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SELP JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE Selp issue 14 privious issue


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SELP JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE Selp issue 14 privious issue

  1. 1. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 RETAINED EARNINGS OF INFOSYS TECHNOLOGIES LTD Dr.M.Ragupathi, Assistant Professor, PG & Research Department of Commerce, Govt. Arts College (Autonomous), Salem – 636 007. B.Arthi, Assistant Professor of Commerce, Kongu College of Arts & Science, Karur – 6 ABSTRACT Retained earnings represent an encumbered source of funds available to finance the firm’s expansion or improvement. This paper concentrates on the pattern of corporate earnings retained by Infosys Technologies Ltd., in India during the period 2000 to 2011.The study reveals that Infosys had retained major portion of earnings during the above stated period. The distribution of earnings between retention of income and declaration of dividend. Correlation Co-efficient results reveal the relationship between REPS & EBIT, REPS & DPS are significant. Multiple Regression shows the variation in the market price of Infosys by the variables namely Dividend and retained earnings. The variability in the retention amount by Infosys on the earnings has been presented with the help of ANOVA. Key Words: EBIT, EPS, MPS, DPS, REPS. Introduction a stable dividend policy as well as to increase the level of the market price of shares. Retained earnings are one of the sources of funds available to a company. The funds retained every year enables a company to under take capital expenditure. Retained earnings are relatively cheaper and as such companies prefer to retain the earnings. The level of retained earnings of a company is mainly influenced by the level of earnings, taxation policy of the Government, the need to fund for investment and the dividend policy followed. The amount of earnings retained enables a company to meet the requirement of funds when it finds difficult to raise the funds from the capital market and to maintain SELP Journal of Social Science Profile of Infosys Technologies Infosys was founded on July 2, 1981 by N.R. Narayan Murthy .In 1987 Infosys got its fir st for eign client, Da ta Basics Corporation from the United States and opened its first office in the USA. In 1993, Infosys became a public limited company and successfully completed an IPO in India.. In 1999, Infosys crossed $100 Million in annual revenue and was listed on NASDAQ. In the same year Infosys opened offices in Germany, Sweden, Belgium, and Australia. In 2000, 1 Januray - March 2013
  2. 2. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 Infosys cr ossed $200 Million in annual revenue. In 2004, Infosys crossed US $1 Billion in annual revenue. In 2006, generation of earnings. Efficient utilization of funds results in favorable earnings over a period of time change. The earnings over a period of time change. Declaration of the high percentage of dividend leaves only a little profit to be played back. Apart from the phenomenon of generation of earnings, the patter n of distr ibution of ear nings is important. Infosys completed 25 year s of its existence and its revenues crossed $ 2 billion. Today Inf osys has mor e than 50,000 employees and has presence in more than 20 countries across the world. Its corporate headquarters is in Bangalore. Infosys follows the highest standards of corporate governance. No relative of the founders is eligible to work at Infosys and all the employees including founders is to retire at the age of 60. What is p atter n of distr ibution of Corporate earnings? What is the proportion of corporate ear nings allocated towards retention of income and declaration of dividend? Major Achievements of Infosys First Indian company to be listed on NASDAQ What are the determinants influencing the amount of retention decision? The first company to be awarded the “National Award for Excellence in Corporate Governance” conferred by the Government of India in 2000. What is the behaviour of cor porate retention income, when there are fluctuations in and it is to be analysed. What is the impact of dividend and retained earnings on the market price? Rated Best Employer of India in a study by Business Today-Hewitt Associates in 2001. While allocating the corporate profit, firms may decide either to retain them or to meet their growth needs or to pay out them to the shareholders as dividends. First rank in the Business World’s survey of “India’s Most Respected Company” in 2002. Today, Infosys is a global leader in the “next generation” of IT and consulting with revenues of over US$ 4 billion Infosys has a Global footprint with over 50 offices and development center s in India, China, Australia, the Czech Republic, Poland, the UK, Canada and Japan. Objectives The objectives of the study are as follows: To analyse the distribution pattern of earnings between retention of income and declaration of dividend. To determine the relationship between earnings, retained earnings and dividend. Infosys has been voted the’ Most Admired Indian Company’ in The Wall Street Journal Asia 200 for 10years in a row since 2000. To analyse the effect of retention income and dividend on the market price of Infosys. To study the Variability in the level of earnings retained by Infosys during the stated years. Statement of the problem A company generates earnings with the internal and external funds. These sources of funds form the basis for investment and SELP Journal of Social Science 2 Januray - March 2013
  3. 3. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 Selection of sample Table 5.2 – Relationship Between the Infosys is one of the reputed software company and the sample has been selected on the basis of convenience random sampling of the researcher. An attempt has been made to analyse the retention behaviour of Infosys. Variables EBIT, EPS, MPS & DPS On REPS : Correlation Co – efficient & ‘ t ’ test The table 5.2 indicates the relationship between Variables EBIT, EPS, MPS & DPS on REPS. The correlation co- efficient shows Statistical Tools Appropriate statistical tools are used in the study. The data collected for the study have been analyzed by making use of Arithmetic mean, Standard Deviation, Coefficient of variation, Correlation co-efficient, t- test, Multiple Regression and ANOVA. that there exists negative correlation among the variables on REPS. The results of ‘ t ’ test reveal that relationship between REPS & MPS, REPS & EPS is insignificant. The computed value for the variables REPS & EBIT, REPS & DPS is less than table value. Hence there exist a significant relationship between REPS & EBIT, REPS & DPS. Analysis And Interpretation Table 5.3 – Effect of Retained earnings and Dividend on Market price of Infosys : Multiple Regression Source : Capitaline Database The table 5.1 indicates the performance of EPS, DPS and REPS of Infosys during the period from 2001 – 2011. The earnings were higher du r ing 2004 and lower dur ing 2008.DPS r anged between R s.20 and Rs.258.84. The retention income increased but gradually reduced in subsequent years. During the years 2004,2006 and 2011 earnings have not been retained by Infosys and it shows a negative amount during those years. SELP Journal of Social Science The table 5.3 reveals the effect of retained earnings and dividend on the market price of the share. Multiple Regression is employed 3 Januray - March 2013
  4. 4. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 variations in the earnings retained by Infosys, ANOVA is carried out. It can be seen from the table the computed value of ‘F’ is greater than the table value of ‘F’ @ 5% level. The null hypothesis is rejected. It is inferred that there are variations in the earnings retained by Infosys among different years. to determine the variability in the market price of Infosys. · Regression Equation = 3237.697 – 14.810 X1 – 22.300 X2. The equation shows the variability in the market price by the variables retained earnings and dividend. · Regression statistics show R 2 = 0.3061. This means that 30.61% of variation in the market price of Infosys shares by REPS & DPS. Findings: From the table 5.1 reveals the distribution of earnings between retention and dividend declaration. During the years 2004, 2006 and 2011 earnings have not been retained by Infosys and it shows a negative amount during those years. The table 1.5.2 indicates the relationship between Variables EBIT, EPS, MPS & DPS on REPS. Correlation coefficient was employed to determine the r elationship among the var ia bles. T he computed value for the variables REPS & EBIT, REPS & DPS is less than table value. Hence there exist a significant relationship between REPS & EBIT, REPS & DPS. · In ANOVA, the computed ‘F’ value is 1.7648 and table value for F (2,8) for 5% = 4.4590. The computed value is less than Table value. Table 5.4 – Variability in Retained earnings : One – Way ANOVA The table 5.3 reveals the effect of retained earnings and dividend on market price of the share. Multiple Regression is employed to determine the variability in the market price of Infosys. Regression statistics show R 2 = 0.3061. This means that 30.61% of variation in the market price of Infosys shares by REPS & DPS. Table 1.5.4 shows the variability in REPS. It can be seen from the table the computed value of ‘F’ is greater than the table value of ‘F’ @ 5% level. The null hypothesis is r ejected. It is infer red that there are Ho: There is no variations in the earnings retained by the Company among different years. Table 5.4 shows the variability in REPS. In or der to determine whether there is SELP Journal of Social Science 4 Januray - March 2013
