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    2. 2. In Thermal Power Station it has8 unitsCAPACITY 4X110MW+2X210MW+2X250MWUNIT-1 01-11-1979UNIT-2 27-03-1980UNIT-3 01-01-1985UNIT-4 11-01-1987UNIT-5 28-03-1989UNIT-6 04-07-2001UNIT-7 16-10-2004UNIT-8 02-02-2005DAILY COALREQ.15,000M.T.HEIGHT OF COOLINGTOWERS123.5 mtr. IN STAGE 1&2143.5 mtr. IN STAGE 3&4140 mtr. IN STAGE 5&6143.5 mtr. IN STAGE 7&8
    3. 3. RADIAL CONCEPTCentralPlantComplexFuelElectricityWasteWaterChemicalEnergyThermalEnergyKineticEnergymechanicalEnergyElectricalEnergy
    4. 4. A coal-fired thermal power station.1. Cooling tower. 2. Cooling water pump. 3. Transmission line (3-phase). 4. Unittransformer (3-phase). 5. Electric generator (3-phase). 6. Low pressure turbine. 7.Condensate extraction pump. 8. Condenser. 9. Intermediate pressure turbine. 10.Steam governor valve. 11. High pressure turbine. 12. Deaerator. 13. Feed heater.14. Coal conveyor. 15. Coal hopper. 16. Pulverised fuel mill. 17. Boiler drum. 18.Ash hopper. 19. Superheater. 20. Forced draught fan. 21. Reheater. 22. Air intake.23. Economiser. 24. Air preheater. 25. Precipitator. 26. Induced draught fan. 27.Chimney Stack.
    5. 5. COAL FEEDING SYSTEMCoal is conveyed through rail wagon from out side ofplant and through conveyor system collected inhopper and ground to a very fine powder by largemetal spheres in the pulverised fuel mill.Conveyor Coal HopperPulverised MillWagon Tippler
    6. 6. COAL FEEDING SYSTEMThen it is mixed with preheated air driven by the forced draught fan. The hot air-fuel mixture is forced at high pressure into the boiler.Air Pre-heater Forced Draft Fan
    7. 7. BOILERA boiler or steam generator is a device used tocreate steam by applying heat energy to water.The steam generator or boiler is an integral component of a steam engine whenconsidered as a prime mover; The boiler is a furnace on a side. Its walls aremade of a web of high pressure steel tubes.Pulverized coal is air-blown into the furnace from fuel nozzles at the four cornersand it rapidly burns, forming a large fireball at the center. The thermal radiation ofthe fireball heats the water that circulates through the boiler tubes near the boilerperimeter. The water circulation rate in the boiler is three to four times thethroughput and is typically driven by pumps. As the water in the boiler circulatesit absorbs heat and changes into steam at 700 °F (371 °C) and 3,200 psi . It isseparated from the water inside a drum at the top of the furnace.
    9. 9. ASH HANDLING SYSTEMAt the bottom of the furnace, there is a hopper for collection of bottom ash. Thishopper is always filled with water to quench the ash and clinkers falling downfrom the furnace. Some arrangement is included to crush the clinkers and forconveying the crushed clinkers and bottom ash to a storage site.
    10. 10. SUPER HEATERIn a power plant, after the steam is conditioned by the drying equipment insidethe steam drum, it is piped from the upper drum area into tubes inside an area ofthe furnace known as the super heater, which has an elaborate set up of tubingwhere the steam vapor picks up more energy from hot flue gases outside thetubing and its temperature is now superheated above the saturation temperature.The superheated steam is then piped through the main steam lines to the valvesbefore the high pressure turbine.Superheated steam is steam at atemperature higher than waters boilingpoint. If saturated stream is heated atconstant pressure, it increases toward100% Dry Saturated Steam. Continuedheat input will then generatesuperheated steam. This will occur ifsaturated steam contacts a surface witha higher temperature. The steam is thendescribed as superheated by the numberof degrees it has been heated abovesaturation temperature
    11. 11. STEAM TURBINEThe hot reheat steam is conducted to the intermediate pressure turbine where itfalls in both temperature and pressure and exits directly to the long-bladed lowpressure turbines and finally exits to the condenseA steam turbine is a mechanical devicethat extracts thermal energy frompressurized steam, and converts it intorotary motion.The steam turbine is a form of heatengine that derives much of itsimprovement in thermodynamicsefficiency through the use of multiplestages in the expansion of the steam.
