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Strucuture of cereal grains and legumes


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Strucuture of cereal grains and legumes

  1. 1. Structure of cereal grains and legumes Structure of kernel of wheat,barley,rice,corn,oat,rye and soybean
  3. 3. “grain,” one of many domesticated grasses in thegramineae family. This includes staples such aswheat, rye, oats, barley, millet, rice, and sorghum. Allgrains “grain,” one of many domesticated grasses in thegramineae family. This includes staples such aswheat, rye, oats, barley, millet, rice, and sorghum. Allgrains have the above anatomy:“grain,” one of many domesticated grasses in the gramineae family. Thisincludes staples such as wheat, rye, oats, barley, millet, rice, andsorghum. All grains have the above anatomy:
  4. 4. Kernel of wheatGenus –triticumThere are 30,000 speciesKernel of wheat is usually1/8-1/4 inch long (3-7 mm)Ovoid in shape,rounded in both ends
  5. 5. structure of kernel of wheat
  6. 6. Spike with florets barley cross sectionBarley (Hordeum vulgare L.) major cereal grain. Important uses includeuse as animal fodder, as a source of fermentable material for beer andcertain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods.Whole grain barley is a healthy high-fiber, high-protein.Whencooked, barley has a chewy texture and nutty flavor. Its appearanceresembles wheat berries, although it is slightly lighter in color.Averagekernel length 7-10mm & width 2-4
  7. 7. Kernel of MaizeMaize ( Zea mays ) Maize is the most widely grown graincrop in theAmericas. The grains are about the size of peas, the starch found mainlyin the endosperm,comprises 70-72 % of the kernel
  8. 8. spike and kernel of oat oat (Avena sativa) While oats are suitable for human consumption as oatmealand rolledoats, one of the most common uses is as livestock feed. Cultivation not in india. Spike And kernel Of Oat
  9. 9. Oat grains, as harvested, consist of highlydigestible groat (seed) held within anindigestible hull(30%). Oats are generallyconsidered health food. The discovery ofcholesterol-lowering properties has led towider appreciation of oats as human food. Oatkernel size is, however, inherently nonuniformbecause of the multifloret habit of the oatspikelet. Oat spikelets may contain one, two,three, or more kernels. The outermost ofthese, called the primary kernel, is the largest,and mass decreases with higher orders ofkernels.average length:width ratio ranges from3.63-4.29
  10. 10. Kernel of riceRice( Oryza sativa ) it is the most important staple food for a large partof the worlds human population. It is the grain with the second-highestworldwide production, after maize(corn) seed is 5–12 mm (0.20–0.47 in)long and 2–3 mm (0.079–0.12 in) thick.
  11. 11. rye grainRye (Secale cereale) Rye is grown primarily in Eastern, Central and Northern Europe.Acereal grain originally from Asia that is mostly used to feed cattle. The rye grainresembles a grain of wheat, while being longer and not as plump. Its sides are alsoslightly compressed and it is Rye flour is suitable for making bread, but its gluten isless elastic than the gluten in wheat and holds less moisture; rye bread does not risevery much and is more dense and compact than wheat bread. It keeps for a longertime, as it dries out more slowly.
  12. 12. stucture of rye kernel
  13. 13. Hydrated legume Seed & the Major Structures Legume-fruit of plant in the family Leguminosae.
  14. 14. structure of soyabean soya bean (Glycine max) native to East Asia, widely grown forits edible bean which has numerous uses. The plant is classed asan oilseed rather than a pulse by the FAO.soybean productssuch as textured vegetable protein (TVP),soy milk and tofu areingredients in many meat and dairy analoguesThe mainproducers of soy are the United States (35%), Argentina(27%), Brazil (19%), China (6%) and India (4%)
  15. 15. Soybean pod with purple flowersThe fruit is a hairy pod that grows in clusters of three to five, each pod is3–8 cm long (1–3 in) and usually contains two to four (rarelymore) seeds 5–11 mm in diameter.Soybeans occur in various sizes, and inmany hull or seed coat colors, including black, brown, blue, yellow, greenand mottled.
  16. 16. Composition of grains and legumesGrain Protein % Fat % Crude Ash % Starch % Total Carbohydr Moisture fiber % sugars % ate % %Wheat 15.3 1.9 2.9 1.8 53.0 2.6 72.0 14.0Barley 8-13 2-3 5.6 2-2.5 65.0 2-3 77.0 14.0Corn 10.0 4.3 2.9 1.5 70-72 3.22 71.0 14.0Oat 17.3 5.1 12.1 3.4 52.8 1.45 66.0 14.0Brown 7.3 2.2 0.8 1.4 80 1.0 64.3 13riceRye 8.7 1.5 2.2 1.8 75-76 0.5 72.3 14.0Soybea 40.0 21 5.3 4.9 12-14 16.6 34.0 12.0n
  17. 17. GLOSSARY• Aleurone (Aleurone layer). The outermost cell layer of the endosperm, usually only one cell thick in wheat and the only endosperm tissue alive at maturity. The cells of this layer are responsible for the de-novo synthesis of enzymes needed at germination.• Apex The tip of an organ.• Awn A projection from the tip of the lemma• Bran-outer layer-thin and papery.• Brush A collection of hairs at the distal end of the wheat grain.• Carpel The female part of the flower.• Chaff is the dry, scaly protective casings of the seeds of cereal grain,• Cross cells These cells are only found in grasses. They are formed from cells of the pericarp that elongate transversely, lose their chlorophyll and become lignified. They lie between the tube cells and the parenchyma of the pericarp.(fruit wall)• Dicotyledon (with two seed leaf….which gives rise to first leaf)• Embryo The basic plant present in the seed; composed of the embryonic axis (shoot end and root end) and the scutellum.• Endosperm A nutritive tissue, characteristic of flowering plants, which nourishes the embryo In most plants it is a transient tissue absorbed by the embryo before maturity whereas in cereals and grasses it contains storage reserves in the mature grain and is not absorbed until after germination.• Epidermis The outermost protective cell layer of tissue, usually covered by a cuticle.( An extra- cellular material secreted by plant cells that restricts water movement. It is composed of a fatty substance called cutin.)
  18. 18. • funiculus The short stalk that joins the ovule to the carpel wall.• Hilum The scar on a seed, such as a bean, indicating the point of attachment to the funiculus.• Husk (or hull or chaff) is the outer shell or coating of a seed.• Hypodermis The cell layer beneath the epidermis of the pericarp.• Lemma The outer of two bracts surrounding each floret in a grass spikelet• Mesocarp The middle layer of the pericarp, between the endocarp and the exocarp.• Nucellus The central portion of the ovule, containing the embryo sac(The female gametophyte of a seed plant, within which the embryo develops.), and surrounded by seed coat.• Plumule-The bud of a young plant; the portion of the plant embryo giving rise to the first true leaves, especially above the cotyledons.• Radicle The part of a plant embryo that develops into the primary root.• Scutellum Mobilize the stored food in endosperm and transmit them to the embryo while germination• Seed coat Deeply pigmented,gives grain its charecteristic colour.• Tube cells Cells formed from the inner epidermis of the pericarp in which the cells elongate parallel to the grains long axis.