Harpers Ferry • The Democratic Party split on the idea of slavery in the territories. • Lincoln nominated by the Republicans • South vowed that if Lincoln was elected that they would secede • Lincoln did not even appear on Southern ballots
  15. 15. Secession • South Carolina was the first state to secede. • By February 6 more state had seceded • Southerners believed that secession was in the Revolutionary tradition and their rights as an American.
  16. 16. Compromise Fails • As the southern states seceded Congress attempted to find a compromise to save the union. • Kentucky senator John J. Crittenden proposed a plan known as the Crittenden’s Compromise – Would extend the line drawn by the Missouri Compromise to the border of California • Lincoln rejected the plan
  17. 17. The Confederacy • The southern state that seceded met in Montgomery, Alabama and declared themselves that Confederate States of America. • They drafted a constitution based on the ideas of the American Constitution • They chose Mississippi senator Jefferson Davis as the president of the Confederacy.
  18. 18. The Civil War
  19. 19. The Failure to Compromise • Lincoln said that the national government would not abandon its property in the south • Said that the Union wouldn't use force in the south
  20. 20. Northern Response to Southern Succession • March 1861 – Abraham Lincoln took office as President of the United States • North said that the Union was older than the states it had created them • Believed the Union had to be preserved • South believed that majority rule was a threat to their liberty • North believed south was pouting because they lost the election
  21. 21. Crisis at Fort Sumter • Confederate soldiers take over government, military installations • Fort Sumter—Union outpost in Charleston harbor • Confederates demanded surrender of Fort Sumter • Fort Sumter and Fort Pickens needed supplies - supply ships had been forced to turn back after being fired on by South Carolina gunners
  22. 22. Crisis at Fort Sumter • Lincoln faced tough decision concerning the forts - Withdrawing the troops would be recognizing the Confederacy - Sending supplies meant risking war - Reinforcing the fort with force would also lead rest of slave states to secede
  23. 23. Crisis at Fort Sumter • April 1861 - Lincoln announced that he was sending relief expeditions to the forts – Meant he would fight if necessary • For South, no action would damage sovereignty of Confederacy • Jefferson Davis chose to turn peaceful secession into war • Confederate troops ordered the Fort be turned over • Union troops stood firm • Confederates bombarded the Fort for 33 hours before they surrendered • Fort Sumter – First Shots of the Civil War
  24. 24. The Upper South Secedes • After the fall of Fort Sumter the upper south began to secede – Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas, Tennessee • Lincoln sent troops to Maryland and imposed Martial Law
  25. 25. Choosing Sides • Border states were the key to the war • North had to have Maryland to keep contact with Washington D.C. - Lincoln ordered the arrest of lawmakers who had supported the south - Federal troops helped a group of western counties break away from Virginia (West Virginia) • War caused many families in the border states to spilt
  26. 26. Expecting a Short War • That war came as no surprise • Both sides had been arguing for years • Everyone thought the war would be short • Everyone was excited
  27. 27. Both Sides Strengths • North - Had more people - Had most of the natural resources (iron, coal, copper) - 86% of the nation’s factories in the north - Union kept almost every ship in the navy - More extensive railroad system - Lincoln’s leadership • South - Had better generals - cotton profits - Fighting a defensive war (more of a will to fight)
  28. 28. Strategy • North - Aimed to conquer south and bring it back into the Union - Didn’t have a strong enough army to invade the south a the beginning - Anaconda plan: Union strategy to conquer South - blockade Southern ports - divide Confederacy in two in west - capture Richmond, Confederate capital • South - Only wanted to stay independent - Wanted to avoid major battles (hoped the north would get tired of fighting) - Invade North if opportunity arose - Beginning of the war south withheld cotton from Europe (hoped Europe would help south due to their need for cotton (BIG MISTAKE) - Europe found other places to get cotton
  29. 29. The Two Armies • 1861 – Union was unprepared to fight - Many soldiers were city residents • Southern army had organized before the battle of Fort Sumter • Southerners were used to shooting guns • Neither army had uniforms (created confusion) - Union wore blue - Confederates wore grey
  30. 30. First Battle of Bull Run • Union army was marching to Manassas • Sightseers and picnickers followed to watch the battle • Thomas J. Jackson earned nickname “Stonewall” for firm stand in battle – 2nd in Command in the Confederate Army • Confederates forced the Union to retreat - Union army got tangled up with the sightseer • First Battle of Bull Run showed that this was not going to be short war
  31. 31. Union Armies in the West • Protecting Washington, D.C. • After Bull Run, Lincoln called for 1 million additional soldiers • Appointed General George McClellan to lead the Union army after Bull Run