    12. 12. ROTORS
    13. 13. CONDENSERCondenser is a device or unit used to condense a substance from its gaseous toits liquid state, typically by cooling it.The exiting steam from steam turbine, now a little above its boiling point, isbrought into thermal contact with cold water (pumped in from the cooling tower)in the condenser. where it condenses rapidly back into water, creating nearvacuum-like conditions inside the condenser chest.Water Cooled Condenser Air Cooled Condenser
    14. 14. COOLING TOWERCooling towers are heat removal devices used to transfer process waste heatto the atmosphere. Cooling towers either use the evaporation of water toremove process heat and cool the working fluid or in the case of closed circuitdry cooling towers rely solely on air to cool the working fluid.Natural Draft CoolingTower
    15. 15. DE AREATORDe AreatorThe condensed water is then passed by a feed pump through a deaerater.A deaerator is a device that is widelyused for the removal of air and otherdissolved gases from the feed water tosteam-generating boiler.
    16. 16. ECONOMISEREconomiserPre-warmed water first enter in a feed heaterpowered by steam drawn from the highpressure set, and then in the economiserEconomizer are mechanical devicesintended to reduce energy consumption, or toperform another useful function likepreheating a fluid.Economizer is a flue gas to water heat exchanger. Usually it is located below theLPSH in the boiler and above Air pre heater. Outside surface of the economizertubes are heated by flue gases leaving the superheater and reheater whichsubsequently transfer heat to feed water flowing inside the tubes.Advantages of Economizer include1) Fuel economy: – used to save fuel and increase overall efficiency of boilerplant.2) Reducing size of boiler: – as the feed water is preheated in the economizer andenter boiler tube at elevated temperature. The heat transfer area required forevaporation reduced considerably.
    17. 17. Electrostatic PrecipitatorExhaust gas from the boiler is drawn by the induced draft fan through anelectrostatic precipitatorElectrostatic precipitators are mandatory installation in modern power plants tocontrol stack emission. Each boiler has electrostatic precipitators whichcontain high voltage electrodes, these attract the pulverized fuel ash (PFA)from the flue gases. At regular intervals the electrodes are rapped with motor-driven hammers and the PFA falls into hoppers below.Electrostatic precipitator is a collectiondevice that removes particles from a flowinggas (such as air) using the force of aninduced electrostatic charge. Electrostaticprecipitators are highly efficient filtrationdevices that minimally impede the flow ofgases through the device, and can easilyremove fine particulate matter such as dustand smoke from the air stream.
    18. 18. CHIMNEYExhaust gas from electrostatic precipitator vented through the chimney tack.A chimney is a structure for venting hotgases or smoke from a boiler, furnace orfireplace to the outside atmosphere.A chimney is a vertical structure for ventinghot flue gases or smoke from a boiler to theoutside atmosphere by means of the stackeffect. The space inside a chimney is calledaflue. The height of chimneys plays a role intheir ability to transfer flue gases usingstack effect. The dispersion of pollutants athigher altitude helps to ease down itsinfluence on surroundings and reduces theirconcentrations in compliance withregulatory limits.
    19. 19. SWITCHYARDA switch yard is a part of an electrical generation, transmission,system. Switchyard transform voltage from high to low,or the reverse, or perform any of several other important functions.
    20. 20. It consists various devices like1.Bus bars:- It receive power from incoming ckt& deliverpower to outgoing ckt.2.Lightning Arrester:-It is used to protect the insulation &conductor of system from damaging effects of lightning.3.Isolators:- It has purpose of disconnect the power supply forService or maintenance.4.Current Transformers (C.T):- A current transformer (CT) isused for measurement of alternating electric currents.Current transformers, together with voltage transformers(VT)(potential transformers (PT)), are known asinstrument transformers.
    21. 21. 5. Voltage Transformer:- Potential Transformer or VoltageTransformer are used in electrical power system for steppingdown the system voltage to a safe value which can be fed to lowRatings meters and relays.6.Circuit Breaker:- A circuit breaker in a substation is a form ofprotection, designed to break fault current (the large volume ofcurrent that flows when a fault is detected on the system).7.Power Transformers:- Power transformers are used intransmission network of higher voltages for step-up andstepdown application(400 kV, 200 kV, 110 kV, 66 kV, 33kV)and are generally rated above 200MVA.8.Insulators:- Insulators are used in electrical equipment to supportand separate electrical conductors without allowing currentthrough themselves.
    22. 22. CONTROL ROOMA control room is a room serving as a centre where a large phfacility or physically dispersed service can be monitored and co
    23. 23. Thank You