  5. 5. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 variations in the earnings retained by Infosys among different years. Software industry. The decision of allocation towards the corporate retention is influenced by many variables but the dividend decision influences the most. Suggestions: · Fur ther study can be made by compar ing the pr actices of cor por ate retention income in Indian Corporates and foreign corporate. References 1.Dobrovolsky, “The relationship between retained earnings and common stock prices of large listed corportations”, The Journal of Finance, Vol.VIII, No.3, pp 283-297. · Also Retention income allocation can be studied for the entire sector in Indian Companies. 2. Dr.Mittal R.K. (1992), “ Determinants of Corporate retained earnings”, Indian Manaement, Vol.31, No.3 June 1992, pp 3538. · Retention income can be studied in different sectors among differ ent years. Cross-sectional study of corporate retained ear nings in var ious industr ies can be compared. 3.Kuchaal, S.C. (1996) Cor por ation Finance – Principles and problems, Chaitanya Publishing House, Allahabad. Conclusion: 4. Pandey, I.M (2005), F inancial Management, Vikas Publishing House Pvt Ltd., New Delhi. T his paper attempt to ana lyse the corporate retained earnings of the selected sample Infosys. The result is not applicable for all cor por ate in softwar e Industry. Retained earnings differ significantly among different year s. Ear nings retention is a symbol of gr owth indicating futur e investment oppor tunities. T her e exist variations in the market price by the variables namely retained earnings and dividend. The present study is an attempt to analyse the Corporate retained earnings of Infosys in 5.P.V.Kulkarni&S.P.Kulkarini(1992)Corporate Finance – Principles & Problems, HPH, Mumbai 6. 7. 8. 9. www. SELP PUBLICATION SELP Trust established the publication division in the name of SELP Publication devoted to education and research with the ISBN and published 20 educational books and propose to publish 50 books in a calendar year 2012.So, if you have a proposal or manuscript (Including edited volume) in your area of specialization, please contact or write to us. we are happy to publish your books with ISBN. SELP Journal of Social Science 5 Januray - March 2013
  6. 6. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 SOCIO-ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH SELF HELP GROUPS Brinda Rani Doss Part-Time Ph.D Scholar Department of Commerce, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar ABSTRACT Women empowerment is not a northern concept. Women all over the world, including countries in the south have been challenging and changing gender inequalities. These struggles have been supported by many men who have been outraged at injustices against women and consequences on the society. Key words : Women empowerment, harmonious growth, social and economic status Introduction Self-Help Group concept Women are an integr al part of every economy. All r ound development and harmonious growth of a nation would be possible only when women are considered equal par tner s in pr ogr ess with men. However, in most developing countries, women have a low social and economic status. In such countries effective empowerment of women is essential to harness the women labour in the main stream of economic development. The women Self Help Groups (SHGs) is an informal organization of homogeneous poor women which means that the women in the group should be living in poor socioeconomic conditions and they should be from same class or category and place. The women led SHGs have successfully demonstrated how to mobilize and manage thrift, appraise credit needs and enforce financial discipline. The study of self help groups reveals the effectiveness of these gr oups with linkage pr ogr ammed and awareness among the rural folk about the significance of women empowerment and rural credit. There is growing awareness that very poor people ar e r eady and willing to pull themselves out of poverty if given access to basic economic inputs. The ‘E’ components, referring to education, employment in so for as the Indian women are concerned and their over all upliftment and economic independence through income generating activities. SELP Journal of Social Science Empowerment of women Empowerment is something to do with getting power, also sharing he power and remaining in power, exercising 6 Januray - March 2013
  7. 7. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 programme through two indicators. The women and their family income as an important indicator of success apart from the impr ovement in hygiene, sa nitation, education of children and community health. At the community level, the ability of women to take active par t in var ious social development activities was considered to be the most important indicator of success. power and controlling power leading to a democratic and inclusive growth. It is not just financial independence, nor access to education, or sexual freedom, or control over reproduction, but a combination of increasing heir social, political, economic and spiritual strength both individually and collectively removing the obstacles that penalized and prevented women from being integrated into their r esp ective societies f r om being subor dina te, marginalized depr ived oppressed, suppressed and victimized. Economic empowerment Global financial insecurity studies shown that women experience higher rates of unemployment, poverty, violence and an increasing lack of control over economic and financial r esour ces. T he cr isis has highlightened the need for philanthropic organizations and individuals to do more to fund women’s human rights groups and provide the necessary resources to build and sustain women’s movements. In developing countries like India the contribution of women to economic status is now accepted as an indicator of the society’s level of development. Surprisingly it has been obser ved in India ha Indian women are experiencing rapid transformation in the nature and type of family, work and society. Women empowerment involves the building up of a society, a political environment, wherein women can breathe without the fear of oppression, exploitation, apprehension, discr imina tion and gener al f eeling of persecution. Deepa Narayan in her edited book ‘Mea sur ing Empower ment’ says “Empowerment as the expansion of assets and capabilities of poor people to participate in, negotiate with, influence control and hold accountable institutions that affect their lives”. Political empowerment SHGs have been instrumental in empowering grass root women in several areas. Evidences from different regions revealed that there are positive improvements realized in terms of all the group members becoming liter ate, mitigating village disputes, improving health and education of children and keep the village roads clean, giving exposure to all the members of the group to carry on the bank’s transactions. Women have gained technical skills and basic principles of management and group building. Social empowerment In rural areas particularly among weaker sections of the society, women are illiter at e and suppr essed. Social empowerment should focus on the following aspects like drudgery reduction, gender sensitization and capacity building. The participation of women and the communities have r ecognized the success of the SELP Journal of Social Science Conclusion As one half of the population consists of women, their contribution towards the economic development counts a lot. Strengthening women economically is the 7 Januray - March 2013
  8. 8. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 need of the hour. Providing mere cash subsidy or bank credit is not sufficient. The ultimate factual requirement is empowerment – in all aspects in order to be liberated as human beings, gain their rightful place in the society and live with dignity and pride on par with men. 2. V.S. Ganesamurthy, ‘Empowerment of women in India: Social, Economic and Political’, 2008, New Century Publications, New Delhi. Pp. 35-38. 3. Joel Edwinraj. D, ‘Microfinance to Rural Poor through Self-Help Groups’ cooperative perspective, Vol.41, April-March, 2007. References 4. Dr. A. Subbiah and M. Selvakumar, ‘Self Help Groups and Rural Development’, Third concept, November 2006, pp. 27-29. 1. Singh B.K. ‘Women Empowerment thr ough s elf-help gr oups, Adhyayan Publishers & Distributors, 2006, Delhi. RESEARCH EXPLORER (A refereed Bi Annual International Research Journal on multidisciplinary) ISSN: 2250-1940 Articles are invited from the academician, research scholars and subject experts for the next issue of the RESEARCH EXPLORER (January - April 2013) which will be published in the month of March 2013. RESEARCH EXPLORER is an official publication of the SELP Trust. It features the original research in all branches of Commerce, Business Management and other cognate branches of sufficient relevance. The manuscripts should be submitted through mail to the Managing Editor to . To facilitate an editorial decision on the acceptability, or otherwise, of their manuscript, and to speed-up subsequent publication, authors are strongly advised to consult the format of papers in a recent issue of Research Explorer. Review/Strategy/Case study etc should be comprehensive, up-to-date and critical on a recent topic of importance. The maximum page limit is of 10 double spaced typed pages including tables and figures. At the bottom of first page, Postal address of the corresponding author and coauthor(s), and also Departmental address with designation, Tel. No. Fax No. and Email ID etc. must be specified. SELP Journal of Social Science 8 Januray - March 2013
