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this ppt is to make people aware about the harmful effects of plastic and how plastic can ruin their health and can also lead them to their death.

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  1. 1. The word plastic is derived from the Greek (plastikos) meaning capable of being shaped or moulded, from (plastos) meaning moulded. It refers to their malleability, or plasticity during manufacture, that allows them to be cast, pressed, or extruded into a variety of shapes — such as films, fibres, plates, tubes, bottles, boxes, and much more.
  2. 2. Plastic are materials formed by long chains of carbon and hydrogen called polymers, formed by units called monomers. The most important characteristic of plastic is the capacity of deformation.
  3. 3. Most of the plastics are made up from these three raw materials: •Non – Renewable •Natural ResourcePetroleum •Non – Renewable •Natural Resource Coal •Non – Renewable •Natural Resource Cellulose Plastics
  4. 4. Plastics are made from fossil fuels. Fossil fuels contains hydrocarbons, which provide small building blocks called monomer. These hydrocarbons monomers are link together to form long carbon chains called polymers. The process of forming long molecules is called polymerization. The polymerization form viscous, sticky substances known as resins, which are used to make plastic products. These joined molecules form a plastic resin known as polythene.
  5. 5.  Plastics are strong , light weight, flexible and durable.  Plastics can be easily moulded into a variety of shapes and sizes.  Plastics have excellent mechanical strength (tensile properties, tear resistance, and impact resistance).  Plastics are relatively cheaper than compared to metals like steel, tin etc.  Plastics are reusable and recyclable.  Plastics have long use age life.
  6. 6.  Plastics are good electricity and heat insulators.  Plastics do not corrode or decay.  Plastics are cheap and dispensable.  Plastics are resistant to chemicals, water or grease.
  7. 7. Plastic production 100 million tonnes/year Annual increase of Production = 9% Plastic waste disposal 25 million tonnes/year Plastics in municipal solid waste = 11.8% By weight
  8. 8. Groups of Plastic Thermoplastics Thermoplastics can be repeatedly softened by heating and hardened by cooling. E.g. Polythene. Thermosetting Thermosetting plastics harden permanently after being heated once. e.g. Bakelite.
  9. 9. Agriculture 7% Transport 8% Furniture/Houseware 8% Electrical and Electronics 8% Building and Construction 23% Packaging 35% Footwear 1% Medical 2% Mechanical Engineering 2% Toys/Sports 3% Other 3% Percentage of Plastic used in different fields
  10. 10.  80% of thermoplastics, and 20% of thermo set plastic wastes are generated in India.  The use of plastics in India is 3kg per person per year.  The total consumption of plastic in India is about 4 million tonnes and the waste generated is about 2 million tonnes.  About 20% of solid municipal wastes are plastics in India.
  11. 11.  Plastic pollution on land is both physical and chemical.  Plastic reduces soil fertility by forming the part of manure for years.  Plastic spoil environmental aesthetics and hygiene.  Plastics in soil can lessen the growth of plants and trees by blocking the absorption of minerals, water and other nutrients.
  12. 12. Disposing of plastic waste is trickier than dealing with other traditional landfill material. Not only does plastic take thousands of years to break down, it can leach dangerous poison into the environment. Plastic is not going away, but how plastic waste is managed is becoming more sophisticated. Managing plastic waste starts at home with the consumer, but ultimately depends on governments around the world as well.
  13. 13. Manufacture Of plastics Use of plastics Disposal of plastics Toxic By products/ waste Leaching of chemicals& Enter human Food chain recycling Land fills incineration distribution End of life
  14. 14.  Industries emit large amounts of carbon monoxide, dioxin and hydrogen cyanide.  These gaseous pollutants contaminate air and causes respiratory diseases, nervous system disorders and immune suppression in human beings.