  32. 32. Union Victories in the West • Union captured New Orleans • Feb. 1862 - General Ulysses S. Grant captured Confederate Forts Henry & Donelson • Both held strategic locations on the Tennessee & Cumberland Rivers
  33. 33. Union Victories in the West • Battle of Shiloh - Shiloh taught that preparation was needed, (Scouts, trenches & fortifications • March 1862, Confederate troops surprised Union soldiers at Shiloh • Grant counterattacked & forced Confederates retreat - Fiercest fighting of the war to that point - Both sides suffered heavy casualties • Showed that Confederacy was vulnerable in West
  34. 34. A Revolution in Warfare • New Weapons - Rifles more accurate, faster loading, fire more rounds than muskets - Minié ball (more destructive bullet), grenades, land mines were used - Fighting from trenches, barricades new advantage in infantry attacks
  35. 35. A Revolution in Warfare • New ironclad ships instrumental in victories of Grant, Farragut - Ironclads splinter wooden ships, withstand cannon, resist burning • March 1862, North’s Monitor, South’s Merrimack fought to a draw - 1st ever battle between two ironclad warships - The new ships were not a decisive factor in the war
  36. 36. Union Victories in the West • April 1862 - David G. Farragut commanded fleet that took New Orleans, Baton Rouge, Natchez • Capturing all of the major cities along the lower Mississippi would cut Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, & Tennessee would be cutoff • Only Port Hudson, Louisiana & Vicksburg Mississippi stood in the way
  37. 37. The War for the Capitals • 3rd part of Anaconda plan called for the capture of Richmond • McClellan waited to attack Richmond (Too cautious) - Drilled troops for 5 months • Spring 1862 - Robert E. Lee took command of Southern army - Excellent general who had declined an offer to head the union army at the beginning of the war
  38. 38. Seven Days Battles • June 25 to July 1, 1862 - Lee & McClellan fought series of battles known collectively as the Seven Days’ Battle - South lost more men but forced north to retreat • Lee’ determination and unorthodox tactics caused McClellan leave Richmond • Lee decided to invade the north - Hoped a victory in the north would convince Lincoln to talk peace - Hoped a victory would also persuade Europe to side with the south
  39. 39. Second Battle of Bull Run • August 29 & 30 1862 - Lee won Second Battle of Bull Run & marched into Maryland - Put Washington D.C. in danger - Union troops had to withdraw to protect it
  40. 40. Battle of Antietam • Union army found a copy of Lee’s battle plans • Battle of Antietam - Bloodiest single-day battle of the war - 23,000 men died (more than the war of 1812 & war with Mexico combined) • Ended in a draw - Confederates retreat - McClellan does not pursue - Lincoln fired McClellan • Considered a political victory for the north - Caused Europe to delay plans to help the south
  41. 41. Emancipation Proclamation • January 1, 1863 Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation • Emancipation Proclamation - President Lincoln’s announcement that he would free the slaves in the rebelling states (military strategy) • Proclamation had symbolic value by giving the war a high moral purpose (Slavery)
  42. 42. Proclaiming Emancipation • Lincoln’s didn’t believe the Federal government had no power to abolish slavery where it existed • Lincoln decided army could emancipate slaves who labored for Confederacy ( Seizing supplies) • Emancipation discouraged Britain from supporting the South • Abolitionist movement was strong in England
  43. 43. Emancipation Proclamation • Northern Democrats claimed it would antagonize South & prolong war • Changed the character of the war (The Old South was to be destroyed) - Confederacy became more determined to preserve way of life - Compromise was no longer possible
  44. 44. Emancipation Proclamation • Didn’t free the slaves in the loyal border states - Didn’t have the power under the constitution • Also declared that African Americans could enter the army - Free blacks welcome ability to fight against slavery - 54th regiment gained fame attacking Fort Wagner in South Carolina
  45. 45. African Americans Fight for Freedom • African-American Soldiers • African Americans 1% of North’s population • Made up 10% of army by the end of the war • Received lower pay than white troops for most of war & limited on military rank • Suffered high mortality from disease • POWs were killed or returned to slavery • Fort Pillow, TN - Confederates massacred over 200 African- American POWs
  46. 46. Both Sides Face Political Problems • Neither side was completely unified • Both sides had sympathizers • Lincoln suspended habeas corpus: - order to bring accused to court & name charges • Seized telegraph offices to prevent them from being used for subversion
  47. 47. Both Sides Face Political Problems • Copperheads - Northern Democrats advocating peace were among those arrested • Lincoln ignored Supreme court ruling that stated he had overstepped his constitutional boundaries • Davis denounced Lincoln, then suspended habeas corpus in South • Lincoln expands presidential powers & sets precedent (War time)
  48. 48. Conscription • Both sides relied on volunteers in the beginning • Casualties & desertions led to conscription - draft to serve in army • Both armies allowed draftees to hire substitutes to serve for them • Planters with more than 20 slaves were exempted “Rich mans war poor mans fight” • 90% eligible Southerners served • 92% of the Northern soldiers were volunteers