  9. 9. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 THE ROLE OF TEACHERS IN EDUCATION Dr.M.Syed Meera Lebbai, Associate Professor in Commerce, H.K.R.H. College (A Grade) Uthamapalayam- 625 533. Theni District. ABSTRACT The society should recognize that teaching is a serious profession and it demands considerable time and effort. The teaching talent is to be identified as early as possible and is to be fostered. A special recognition needs to be given to teachers for which evaluation yardsticks have to be evolved. It is to be realized that anybody and everybody cannot be a teacher. Also, it is to be noted that there are no set procedures and benchmarks to evaluate the teaching methods. A lot of changes had been taking place in the educational sphere. The change that took place was not final and complete. Many more changes were going to happen, particularly owing to gobalisation. Hence, the educationist should keep an eye on the developments and take steps based on the requirement Key words: teaching talent, socialistic democracy society, misleadingly generic term Introduction excellent job. Teaching almost always involves a commitment of a personal kind which may not be perhaps the same in any two instances. To be really a good teacher is not an easy thing. Teaching is a form of selfexpression and requires constant interaction of a difficult sort. First of all, one must possess personality traits such as servicemindedness, patience, positive self-regard, sympathy, self-confidence and value needs such as novelty, creativity, variety and the like. A significant fact little appreciated by most people is that an effective teacher has to work at it all the time. This means not only long working hours but also a constant thrust for finding ways and means to improve all the aspects of his functioning. No teacher can afford to be complacent; he must keep “Education” according to Horace Mann’s assertion, “would become the great equalizer and it is the single potent instrument to promote the goal of socialistic democracy society”. Education has become much more complex what with a flury of institutions from both inland and foreign comparing with one another to the cream of young talent. In a globalised scenario the institutions and trying to diversify their courses into micro level specifications to attract more students under this influence education of become more of a business than service. Teaching as an Occupation Teaching is an extremely demanding profession and perhaps a few teachers do an SELP Journal of Social Science 9 Januray - March 2013
  10. 10. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 himself abreast and always strive to update himself. However, it should not be forgotten that teachers are also human and subject to the limitations of all human beings. Not many individuals possess the ideal combination of personality traits, attitudes, dedication and imagination that lead to excellence in teaching. What most people fail to acknowledge is that teaching is mor e demanding a pr ofession than any other. Successful teaching can never be based exclusively on gadgets, specific techniques, and the like. It is true that teachers can enor mously pr ofit and impr ove their functioning by purposefully using all the innovations available but technology by itself leaves teaching hollow. Teaching should be approached from a teaching point of view; there is no teaching without learning like there is no selling without buying. Actually learning can take place, and in fact, it does occur, in a significant manner without either the teacher or the classroom. What is implied in the context of teaching perhaps is that the learning situation is structured. And the teacher is largely responsible for structuring it. Learning in this context is learning that takes place in a structured situation called the classroom. Structuring the situation implies goals or objectives which are to be achieved. pleasures he can enjoy, but in the deep satisfaction he feels in watching his pupils grow in the understanding of them and of the world. Teaching like other occupation has both positive and negative aspects. Basically, how an individual views his job depends up on his attitudes, inter ests, expectations and values. An aspect believed to be important or an advantage by one individu al may be per ceived as a disadvantage by another under different circumstances. Professional Needs of Teachers The first and foremost professional need is that the teacher is constantly striving to update his knowledge and skills. The need for this is obvious. Scientific endeavour is an ongoing process. The ever increasing knowledge and under standing of the phenomena of the world are most fascinating and exciting. Correspondingly there is the technological advancement. The needs of the contemporary society are significantly more complex if not different from those of the earlier times; Education has to be responsive to this. It is not enough if it meets societies’ requirements, education has to prepare for change and innovate these changes in a systematically predictable way. So a teacher cannot be good if he is wanting in the knowledge and if there are serious gaps in it. To a thoughtful young person, who desir es to invest his life in something worthwhile in a calling where he can make real contribution to the lives of people and in enhancing the quality of their lives, teaching offers an unequalled opportunity and an exciting challenge. No other profession, perhaps, can provide an individual with deeper per sonal satisfactions. T he r eal rewards of a true teacher are not in the material things he can acquire or the physical SELP Journal of Social Science The Role of the Teacher in Guidance A number of students completing the secondary school desire to prosecute their studies further. In our country the secondary school stage is a delta stage and the pupils may opt to join either junior polytechnics which offer training in different trades or the junior colleges which offer pr e-degree courses. Pupils aspiring to pursue technical 10 Januray - March 2013
  11. 11. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 and professional courses also have to join the junior colleges. Other students may, for a variety of reasons, not join any college. They may seek employment. Guidance services at this juncture (at the school leaving stage) are most desired but we do not have in our schools any facilities to provide the pupils with the necessary guidance to enable them plan their future. During the Colonial period or preindependence days there wer e ver y few institutions of higher learning and institutions offer ing pr ofessional cour s es. After independence the demand for opportunities for higher education has been growing at an unprecedented rate. Consequently, a very large number of institutions to provide higher learning have been opened. Similarly a very large number of technical and professional institutional institutions have also been opened. Notwithstanding this phenomenal increase in the avenues to higher education there is an insatiable demand. The pupils on their part do not know much about themselves or the demands of higher education of professional or technical education. T h e inter-r elation between guidance and instr uction in the educational pr ocess underlines the key role of the teacher. The teacher creates an atmosphere congenial for learning in the classroom. He is uniquely responsible for the climate of learning in the classroom in which each pupil is given a fair oppor tunity and assistance for per sonal development. T he school as a social institution is conceived as the proper setting for learning experiences and everything which promotes and helps the process is the real concern of the teacher. In this sense, teachers affect the lives of the pupils by helping the blossoming of their per sonalities. T he influence of the teacher thus goes beyond the SELP Journal of Social Science classroom. The teacher has to accept each pupil as he is with all his strengths and weaknesses. He should sympathetically help the pupil improve in the area in which he needs impr ovement. The teacher in the classroom have many opportunities to help pupils understand and accept themselves and to aid them in identifying their life goals. This is also an important aim of guidance. Thus, the teacher plays a significant r ole in guidance. He influences the attitudes and feelings of the pupils which contribute to their making choices on t heir own independently of other help. The basic guidance function is achieved by the use of both formal methods involving tests, cumulative records and the like and informal methods based upon observations of the pupils in the classroom setting and in other settings outside the classroom. The teacher learns about the pupils as he examines their performance in both oral and written work. The teacher can also observe the hobbies and the interests of the pupils as an aid to motivation. Observations of pupil behaviour made systematically through the use of anecdotal records provide a rich source of information for studying pupils. The teacher in the elementary school is in a position of great strategic importance for studying young pupils. He sees them in many differ ent situations and ha s sever al opportunities for contacts with their parents and obtains necessary information to help his understanding of the concerned pupils. The teacher will have number of oppor tunities for obser ving individual differences which are essential aspects of any meaningful educational experience to be provided to pupils. Failure to recognize differences in readiness in the early years of 11 Januray - March 2013
