What is Cause and
Cause and effect analysis is a technique for
identifying all the possible causes (inputs)
associated with a particular problem / effect
(output) before narrowing down to a small
number of main , root causes which need to be
Uses of Cause and
Cause and Effect analysis is a useful tool for:
Focusing on causes not symptoms capturing the
collective knowledge and experience of a group.
Providing a picture of what an effect is happening.
Establishing a sound basis for further data gathering
Cause and effect analysis can also be used to
identify all the areas that need to be tackled to
generate a positive effect.
What is Cause-
A Cause-and-Effect diagram is a tool that helps to
identify, sort and display possible causes of a
specific problem or quality characteristic. It
graphically illustrates the relationship between a
given outcome and all the factors that influence the
outcome. This type of diagram is often termed as
“Ishikawa diagram” after the name of it’s inventor
Kaoru Ishikawa, or “fishbone diagram” because of
the way it looks.
Uses of Cause-Effect
It is common for people working on improvement efforts to jump
to conclusions without studying the causes, target one possible
cause while ignoring others, and take actions aimed at surface
Cause and effect diagrams are designed at:
1. Stimulating thinking during a brainstorm of potential causes.
2. Providing a structure to understand the relationships between
many possible causes of a problem.
3. Giving people a framework for planning what data to collect.
4. Serving as a visual display of causes that have been studied.
5. Helping team members communicate within a team and with
the rest of the organisation.
Basic benefits of
Helps determine root causes.
Encourages group participation.
Uses an orderly, easy-to-read format.
Indicates possible causes of variation.
Increases process knowledge.
Identifies areas for collecting
diagram for poor
students, using why-
5 root causes
1. Academics of
Sometimes the percentage or CGPA of the students are
below company’s cut-offs. Thus they are obliged to give to
give aptitude test. Not all students are able to qualify this
aptitude test, thus not getting placed.
Other reason maybe that the student wants to pursue
further studies in the field. They are not interested in the
placements. This also lessens the placement ratio of
students and since all meritorious students are gone away
for further studies thus company’s interest in the college or
university is also effected.
Sometimes a company may think that the attitude and
personality of the student is not fit for the corporate business.
Maybe other students have done other courses which the
company thinks is good for their company.
Maybe the verbal of the student is not good enough for the
Maybe the company thinks that the student is irregular,
undisciplined or not serious about his/her work. No company
would want to recruit such student.
Maybe the student scored very low in aptitude test or performed
poorly in G.D.
3. Reputation of
college or university
The reputation of the college or the university is also very
Sometimes the college or university is not well-known thus
not many companies come for on-campus recruitments.
Sometimes the college or university does not take any pains
to call any company for on-campus selections.
Sometimes the selection ratio of a college or university is so
low that companies are no more interested in going to that
college for the on-campus selections.
4. Method :
Proper information about the schedule of interview
may have not been conveyed properly.
Due to some emergency situations, the student may
not have been able to come to predefined venue for the
Documents submitted during the placements may not
be complete or authentic.
Student may not have done proper internship.
Student may not be aware of off-campus placement
5. Quality of
Sometimes the students think that the salary is not
Sometimes the students are not satisfied with the bond.
Sometimes the students think that the company is not of
their standard and they want to work for bigger MNCs.
Sometimes the location where the company is placing
them is not according to the preferences of student.
solutions to the
problem of poor
1.Students should maintain their academics from the start.
2.Students should enrol themselves in various personality
development programs and should take measures to improve their
verbal if it is not good.
3.Students must utilise their vacations by doing various courses or
summer trainings that would be beneficial to them while
4.Colleges must also contribute their bit by inviting as many
companies as possible for on-campus recruitments of their
5.Students must submit proper documentation at the time of their
6.Companies must also acknowledge the preferences of students
and place them like-wise.
It was a great opportunity to do this type of assignment.
We are very grateful for this opportunity. Cause-Effect
diagram is a new concept that we came across and we
found it very useful in doing analytical projects like
these. We learnt what Cause-and-Effect Analysis is, its
usefulness, what is Cause-Effect diagram, its benefits,
how to make Cause-Effect diagram, and how to
properly put them to use.