  49. 49. Southern Shortages • South experienced food shortages from lost manpower, Union occupation & loss of slaves • Caused inflation • 1861 - $6.65 for food per month • 1865 - $68 for food per month if available • Blockade created other shortages (salt, sugar, coffee, nails needles, & medicine) • Some Confederates traded with enemy • Smuggled cotton into the north in exchange for food, gold or other goods
  50. 50. Northern Economic Growth • Industries that supplied army boomed • Contractors made huge profits • Many workers’ standard of living dropped • Wages do not keep up with prices • Women replaced men on farms, city jobs & government jobs • Congress established first income tax on earnings to pay for war
  51. 51. Civil War Medicine • U.S. Sanitary Commission worked to improve hygiene in army camps • It hired & trained nurses • Dorothea Dix served superintendent of women nurses • Only hired women over 30 years old to avoid romance - Union death rate drops • Surgeon general ordered at least 1/3 of Union nurses be women • Union nurse Clara Barton served on front lines • Southern women also volunteered as Confederate nurses
  52. 52. The Two Armies • Didn’t have antiseptics – germ killing drugs • Didn’t have anesthetics – pain killing drugs - Soldiers had to bite bullets when being operated on
  53. 53. Prisons • Living conditions in prisons worse than in army camps • Andersonville - worst Confederate prison, in Georgia – Had no shelter or sanitation (men drank from same stream that served as sewer) – Housed 33,000 prisoners on 26 acres (34 sq. ft. per man) – 1/3 of prisoners died – Camp commander Henry Witz was executed for war crimes after war
  54. 54. Road to Gettysburg • Both sides were tired of the war • Blockade was killing the south’s economy ($1 to $7 ) • Northerners angry over the draft • May 1863 - South defeated North at Chancellorsville - Stonewall Jackson mistakenly shot by own troops - Died 8 days later of pneumonia • Lee led his army north to get supplies • Also hoped for a peace settlement
  55. 55. Battle of Gettysburg • Neither General intended to fight - Troops ran into each other (Confederates go to find shoes; meet Union cavalry) • July 1, 1863 - Confederates drove Union back & took town • The Second Day - South attacked Union army - Union army was Led by General George Meade on Cemetery Ridge - North repulsed repeated attacks on Little Round Top - Many exhausted Confederates surrendered & Union line held
  56. 56. Battle of Gettysburg • The Third Day - Armies exchange vicious artillery fire - Lee orders attack on Union lines (Pickett’s Charge) - North cut down Confederates - Meade didn’t counterattack -Lee retreated to Virginia • Both sides suffered staggering losses • Considered the single greatest battle of the war • Three-day battle at Gettysburg crippled the South – Battle of Gettysburg is considered the turning point of war • General Lee would never again have sufficient forces to invade the North
  57. 57. The Gettysburg Address • November 1863 - ceremony held to dedicate cemetery in Gettysburg • Edward Everett, noted speaker, gave flowery two- hour speech • Lincoln’s two-minute Gettysburg Address asserted unity of U.S. - honored dead soldiers - called for living to dedicate themselves to preserve Union & freedom
  58. 58. Battle of Vicksburg • Confederate Vicksburg prevents Union from controlling Mississippi • Spring 1863 - Union destroyed MS rail lines & sacked Jackson • May 1863 - Grant’s began siege on Vicksburg • July 4, 1863 - Starving Confederates surrendered (same day as Pickett’s charge) • Port Hudson, LA fells 5 days later • Grant’s seizing Vicksburg gave the Union control of the Mississippi River • Cut the Confederacy in half
  59. 59. The Confederacy Wears Down • Defeats at Gettysburg & Vicksburg cost the south much of its limited fighting power • South was no longer able to unable attack • Only hoped to hang on and destroy North’s morale to get armistice • Civilian morale plummeted & public called for peace • Discord in government prevented Davis from governing effectively
  60. 60. Grant Appoints Sherman • Lincoln wanted someone who would attack General Lee • March 1864 - Lincoln appointed Ulysses S. Grant commander of all Union armies • Lincoln liked Grant because he could get things done • Grant appointed William T. Sherman commander of the military division of the Mississippi
  61. 61. Grant Appoints Sherman • Grant planned to attack the south on all fronts - He would pursue Lee - Admiral Farragut would attack Mobile - William T. Sherman would lead an army southeast from Chattanooga to Atlanta • Grant & Sherman believed in total war to destroy South’s will to fight
  62. 62. Grant and Lee in Virginia • Grant’s strategy was to immobilize Lee in VA while Sherman raided Georgia • May 1864 – April 1865 - Grant and Lee fought many battles • Both sides suffered heavy losses • North 60,000 • South 32,000 • North could replace soldiers but South couldn’t
  63. 63. Sherman’s March • September 1864 - Sherman took Atlanta • South tried to cut supply lines (railroads) • Sherman changed strategies (Abandoned supply lines & burned Atlanta)
  64. 64. Atlanta Before & After