  12. 12. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 school life may contribute to major problems such as under-achievement, dropouts and delinquencies. When children have preschool education the teachers have greater opportunities to study levels of maturity through observations, meeting parents and discussing the pr oblems and studying developmental records of the children. If the children had no pre-school education the teacher must provide more formal learning experiences for the children who enter school for the first time. When reading readiness scores of pupils are available the teachers have some objective evidence of pupils’ individual differ ences. T his is often inter pr eted though not justifiably as a measure of general mental maturity. There is a need to provide a learning situation in which the student can find the satisfaction which will lead to more learning. Readiness for lear ning, we have emphasized befor e, depends upon physical and mental factors as well as on situational factors and the selfsystem of the pupils. For any effective learning to occur, the pupil must see what is to be learned as meaningful and useful as it is related to his needs, goals and self-concept. The teacher must determine each student’s readiness for learning and how the student sees himself. He will also do well to see how the individual pupil’s needs are being met. only thr ough establishing rapport. T he classroom climate which is really conducive to learning is also conducive to establishing rapport. However, the teacher cannot be all things to all students. This must be very clearly understood by the teacher himself. He must be able to understand his limitation and use referral procedures whenever the need for such arises. The teacher’s counseling role is not a therapeutic one. In this sense, it differs from the guidance worker ’s or the counsellor’s role. However, the teacher can help pupils in making mor e effective personal and social adjustments. When the teacher is not able to do this he should refer the child to the school counsellor. Counsellors can serve as consultants to teachers, thus, providing service in the area of r efer r al cases. T he teacher besides studying pupils and counselling them has other guidance responsibilities. He has to study his group (class) to discover the dynamics which are operating in the class in order to improve communication, to utilize desirable areas of influence and to relieve pressures. The teachers also will have to work with parents in helping to promote cooperative relationships which will enhance both school and home efforts to contribute effectively to each student’s development. The Teacher Counsels The educational system is a keystone to the whole social structure. Only when it functions properly can all other institutions function to serve the needs of the society. Most under developed and developing countries are beset with several problems. Of crucial nature because of lack of proper educational systems suited to their sociocultural ethos. Education cannot afford to Conclusion T he tea cher in the classr oom obviously has the primary role of instruction which will be incomplete and inefficient if he were not to function as a counselor. The teacher thus has a dual role to play. He has to teach, i.e., help the pupil understanding and make the pupils learn for themselves through understanding themselves. This is possible SELP Journal of Social Science 12 Januray - March 2013
  13. 13. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 9. Barth R.S. (1988) Principal, Teachers and School Leadership. P.H. Delta Kappan 69 (9). remain static if it is to serve as a prime shaper of human destiny. Greater efficiency in teaching and improving learning efficiency are of great concern to all. Education is too important to social welfare and national progress that none can afford to be indifferent in functioning. True learning should spark off creativity of an individual. If the teachers gently kindled this spark in the students, we could expect that a creative generation would emerge. This was precisely the need of the hour when particularly the country was looked upon as a ‘knowledge power of the wor ld’ and a ‘knowledge out sour cing station’.. 10. Bats J.A. (1979) Extrinsic Reward and Intrinsic Motivation, a Review with Implications for the Classroom, Review of Education Research, 49. 11. Campell, D.N. (1974) On being number one. Competition in Education, Phi. – Delta kappan. 12. Davis, R.H. Alexander, L.T. and S.L. Yelon (1974) Learning Systems Design to the Improvement of Instruction Mc Craw – Hill. 13. Far nham – Diggor y, S. (1972) Cognitive Process in Education, New York, Harper and Raw. References 1. Ahman, J.S., M.D. Glock, (1971) Evaluating Pupil Growth: Pr inciples of Measurement, 4th ed. Boston, Mass: Allen and Bacon Inc., 14. Ferguson,G.A (1954) On Learning and Human ability, Canadian Journal of Psychology, 8. 15. Human Development and Education, (1953) New York Longmans Green. 2. Alexander, E.D. (1964) The Marking System and Poor Achievement, The Teachers College Journal, 36. 16. Jackson P.W ( 1968) Life in classroom, New York, Hilt, Rinehart & Winston. 3. Allen, W. (1975) Intellectual Abilities and Instructional Media Design, A.V.C.R, 23. 17. Kingdon, Geeta and Muzammil, M. (2003) Political Economy of Education in India, New Delhi. 4. Allinsmith, W. and G.W. Goethalas (1962) The Role of Schools in Mental Health, New York, Basic Books. 18. Richmond, W.K. (1971) The School Curriculum, London, Macmillan & Co. 5. Anderson, R.C. (1970) Control of Student Mediating Process during Verbal Lear ning and Instr uction Review of Education Research, 1970. 19. The Hindu (2007). “Teachers have a vital role to play” March 27, p.g 2. 20. T he Hindu (20 07). “Guiding Students” April 18. 6. Arch, M.S. (1949) Social Origins of Educations Systems London, Sage. 21. The Hindu (2007). “The Challenges for the modern day teachers” Education Plus. August 27. 7. Armsey, J., and N.Dhal (1973) An Inquir y in to the uses of Instr uctional technology, New York, Ford foundation. 8. Bany, M.A. and L.V. Johnson (1975) Educational Social Psychology, New York, Macmillan. SELP Journal of Social Science 13 Januray - March 2013
  14. 14. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 A STUDY ON THE OPINION OF THE WOMEN STUDENTS ABOUT COPING WITH THE PROBLEM OF STI IN FUTURE. Dr.M.Jeyarathnam, Director/Professor/Head Dr.Kamalaveni, Project Fellow, Department of Women’s Studies, Bharathiar University,Coimbatore ABSTRACT Lack of awareness about symptoms, effects, risks, curability of STIs and availability of STI services are the causes for the sad state of affairs. Awareness of disease and symptoms is essential as it helps in seeking healthcare at an appropriate time and reduce medical expenses said Madras Medical College Dean. The recent studies observes that STI transmission rate in some population groups in India is increasing at very fast rate as in other countries due to various reasons. Hence the present study reveals the opinion of women student about coping with the problem of STI in future. Key Words: Adolescence, symptoms, STI transmission, emotional development Introduction people aged 12-24 years, nearly 30% of all Adolescence is defined as the period youth live in developing countries. Young between 10 and 19years and youth is defined people represent 30% of India’s population. as the period between 15-24 years and ‘young Young people’s poor access to reproductive people’ is a ter m used to r efer to both and sexual health services and information, adolescence and youth. Adolescence is a increasing trend in violence and sexual abuse per iod of r apid physical, mental and pose a tremendous challenge for addressing emotional development with impr oved their development and health especially nutrition and standard of living. Young people reproductive and sexual health. The Cairo are maturing physically much earlier than in Conference, 1994 placed great emphasis on previous generations. Adolescents in South these concerns, and the needs of young Asian region comprise over one fifth of South people and the reproductive aspects of young Asia’s population and young people constitute people gained attention which was ignored 31% of the total population. South Asian till then. region is home of about 350 million young SELP Journal of Social Science 14 Januray - March 2013
  15. 15. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 1994 has defined reproductive health as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and process”. The Center for Disease Control (CDC), states that women have higher rates of STIs overall, and women and infants are most commonly affected by the long term consequences of these infections, particularly young women are highly vulnerable to STIs. World Health Organization (1995) report states that there are an estimated 333 million new cases of curable STIs. Every year the burden of STIs in women is more than five times that of men. The most common of the curable STIs are gonor r hea , syphilis, chlamydia, and tr ichomoniasis. Sexually tr ansmitted infections constitute a significant health bur den and incr ease the r is ks of HIV transmission. Sexually transmitted infections continue to take an enormous toll on health, particularly on women’s reproductive health. young people experiment with sex, drugs, alcohol and tobacco. Apart from HIV risk connected with sharing of needles, it is known that alcohol and other drugs affect sexual behaviour and increase the risk of being infected with other STIs among young people. In addition they also have a chance of being exposed to the peer groups with different values from those of their parents. Objective To study the opinion of the women students about coping with the problem of STI in future. Methodology The present study is descriptive in nature and based on survey method. The study involves both primary and secondary data. The women students were asked nine questions that make clear understanding of coping with STI service in infected situation. T he scor es for var iables given in the interview schedule were computed and the total score of all respondents were calculated and pr esented. The scor es for the nine variables are as follows. The lives of young people today are different from those of previous generations. Young people today live with moder n facilities such as internet, television, and mobile services which offers many kind of entertainment, including those that promote unhealthy behaviour. Movies, T.Vserials and magazines offer approaches to sexuality which leads young people to adopt risky activities. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use are common throughout India. Therefore SELP Journal of Social Science Always 5 Frequently 4 Rarely 2 Occasionally 3 Never 1 The maximum score for each respondent in the dimension of study is 45 and the minimum score is 9. The total score for nine variables given in the interview schedule were computed and the total score of all respondents are shown in table. 15 Januray - March 2013