  15. 15.  Plastics wastes dumped in water courses contaminate and poisons freshwater life.  On leaching in water, plastic can easily enter the human food chain and harm human health.  Plastic debrises clog the sewage drains and create stagnant water which will be an ideal habitat for mosquitoes and other parasites.  Chocked drains cause flooding during monsoons.
  16. 16.  Discarded Plastic usually ends up within marine sources. The Pacific Ocean has one of the largest dumping ground for plastics, unknown numbers of sea birds marine mammals and fish ingest plastics which causes a variety of negative health effects and leading to their deaths.  Effects of plastics on marine life includes entanglement and ingestion of plastics debris by marine vertebrates.  Plastic is mistaken for food and is eaten up by birds, turtles, seals, and whales. This may choke them, or impede digestion and causing starvation.
  17. 17.  Toxic chemicals contained in plastics cause neurological problems, cancer, birth defects, hormonal changes gastric ulcer, thyroid problems and cardiovascular disease.  The endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in plastics have been contributing to obesity and diabetes.  The plastic bottles may leach cancer – causing chemicals such as phthalates (a component makes plastic pliable) and Bis – phenol A ( a component harden plastic).
  18. 18. o Plastic is one of the few new chemical materials which pose environmental problem. o Plastic in the environment is regarded to be more an aesthetic nuisance than a hazard, since the material is biologically quite inert. o Plastic is cheap, it gets discarded easily, and, its persistence in the environment can do great harm.
  19. 19.  Methods to convert waste plastics into hydrocarbon fuel have been in development for decades. But the associated costs to commercialize the technologies were prohibitive in previous years when crude oil was relatively inexpensive.  As costs for crude oil have risen, concerns about energy security and the environment are renewing efforts in plastics-to fuel recycling processes. Scientists hope the technologies will soon provide the nation with cheaper, alternative fuels that can help reduce foreign oil dependency.
  20. 20. Plastic recycling is the process of recovering scrap or waste plastic and reprocessing the material into useful products, sometimes completely different in form from their original state. For instance, this could mean melting down soft drink bottles and then casting them as plastic chairs and tables. Typically a plastic is not recycled into the same type of plastic, and products made from recycled plastics are often not recyclable.
  21. 21. Bioplastics are a form of plastics derived from renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable fats and oils , corn starch or micro biota .Common plastics, such as fossil-fuel plastics, are derived from petroleum. These plastics rely more on scarce fossil fuels and produce more greenhouse gas. Some, but not all, bioplastics are designed to biodegrade. Bioplastics which are designed to biodegrade can break down in either anaerobic or aerobic environments, depending on how they are manufactured. There is a variety of bioplastics being made; they can be composed of starches, cellulose, or other biopolymers. Some common applications of bioplastics are packaging materials, dining utensils, food packaging, and insulation.
  22. 22. Plasma pyrolysis or plasma gasification is a waste treatment technology that gasifies matter in an oxygen-starved environment to decompose waste material into its basic molecular structure. It uses high electrical energy and high temperature created by an electrical arc gasifies and does not combust the waste as incinerators do. This arc breaks down waste primarily into elemental gas and solid waste (slag), in a device called a plasma converter.
  23. 23. Prevention Strategies REFUSE – refuse plastic carry bags at the grocer’s shop. Use natural fibre bags. REDUCE – Choose products with minimum plastic packaging. REUSE – Reuse non – toxic containers and goods. RECYCLE – Recycling is not a sustainable solution. - Can be a last option.
  24. 24.  Lead by example  Ask your friends and family to join you  Speak to city council  Write letters to government officials  Get your school involved.
  25. 25.  Plastic Waste Management has assumed great significance in view of the urbanisation activities.  Various strategies are being devised to mitigate the impact of plastic waste in India.  Some significant challenges still exist from both technological factors and from economic or social behaviour issues relating to the collection of recyclable wastes, and substitution for virgin material.
  26. 26.  Mahatma Gandhi – “You must be the change if you wish to see in the world”.  Time for a new ethic : Save yourself and you save the environment.