IMPACT OF MEDIAONCHILDRENBernadette J. Madrid, MDExecutive DirectorChild Protection Network Foundation
Globalization • The role of parents is being eroded by myriad of information exchanges among individuals by internet and cell phones.
Information Technology • Children are discovering the world without guidance of their parent who are less and less equipped to follow them or assist them in making sense of the information that bombard them.
Technology Reality• Children & Teens tend to know much more than the adults• New language, new frontier, new culture – part of the reality or landscape of children/youth
Intrusion of Mass Media Television is affordable; goes straight into people’s homes; does not need literacy. No.1 source of entertainment of family. Ave daily time viewing TV in the Phil= 3:30
Commercialization• Purchasing power of • “Cradle-to-grave” children school of marketing. • Children as young as 2 years are influenced by advertising.
Materialism• Considerable pressure on Teens to conform to a certain image and they go to great lengths to create that image.• Children who frequently watched television commercials held stronger materialistic values than did peers who watched TV commercials less often. Buijzen and Valkenburg, 2003
Health Effects of Media• Violence and Aggression• Sex• Substance Use• Obesity• Developmental Concerns• Prosocial Effects
Violence and Aggression• Exposure to violent media (movies, violent videogames, violent internet sites, TV) predicted subsequent increases in aggression in teens. (Slater, 2003)• Exposure to television violence in childhood predicted increased aggressive behavior in adulthood. (Huesmann et al., 2003)
Sex• Watching sex on TV predicts and may hasten adolescent sexual initiation.• Reducing the amount of sexual content in entertainment programming, reducing adolescent exposure to this content or increasing references to and depictions of possible consequences of sexual activity could appreciably delay the initiation of sex in teens. Collins, Elliot, Berry, et al. 2004 Pediatrics. 114;e280
SexDoes Watching Sex on Television Predict Teen Pregnancy? (Findings From a National Longitudinal Survey of Youth)Results: Exposure to sexual content on TV predicted teen pregnancy. Teens exposed to high levels of sexual content were twice as likely to experience pregnancy in the next 3 years. Chandra, Martino, Collins, et al. 2008 Pediatrics. 122; 1047-1054
Mirror CellsRecent studies show that brain circuitsfire in the same way when we observesomeone doing something; as whenwe actually do it; this explains copyingbehavior. www.missingkids.com
Substance Use• Two longitudinal studies have found that approximately one third of adolescent smoking can be attributed to tobacco advertising and promotions. (Biener & Siegel, 2000 and Pierce, et al., 1998)• Exposure to movie smoking at grades 5-8 predicts smoking initiation 1 to 8 years later. (Dalton, Sargent, et al., 2003; Dalton, Beach, et al., 2009)
Substance Use• Exposure to pro-alcohol messagesrepresents a significant risk factor forlater adolescent drinking. (Grube &Waiters, 2005)
Obesity• Existing research indicates thatadvertising affects children’s foodpreferences, food choices and foodintake are shaped by their exposure tofood advertising.
Developmental Concerns• There are several studies that havedocumented the possibility oflanguage delays among infantsexposed to excessive television orvideos. Strasburg, Jordan, Donnerstein, 2010 Pediatrics; 125:756-767
Protective FactorParents watching television,movies, etc. with their children anddiscussing with them the content.
Prosocial Effects• Can learn antiviolence attitudes, tolerance, empathy, respect for elders, altruism• Video games can be beneficial e.g. improving compliance with chemotherapy; eye-hand coordination• Can be used as a tool to educate• Stimulate adolescent connectedness
Online Viewing Leaders in the World • China • Indonesia • Philippines • India • Mexico Nielsen,August 2010
Different uses of the cyber technology• Meet old or long lost friends• Meet new friends• Easy communication access• A site for discussion• Research• Money transfer
the dark side of the cyber world• Prone to abuse• Sexual aggression• Sex exploitative or commoditized use of sex• Impact on brain development• Health problems• Impact on physical development
INTERNET PORNOGRAPHY• The largest group of viewers ofInternet porn is children between ages12 and 17 (Family Safe Media,December 15, 2005).
Risky Online Behaviors of Third and Fourthyear High School Students in a Public andPrivate High School in Metro ManilaPredisposing to Sexual Solicitation andHarassment : Cross Sectional StudyMarivie A. Flores, Merle P. Tan, Germana Gregorio, M.D (Winner, PPS Research Contest)
Results• Adolescents’ Risky Online Behaviors : Posting personal information - 91% Chatting with unknown people - 58% Having many unknown people in friends list - 46% Opening x-rated web sites - 23 % Eyeball with people met online - 9% Flores, Tan, Gregorio (2009)
Results The odds of experiencing internet harassment and/or sexual solicitation is twice for those: Sending personal information online, interacting with unknown persons, Having unknown persons on the buddy list Using the internet >5x a week …. but the odds are increased 4x for those visiting x-rated websites. Flores, Tan, Gregorio (2009)
Results23% of adolescents experienced internet harassment;50% sexual solicitation;28% both sexual solicitation and harassment Flores, Tan, Gregorio (2009)
Sexting•- is a term coined by the media that generally refers to youth writing sexually explicit messages, taking sexually explicit photos of themselves or others in their peer group, and transmitting those photos and/or •National Center forto their messages Missing & Exploited Children (NCMEC) peers
Social danger with sexting is thatmaterial can be very easily andwidely promulgated, over which theoriginator has no control
Cases of Sexting are not rare• We are now seeing cases of teens being brought to the Child Protection Unit because of videos taken by cell phone while they were having sex with their boyfriends.
“Life events unfold over the course of time. Who children spend time with – be it parents, peers, teachers, clergy, media characters – and the context and content of that time spent provide important parameters of the health and welfare of children.” Baltes, Reese, & Nesselroade 1988