  16. 16. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 Increase the number of STI Clinics No of STI clinic should be increased with wide publicity and youth friendly Centers should be encouraged to bring out healthy generation. The clinics may be set up at Block level. It is suggested that there is a clear need for educational programmes to address issues of gender power relations, promote communication skills, informed choice and sexual responsibility among boys as well as girls. Reference 1. United Nations 2001, Wor ld Population Prospect –The 2000 Revision. Volume II. The sex and age distribution of the world population New York United Nations. Table 1 Coping with STI-Opinion of Respondents 2. United Nations 1994. Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development. New York: United Nations, Chapter 7, paragraphs 7.2 and 7.3 It is understood from the table, that getting the health professionals assistance is first pr efer ence of the r espondent s as this component has the highest scor e of 3630(73%). Sharing the problem and getting advice from their confidante is the next preference as this component has got a score of 3305(66.5%). Visiting hospitals, going to STI clinics and consulting parents about STI services are the other means to cope with STI as these components have the scor e of 3437(64.1 %), 3023(60.8%), and 3051 (61.3%) respectively. The women students who would ignore the symptoms of STI is low as the scor e of 1432 (28.8% ) for the component is the least. Though the least per centage28.8% and scor e of 1432 is appreciable, there is an urgent need to educate them about STI and its effects. 3. Brien O.J. 2009 Encyclopedia of Gender and Society. California pp777. 4. World Health Organization.1995. Sexually Tr ansmitted diseas es: T hr ee hundred and thirty million new, curable cases in 1995. Press release, WHO/64, 25 August. 5. Joseph,A.,J. Pr asad and Abraham.S.2003, “Gynaecological problems among young married women in Tamil Nadu, India,” in Towards Adulthood: Exploring the Sexual and Repr oductive H ealth of Adolescents in South Asia, ed.S.Bott et al. Geneva: World Health Organization, pp. 138-141. Suggestions 6. Kanagasabai. V, (2011). Awareness of Diseas es and symptoms helps cut expenses, says MMC Dean. The Hindu. May 2, 2011. Madurai edition.pp12. The analysis reveals that meeting any health professional in case of being infected in future is the option for many respondents. Hence the following is suggested. SELP Journal of Social Science 16 Januray - March 2013
  17. 17. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 RECENT TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN INDIA Dr.R.Ramaabaanu Associate Professor of Commerce J. Prabha M.Phil Scholar Muthayammal College of Arts & Science, Rasipuram ABSTRACT Any strategy aimed at economic development will be lop-sided without involving women who constitute half of the world population. Evidence has unequivocally established that entrepreneurial spirit is not a male prerogative. Women owned businesses are highly increasing in the economies of almost all countries. What we need is an entrepreneurial Society in which innovation & entrepreneurship are normal, steady& continual. Key words: development-women-entrepreneur- economic-service-SALWF Introduction Women Entrepreneurs in India Women owned businesses are highly increasing in the economies of almost all countr ies. T he hidden entr ep r eneur ial potentials of women have gradually been changing with the growing sensitivity to the role & economic status in the society. Skill, Knowledge & adaptability in business are the main r ea son for women to take up entrepreneurship. Women owned businesses are highly increasing in the economies of almost all countr ies. T he hidden entr ep r eneur ial potentials of women have gradually been changing with the growing sensitivity to the role and economic status in the society. Skill, knowledge and adaptability in business are the main reasons for women to emerge into business ventures. ‘Women Entrepreneur’ is a person who accepts challenging role to meet her per sonal needs a nd become economically independent. A strong desire to do something positive is an inbuilt quality of entrepreneurial women, who is capable of contributing values in both family and social life. With the advent of media, women are They span generations and are there in every field, From Tractors to television, from biscuits to banking, from HR to hospitals. Denied entry into a male bastion, they create another industry like Kiran Mazumdar Shaw of Biocon. SELP Journal of Social Science 17 Januray - March 2013
  18. 18. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 aware of their own traits, rights and also the wor k situations. T he glass ceilings ar e shattered and women are found indulged in every line of business from pappad to power cables. The challenges and opportunities provided to the women of digital era are growing rapidly that the job seekers are turning into job creators. They are flourishing as designers, interior decorators, exporters, publishers, garment manufacturers and still explor ing new avenues of economic participation. In India, although women constitute the majority of the total population, the entrepreneurial world is still a male dominated one. Women in advanced nations are recognized and are more prominent in the business world.   Role of women Entrepreneurs in India Rapid Development Development of micro entrepreneurs has been seen as a means of aiding the welfare & progress of communities in the lower economic strata by micro finance organizations, NGOs & other welfare wings. Ex: ‘Stree Shakthi’- Self Help Group Most of the group member started doing business like purchasing & grazing sheep, Cow, manufacturing agarbatti, beedis, soaps, cutting jelly into baby jelly, pickle, chutney powder, chapattis/rotis, growing edible mushroom est. Also we do have instance of HULs project SHAKTHI. It is aimed at developing micro entrepreneurs by engaging women in rural areas to act as dir ect-to-home sales distributor s of the company’s products. The project has scaled up rapidly, operating among 500 million people in five lakhs villages in India. 3. To identify the Reason behind the Development of Entr epr eneur ship Programmers in India Characteristics of Women Entrepreneurs 1. Woman entrepr eneurs tend to be highly motivated and self-directed. T his has r esulted in economic empowerment, which in turn led to social empower ment. Now day’s women entrepreneurs are getting recognized in their local communities as opinion leaders. 2. They also exhibit a high internal locus of control and achievement, possess certain specific characteristics that promote their creativity and generate new ideas and ways of doing things.  Many women have taken up businesses as business development executives on freelance, in the form of direct sales. Some generally observed characteristic tendencies; Risk-taking propensity Focus High energy level SELP Journal of Social Science Social adroitness  Interpersonal skills, competence in finance, and in managing relationships. 2. To identify the profile of women entrepreneur.  General business management skills  1. To assess the development of Women entrepreneurs in India.  Self-employed father  Objectives:  Personal motivations Ex: - Membership/freelance Sales Person in Modi Care, Oriflame, Avon, Amway 18 Januray - March 2013
  19. 19. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999  Women executive contributions are dr amatica lly r eor ienting the values, deliveries, and culture of business and society alike. Women are widely judged to be better than men at dealing with social issues. Through their leadership context and power dynamics, women fare relatively better for standing up for one’s principles in the face of political pressures; being able to work out compromises; thereby driving an inclusive appr oach in the inter est of the over all population. investors. Combination of influence of more education, technology and fast economic growth make Asian women more assertive concerning their right, more aggressive in reaching their ambition while we already acknowledged that the number of Asian women in the work force from country to country are almost as high as those of men. Surprisingly in most countries in Asia, women are dominating the service sector. The service sector in Asia also exper ienced surprising growth, and resulting a large working opportunity for women. In the business world, women entrepreneurs play a big role in business development in the Pacific region. In Japan, 5 out of 6 new businesses are created by women, and they have at least five employees. The number of women-owned larger companies is not significant, but they start and manage the smaller companies. Impact of Women Entrepreneurs The progress of women’s role in several sectors, including business, could be seen in some phenomenon mentioned here: 1. In line with the impr ovement of women’s education, women are no longer the minority in fields that were dominated by men in the past. 2. The field of information technology cr eated many oppor tunities for the development of women’s talents in this specific field. The increase in the number of women who lead their own business, especially the ones in small and medium scale enterprises. The & Impact of B usiness Associations Women’s business associations are increasing steadily in developed, developing, and transitional countries. For example, AWAKE in Karnataka. 