  65. 65. Sherman’s March • Sherman cut a wide path of destruction in Georgia & lived off the land • 1st general to wage total war - Destroyed everything in his path • Made no apologies for his actions - Said “We are not only fighting hostile armies, but a hostile people, and must make old and young, rich and poor, feel the hard hand of war”
  66. 66. Sherman’s March • December 1864 – Sherman reached Savannah • Turned north to help Grant fight Lee – Inflicted even more destruction in South Carolina (1st state to secede) – Followed by 25,000 former slaves who were eager for freedom – Burned almost every house in his path – Stopped destroying private homes when he reached North Carolina (last state to secede) – Began handing out food & supplies (realized the war was almost over)
  67. 67. The Election of 1864 • Lincoln faced heavy opposition in the election • Democrats wanted immediate armistice - Nominated George McClellan • Radical Republicans- wanted harsh conditions for readmission to Union • Nominated John C. Fremont • Republicans changed name to National Union Party • Andrew Johnson was chosen as Lincoln’s running mate (pro-Union Democrat) • Lincoln was pessimistic about his chances • Northern victories & troops’ votes gave him the win
  68. 68. The Surrender at Appomattox • March 1865 – Clear that the south was going to lose • Union forces were closing in on Richmond • Grants forces defeated Lee’s at Petersburg • April 2 1865 - Davis’s government left Richmond, set it afire
  69. 69. The Surrender at Appomattox • April 9, 1865 – Lee and Grant work out the terms of surrender at Appomattox Court House • Lee’s soldiers paroled on generous terms (Lincoln’s request) - Were given food - allowed to return to their homes and keep their horses
  70. 70. Political Changes caused by the War • War ended threat of secession & increases power of federal government • Ended Slavery • Changed the way Americans thought about their nation - People accepted that the Union was more important than individual states • Helped the Federal Government Expand - Placed new demands on the Gov. - 1861 – establish the 1st income tax to pay for the war - Funded transcontinental railroad and gave land to settlers • 1865 - Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery in all states
  71. 71. Economic Changes Caused by the War • National Bank Act of 1863 - Established federal system of chartered banks - Set requirements for loans & called banks to be inspected • Spurred industry - Aided the growth of several postwar industries such as petroleum, steel, food and processing - Government subsidized the construction of a national railroad system • Gap between North and South widened - North: industry booms; commercial agriculture takes hold - South: industry, farms destroyed • The war was a disaster for the South - Nation was faced with job of rebuilding the South
  72. 72. Costs of the War • Hundreds of thousands dead, wounded; lives disrupted - 620,000 men died in the war • Financially, war costs the government estimated $3.3 billion
  73. 73. The Assassination of Lincoln • April 14, 1865 - Shot by John Wilkes Booth at Ford’s Theatre • 1st president to be assassinated • Assassin John Wilkes Booth escaped but was trapped by Union cavalry 12 days later & shot in Virginia • 7 million people paid respects to Lincoln’s funeral train (almost 1/3 of population
  74. 74. Reconstruction
  75. 75. Reconstruction • Period after the Civil War was known As Reconstruction • Lincoln didn't want to punish south - Assassinated by John Wilkes Booth. • Andrew Johnson becomes president - Believed reconstruction was presidents' job - Gave most white southerners Amnesty
  76. 76. Southern Hardships Black Southerners 4 million freed slaves now found themselves with no shelter, and no work Plantation Owners $3 billion in slave labor vanished Many sold property to pay debts, as gov't seized land and cotton. Poor Southerners White migrant workers now faced poor job prospects, as freed slaves flooded the labor pool. Different Groups Suffered
  77. 77. African Americans Respond to Freedom • Wanted to escape white control • Traveled - Looked for family • Many officially married • Created own churches • Started schools
  78. 78. Land / Labor Issues • Freedmen wanted land - Most never received it • South needed new labor system - Landowners didn't have cash or labor - laborers didn't have land • Both sides had trouble with new system - Planters not used to bargaining for labor - Freedmen thought wage was extra (landowners still provided food, clothing , and shelter)
  79. 79. Reconstruction • Freedmen’s Bureau - Gov. agency established to distribute food and clothing to poor in the south - Also in charge of land that confederates abandoned - Divided it into 40 acre parcels, couldn't sell it • Most whites regained land after President Johnson pardoned them
  80. 80. Two Reconstruction Plans • Presidents plan – Offered pardons to former confederates who swore loyalty to the Union. – Required states to hold constitutional conventions, regardless of 10% participation. – States were required to void secession, abolish slavery, and ratify the 13th amendment. – States could then hold elections and participate in the Union. • Radical Republican plan – Wanted to prevent leaders of the Confederacy from returning to power after the war. – Wanted the Republican party to become a powerful institution in the South. – Wanted to help African- Americans achieve political equality by guaranteeing their right to vote.