3. Women’s leadership is able to gain high loyalty due to the fact that they are the ones that are able to conduct clean, ethical, transparent and honest management. It is obvious that the 21" century provides high hopes for the progress in women role. They do have the opportunity to get strategic positions that dominated by men in the past. AWAKE wor ks towards empower ing women thr ough entr epr eneur ship development to impr ove their economic condition. T heir “Entrepreneur guiding Entrepreneur” approach empowers women through voluntar y effor ts of successful women entrepreneurs adopting tools of counseling, training, handholding and peergroup support. 4. In Asia, women are the economy driving force. Their contribution in providing job openings in business sectors continue to rise. They are involved in enterprises at all levels as managers, entrepreneurs, owners and SELP Journal of Social Science Role South Asian Women’s Leadership Forum (SAWLF) a. 19 SAWLF works for the advancement Januray - March 2013
  20. 20. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 of South Asian women in the marketplace. It pr ovides educational pr ogr ammer s and networking opportunities, conducts research, and offer s outr each that sup por ts the advancements and undertakings of women at all stages of professional development. A vital link to economic decision-making processes, these associations has made their members’ visions and priorities a part of the national political and economic agenda. Around the globe many mor e organizat ions ar e contributing in similar ways. individual characteristics provides divergent views of entrepreneurship. The common way of explaining why women start a business is associated with the individual needs for, independence, self achievement & job flexibility. Conclusion In a world of rapid change, all entrepreneurs must have the flexibility and creativity to meet the changes they face. The main aim of these articles is to highly analysis the women entrepreneur’s developments. The importance of a strong, mindful vision that can lead toward a better world is often under estimated. In spite of many hurdles, Women are excelling in business with flying Colors. b. Associations cover a wide spectrum of activities encompassing credit, business skills training, technical and technology training, employment creation, marketing services, legal assistance, psychological counseling, and some socia l welfar e pr ograms. Some organizations, like the Grameen Bank in Bangladesh, specialize in providing micro credit. References 1. Enter pr ises, T WMSE2 Pr oject Working Paper, The Netherlands: Maastricht School of Management, 2002 2. Fisher, Julie. Non Governments: NGOs and the Political Development of the Third World. Connecticut: Kumarian Press, 1998 c. Since a ssociations encour age solidarity and collective action between the groups they help organize and among the members who join, the increasing contact between associations and other institutions can help cr eate a commanding web of alliances dedicated to the political and economic empowerment of women. Partners in these new social pacts should build on the survival strategies devised by grassroots associations. Grassroots tactics have proved successful in many regions: in poor women’ cooper at ives, in busines swomen’s organizations, and in associated movements. Also government’s support & encouragement of individuals’ entrepreneurial behavior have positive impact on country’s economy. However, this behavior depending upon the influence of economic development stage & cultural values. A gender split in terms of motivating factor & SELP Journal of Social Science 3. Parikh, Indira J. Garg, Pulin K, « Indian Women :An Inner Dialogue », Sage Publications, New Delhi, 1989 4. Voeten, J, Management Training Effects on Women Entrepreneurs Who Own and Manage Micro and Small. Useful Websites 1. womens-empowerment-in-india 2. 14/development-of-entrepreneurship-in-india 3. stories/pdf/2012/May/ZIJMR/ 6%20_ZIJMR_Vol2_Issue5_May%202012.pdf 4. aims9/aims9cd/pdf/P9473-Final.pdf 20 Januray - March 2013
  21. 21. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 MICRO, SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (MSME) IN INDIA: AN APPRAISAL Dr.S,Ganapathy Associate professor C.Mayilsamy Doctoral research scholar, Department of International Business and commerce, Alagappa University, karaikudi. ABSTRACT Micro small and medium enterprises help in promoting economic growth and employment opportunity. Before 2006 this sector was called as a Small Scale Industry. Thereafter it was converted as an MSME sector. The MSME growth is incomparable by the help of bank credit. Micro small and medium enterprises and their role in economic growth and employment generation in the Indian context .the article how policy environment for promoting MSMEs changed from ‘protectionism ‘during the pre-1990s to ‘export orientation’ during the post-1990s. The key constraint faced by the MSMEs including access to credit and technology, redtapism and the like. The MSEs to promote the rural economy for in general and rural women empowerment in particularly the rural women are taken ,economic improvement ,social development, and individual decision making through the . MSEs.the MSEs are promoting the rural entrepreneurship. Key words: MSME, SME , SSI, Credit Rating Introduction empower ment. Empower ment pr ovides author ity and social justice for human development. Empower ment of women means creating economic independence, self reliance, political, social and legal awareness, self confidence and positive attitude among women. It enables women to face any situation and to par ticipa te in the development activities of the nation. The development of micro entrepreneurs women are seen as appropriate way to attack poverty at the gr a ss-r oot level by gener ating employment and income (Ghosh, 1998). Indian economy based on rural economy .Father of nation mahatma Gandhi told India “lives in village”. T he r eal national development through the rural economy .the development of rural economy through the r ur al bas ed micr o, small a nd medium enterprises, The most of the entrepreneurs are micro rural the micro enterprises mostly participate rural women through the self help Groups and unregistered groups and NGOs In India, plans and policies as well as the for mation have laid str ess on women SELP Journal of Social Science 21 Januray - March 2013
  22. 22. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 Though nearly half of Indian population consists of women, their participation rate in the economic activities is only 34%. During the 1970’s effor ts to pr omote selfemployment among women started receiving greater attention from the government and private agencies. The result has been the emergence of women entrepreneurs on the economic landscape in recent years. Even then, less than 5% of business units are owned and operated by them. Several studies have shown that women have proved to be good at business generation. To address the issue of poverty reduction, create employment and income opportunities, government has initiated micro enterprise development opportunities. Micro enterprises are small undertakings run by individuals or groups who take up the responsibility of managing the business and the family. These enterprises are based on certain characteristics like low capital, low technology, low risk, and a few workers. They are coming into existence out of either market motivated or non market driven forces. Market determination of enterprises ar e managed and contr olled by the entr epr eneur s themselves. Gover nment agency or NGOs play an active r ole in pr omotion of non mar ket motivated enter pr ises. Self help gr oup s (SHGs), Swar njayanti Gr am Swar ozgar Yojana (SGSY) etc. fall under this category. This study considers non market determined micro enter pr is es pr omoted by gover nment agencies as they dominate the micr o enterprise sector in Tamil Nadu. Intelligibility of Micro, Small And Medium Enterprises In India There exist several definitions of the term small and medium enterpr ises (SMEs), var ying f r om countr y to cou ntr y. T he commonly used the SMEs at the international level to definition are on the basis of the number of employees, total net assets, sales and investment level. Micro enterprises aim at developing and utilizing the entrepreneurial capacity and potential of rural women below poverty line to meet the local needs. Survival and growth of these enterprises are essential for the beneficiaries as they ensure better standards of living and thereby their individual, family and social empowerment. This study, beyond any outline of hesitation, has revealed that these enterprises have succeeded in the socioeconomic empowerment of rural poor. The findings of the study supports the hypothesis of the development of microenterprises has an impact on women empowerment. The main objectives of initiating non market driven of micro enterprises are foster by government to help the beneficiary to take up and manage their own business activities which could bring about economic awareness and empower ment among t he women member s. T he idea of star t ing micr o enterprises has raised a lot of hopes and expectations. The SGHs have emerged as an energetic micro finance movement in India with active suppor t fr om gover nment, voluntary agencies and banks. With the launching of SGSY scheme and other similar schemes of state governments, the flow of cr edit to the SHGs has significantly increased. The main aim of these schemes is to assure sustainable income to the poor Micro Enterprises The origin and growth of micro enterprises can be tr acked to lack of employment oppor tunit ies and insufficient income SELP Journal of Social Science 22 Januray - March 2013
  23. 23. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 through self employment by promoting micro enterprises. This study is an attempt to assess the extent of empowerment achieved by women beneficiaries of micro enterprises linked with SHGs.As a majority of the micro enterprises linked with SHGs. important area in which women can be important area in which women can utilize both her technical skills and raw materials fr om the far m and livestock to ear n substantial income and small scale agro – processing units Flow Of Credit To MSME Sector 3. Micr o –Enterpr ises development related to house hold based operation like knitting ,stitching ,weaving ,embroidery, bakery and flour milling, petty shops, food preparation And preservation T he gover nment of India has been extending liberal financial support to MSME through banks and financial institutions. The credit flow to MSME is regularly monitored by state level banker committee (SLBC) meeting at the state level .at the district level banker committee meeting with district collector as its chairman. Vicinity Of Development Micro Credit flow of Agriculture and MSME sector Agriculture sector Credit plays a crucial role in maintaining agricultural production by allowing producers to meet their cash needs during the entire cycle of production as well as for financing investment. The ground level credit flow (GLC) from institutional sources to agriculture has shown an increasing trend over the years.the growth being substantial during 2003-2006 which also coincided with the special farm package announced by the government of India, which envisaged the doubling of credit in three years starting 2004-05 –Enterprises’ Depending on number of factors r anging fr om landholdings, subsidiar y occupations, agro climatic conditions and socio –personal characteristics of the rural women and her family member the areas of micro –Enterprises also differ from place to place. The micro –Enterprises are classified under three major heads: 1. Micr o –Enterpr ises development related to cultivation and allied agriculture activities; like cu ltivating to organic vegetables, flowers, oil seed and seeds production are some of the areas besides taking up mushr oom growing and beekeeping . some mor e ar eas ca n be like dehydtration of fruits and vegetables, canning or botting of pickles, chutneys, jams, squashes, dairy and other products that are ready to eat Estimation Methodology GLC is composed of production (or short –term credit and investment (or long – term) credit, cooperatives, Regional rural banks and scheduled commer cial banks pr ovide b oth pr oduction cr edit and investment credit. Three approaches were adopted for projecting the flow of Ground level credit (GLC) flow in agriculture. In each case, the existing capacity of the various agencies to meet the targets was taken in account Projection based on linear trend 2. Micr o –Enterpr ises development related to livestock management activities; like dairy farming ,poultry farm ,livestock feed production and production of vermi composting using the animal waste can be an SELP Journal of Social Science The trend rate of growth of GLC in the first four years of the eleventh plan worked out to 15.5 Per cent 23 Januray - March 2013
  24. 24. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 Table: 01 Ground level credit flow to Agriculture and Allied Activites ISSN:0975-9999 annum during the remaining three years (201417)tenth credit supply world increase to Rs2542145 corer in 2016-17 (Table 05) Conclusion Source: NABARD, Annual Reports Projection during the Twelfth plan The projection of the supply of working capital and term loans are set out in the table001 it is evident from the above table that the credit supply to the MSME sector would increased at an annual average rate of 19.4 per cent to Rs.21.644 crore in 2016-17, the terminal year of the twelfth plan. Table 02 Estimated credit supply to MSME Report of the working capital Group on saving during the twelfth five year plan (2012-13 to2016-21) Source: RBI monthly Bullection June 2012 if the year on –year credit growth to MSME sector by Schedule commercial Banks and all other source is enhanced by in a minimum of 22 per annum during the first two years of the twelfth plan (2012-14) and by 25percent per SELP Journal of Social Science Micro enterprises are developing and utilizing the entrepreneurial talent and potential of rural women below poverty line to meet the local needs. Survived and growth of these enterprises are essential for the beneficiaries as they ensure better standards of living and thereby their individuals, family and their social empowerment. This study beyond any shadow of doubt has revealed that the enterprises have succeeded in the socio economic empowerment of rural poor. But the basic objective of eradicating poverty is yet to be realized. Despite impressive contributions of micro enterprises to face the problems. References 1. Balasubramania (1995), “Reservation Policy for Small Sca le Industry: Ha s It Delivered The Good?” Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. XXVI, May, 2. 2. Choudhary and Sharma (2008), “Rural Women Entrepreneurs: Problems a nd Prospects”, Prabhakara Rao (Ed) Entrepreneurship and Economic Development, Kanishka Publishers, New Delhi. 3. Ghosh (1998), “ Women a nd Entrepreneurship in India”, Rabubdra Kanungo (Ed), Entrepreneurship and Innovation. Sage Publication, New Delhi. 4. Mathew (1998), “Towards an Alternative Methodology for Identifying Entrepreneurial Potentialin a Regiona l Seting”, National Seminar on Current Trends in Entrepreneurship Research, Conducted by Entrepreneurship Development Institute, Ahmadabad. 5. RBI monthly Bulletion june2012 6. MSME Report Januray - March 2013 24
  25. 25. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 A STUDY ON CAUSES AND MPACT OF FOOD INFLATION IN INDIA Dr.T.Thirupathi Assistant Professor of Commerce, Shanmugasurian M.Phil Research Scholar Commerce, Government Arts College (Autonomous), Salem 636 007 (Tamil Nadu). ABSTRACT Inflation is the rate at which the general level of prices is rising. The most well known indicator of inflation is the Consumer Price Index (CPI) which measures the average price of consumer goods and services purchased by households. As India is an agricultural country, the main concern of this paper is food inflation in India. The factors influencing Food inflation, inflation trend in the world, food inflation in India and the factors influencing food inflation in India are dealt with in this paper. The impact of food inflation in India also is analyzed. Key words: Food Inflation, Consumer Price Index, Food Grains, Crop Systems. Introduction demand for goods and services is higher than the country’s productive capacity. The fight against inflation is done by central banks which contr ol the money s upply by increasing or decreasing short term interest rates. For instance, the Governing Council of the European Central Bank aims at keeping annual inflation under 2% to promote price stability and sustainable growth. Food Inflation Trend in India Inflation refers to a persistent upward movement in the general price level. It results in a decline of the pur chasing power. According to most economists inflation does not occur until price increases average less than 5 per cent per year for a sustained. Inflation is one of the vital things in determining the economic growth. Increases in the inflation will decline the growth of the country and the value of currency. In the fifties, the average rate of inflation was very low at 1.7% and during the sixties the average rate of inflation edged up to 6.4%. The inflationary pressures started mounting from 1962-63 and in 1990-91 the inflation rate was double digits i.e. above 12% due to the gulf war. The most well known indicator of inflation is the Consumer Price Index (CPI) which measures the average price of consumer goods and services purchased by households. High rates of inflation are often associated with fast gr owing economies where the SELP Journal of Social Science 25 Januray - March 2013
  26. 26. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 depends on monsoons and crop failure due to drought has been a regular feature of agriculture in India. In the years of scarcity of food grains, not only price of food articles increases but also the general price level rises. The inflation rate now is quite low while compared to that of 1990-91 i.e. 12.6%. India is an agr icultur e country. The increase in the price of food grains and other factors will largely affect the economy. Most of the industr ial sectors depend on the agricultural sector and hence an increase in the price of the agricultural products not only affects the agricultural sector but also the entire economy. Indian agricultural largely In September, 2012 the inflation rate of food was 9.73% and the inflation rates of condiments and spices, fruits, prepared meals were in double digits. Provisional all India Food Inflation Rates (%) for September 2012. SELP Journal of Social Science 26 Januray - March 2013