  81. 81. Reviving the Old South • Southern states rebuilt the same way as before the war • Refused to Ratify the 13th Amendment - Abolished slavery • Black codes - laws aimed at returning freedmen to plantation labor • Prohibited African Americans from meeting in unsupervised groups or to bear firearms
  82. 82. Black Codes Curfews- black people not allowed to gather after sunset Vagrancy laws Freedmen who didn’t work could be fined, whipped, or sold for a year’s labor. Labor contract Freedmen forced to sign 1-year work contract. If broken, they lost all wages. Women’s Rights Limits Mothers forced to work farm labor instead of caring for children at home. Land Restrictions Freedmen could only rent land or live in rural areas, forcing plantation living.
  83. 83. New Amendments  Congress wanted African American's rights protected in the constitution  14th Amendment - Stated that all people born in the U.S. were citizens and had the same rights as citizens. (gave African Americans citizenship).  Amendment also prevented states from depriving any person of life, liberty, and property without due process of law.  15th Amendment - voting rights for men of all races  It required states to allow Blacks to vote  Stated that states would lose Reps in Congress if they didn't  President Johnson argued against the amendment - Urged the south to reject it - Every southern state except Tennessee did
  84. 84. Reconstruction Act of 1867 • Moderates angry at Johnson over 14th Amendment • Agreed to work with radicals • Military Reconstruction Act of 1867 - The act divided the south into 5 military districts • Prevented the pre war ruling class from voting 10 - 15 % of the population) • Explained how southern states could re-enter the Union - Had to approve new state constitutions that gave all adult men the right to vote - Had to ratify the 14th Amendment
  85. 85. New Order in the South • 1867 – Freedmen’s Bureau began registering voters • 735,000 Blacks • 635,000 whites • ¾ of the voters were Republicans • ½ were whites who supported the north - People who lived in up country poor and only grew enough food for their families - Blamed the planters for the states problems - Called it the 'rich mans war - Planters called them scalawags (scoundrels)
  86. 86. New Order in the South • ¼ were whites who moved from north after war - Called carpetbaggers (stuffed belongings into suitcase and headed south) - In reality they brought capital • ¼ were African Americans who had been free before the war - Ministers, Teachers Skilled workers
  87. 87. Republican South • Carpetbaggers – Northern republicans who moved south during reconstruction were named this by southerners, as many southerners felt they rushed south for nothing more than personal fortune. • Scalawags – To be a southern white who was republican was to be a traitor in many eyes, and these people were named scalawags, hated by many native southerners.
  88. 88. President Johnson is Impeached • Johnson had worked against reconstruction while obeying its laws - He appointed people friendly to ex confederate military commanders in south • 1867 Congress passed law that prevented president from firing cabinet members
  89. 89. President Johnson is Impeached • Johnson opposed the law tested it • Feb 1868 - Johnson fired (Secretary of War) Edwin Stanton due to disagreement over Reconstruction - 3 days later the House of Reps. Voted to impeach the president • Johnson Impeached – because of disagreements with congress over Reconstruction • Senate acts as jury (needs 2/3 vote to remove president) - Fell-one vote shy - Tradition of strong president remained intact
  90. 90. Compromise of 1877 • The end of Reconstruction came as a result of the election of 1876: – Democrats ran Samuel Tilden – Republicans ran Rutherford Hayes – Neither candidate won a majority, so the decision was left to Congress. The result was – Compromise of 1877: • Democrats agreed to vote Hayes (R) president if all troops were remove from the South and the Democrats were allowed to take back control of the state and local governments.

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