  27. 27. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 Objectives of the Study T he following objectives formulated for the study possible rate cut that the industries and policy makers are looking for. ar e  India’s inflation dropped marginally to 7.25% in June compared to 7.55% in the previous month of May due to lower price increase in the fuel segment. It is the lowest level in the last 5 months and lowers than the analysts’ expectations. 1. To Study the Various Causes of Food Inflation 2. To Analyse the Impact of Food Inflation in India Methodology of the Study  Food inflation increased marginally to 10.81% in June compared with 10.74% in May while fuel inflation dropped to 10.27% compared to 11.53% in the previous month. Drop in global crude oil price helped to ease the fuel inflation for the last month. Inflation in the primary articles and the manufacturing product segments stood at 10.26% and 5% respectively in the same month. For the study a specific framework has been used for collection of data from the secondary source. The secondary data has been collected from the various publications and from the various books, journals and websites. Impact of Food Inflation in India  India’s inflation eased to 6.87% in July compared to 7.25% in June due to lower food prices. Inflation stood at 9.36% in the same month last year.  In spite of this drop, inflation is much higher than the comfort level of RBI and RBI may not reduce rates in its next policy review meet to boost economic and industrial growth. To cut rates, RBI needs inflation to moderate further in the coming months.  Food inflation dropped to 10.06% in July compared to 10.81% in June which helped to ease headline inflation in the reporting month. Prices of potato, pulses, protein items and vegetables were increased by 73%, 28.26%, 16% and 24.11% respectively in July compared to the same month last year.  India’s inflation, mea sur ed by wholesale price index jumped to 7.23% in April compared to 6.89% in March due to the steep increase in the prices of vegetables, milk, pulses and protein based items. The inflation stood much lower than the inflation of 9.74% in the same month last year.  Inflation in the manuf actur ing product category increased marginally to 5.58% in July compared to 5% in June and inflation in the fuel segment dropped to 5.98% in July compared to 12.04% in the same month last year.  Inflation of the food items stood at 10.49% in April compared to 10.66% in March and food articles have 14.3% share in the overall inflation. Prices of vegetables, pulses, milk, rice, cereals, potato, protein items were increased by 60.97%, 11.29%, 15.51%, 5.68%, 5.8%, 53.44% and 17.54% respectively in April, which pushed the overall inflation number. Steep increase in vegetable prices is definitely a shock to the  In spite of this drop in inflation, it is still higher than RBI’s comfort zone and RBI may not cut rates in its next policy review meet in or der to boost economic and industrial growth. But easing of inflation will definitely give some scope to RBI for any SELP Journal of Social Science 27 Januray - March 2013
  28. 28. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 consumers. At the same time, onion price declined by 122.11% in April. Reference 1. Gener al Economics (Common Proficiency Test), Board of Studies, The Institute of Charted Accountants of India. Chapter-6, Unit -5, Topic Page-312 to 316, ISBN-978-81-8441-035-8.  Inflation in the price of manufactured goods, primary articles and fuel items were increased marginally to 5.12%, 9.71% and 11.03% respectively in April compared to 4.87%, 9.62% and 10.41% in March. 2. Indian Economy, Chapter- 26, Page No- 26.17 to 26.23.  India’s IIP gr owth tur ned into negative in March and GDP growth dropped to 3-year low in the last quarter. Recently RBI has cut interest rates by 50 bps during its last policy review meet to support the domestic economy. But the current inflation is higher than RBI’s inflation projection of 6.5% in March 2013; which now gives RBI less room to cut rates further in order to boost domestic growth. 3. Abel, Andr ew; Ber nanke, Ben (2005). Macroeconomics (5th Ed.). Pearson 4. Bar r o, Rober t J. (1997). Macroeconomics. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. P. 895. ISBN 0-262-02436-5 5. Blanchar d, Olivier (2000). Macroeconomics (2nd Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13013306-X  India’s Inflation, measured by the Wholesale Price Index (WPI) rose to 6.95% in February due to the steep increase in food prices compared to negative inflation in the previous months. Inflation stood at 6.55% in the month of January while it stood at 7.74% in December (revised upward from 7.47%). Web sites: 1. 2. SELP Journal of Social Science http://www. Food inflation in 5. inflation and 6. http://www. Central statistical tool .co. in 7. 28 4.                   Food inflation is the burning topic in India because increase in this inflation will affect the entire sector of the economy. In India maximum sectors depend on agricultural products i.e. food and footers, so food inflation takes a major part in GDP. So the Indian gover nment must take necessary steps to fulfill the scarcity in the production to equilibrium the demand and supply and make necessary policy to control the costs which determine the price of the products. inflation 3. Conclusion http://www. http://www. Trading Januray - March 2013
  29. 29. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 INDIAN REALITY IN ROHINTON MISTRY IN FAMILY MATTERS K. Malarmathi, Head, Department of English, Govt. Arts College, Rasipuram. & Dr. T. Jayakumar, Associate Professor of English, Periyar EVR College, Tiruchi. ABSTRACT Roxana is a very loving person. She devotes all her energy to talking care of her family. Her relationship with Yezad provides a solid foundation for love. The very biology of human body is such that the man gives to the woman and the woman receives the man. When a husband and wife live hand in hand, dreaming optimistically of the future and denying the fallen reality, they will be able to go through any difficult environment. The difficult reality will not damage their future but will stimulate in them a new vision for the future. The ordeal of the present reality then will not restrain them the love and friendship between husband and wife grow into a desire for children. K ey Wo rds : I nd ia n R ea lit y, p os t co lonia l er a , hor r or s of r eligi ou s d ivis i on, fundamentalist, Hindutva ideology Monoculture is the growing phenomenon in the new modern world. The preservation of culture and hereditary of one’s own country is becoming a challenging r eality. T he r epublic of India is one of the largest countries in the world, sharing a northern frontier with Tibet Nepal and Bhutan, to the North West it borders Pakistan, to the north east – Burma and to the east Bangladesh. India’s southern peninsula stretches far down into the Indian Ocean. Then its boundaries extend to the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea. In terms of population India, after China is the most populous country in the world. It is estimated by the United Nations that India will have a larger population than China 2045 SELP Journal of Social Science AD. This vast land and its population include main r eligions like Hinduis m, Islam, Sikhism, Christianity, Jainism, and Buddhism and Judaism. India’s constitution has to protect these different religious, ethnic and cultural minorities. In the postcolonial era, especially India is bur dened with ethnic, r eligious and linguistic conflicts. T he su bcontinent witnessed the horrors of religious division through the experience of partition at the time of independence in 1947and the following indo-china war that has left an indelible marks in the annals of Indian history. The movements headed by r efor mer s and ideologists with a radical vision for changes 29 Januray - March 2013
  30. 30. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 of governance like Chanakya who is called as “Indian Machiavelli” by our first prime minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru . often create chaos and horrors. .The world’s r eputed and r ich ‘Indian constitution’ provides only fragile democratic foundation. Many economists, researchers, and political strategists are ready with their statistical data pertaining to strong unity among people of India. Among them South Asian writers also take the initiative to devise special strategies for the problems of their respective nations through their world renowned masterpiece. Based in Canada the Indian-born English novelist Rohinton Mistry’s third publication Family Matters is a strong and old fashioned novel about modern Bombay, telling the story of three generations of a Parsi family. It is a consideration of the difficulties that come with aging. It was short-listed for man booker prize in 2002. Family Matters displays the problems of thr ee families. T hey ar e Contr actor s, Chenoys and Vakeels. This story is purely Indian but “old age care “is a worldwide issue. Mistry also galvanizes the domains of ‘young’ the synonym for ‘regeneration’ and the old which stands for ‘degeneration’ in the Indian context... Endless corruptions of government, religious fanaticism, Hindu Muslim rivalry, dimensions of family’ in the globalized era’ are fixed into this context. “In India, people learn the essential themes of cultural life within the bosom of a family. In most of the countries, the basic units of society are the patrilineal family unit and wider kinship groupings. The status of India during 1990s has been discussed widely in his third novel Family Matters He sketches the growth of fundamentalist Hindutva ideology and its repercussions on the life of the ordinary people. After the ‘motifs of Journey’ and the’ balancing act’ in his two earlier novels, all the underling patterns of reference in this novel are based on the story of Nariman Vakeel’s past and his present (Nandini Bhautoo – Dewaarain). While A Fine Balance stands as a testimony of bleak India, a Family Matters is the testimony of sufferings and agony of the aged person in an average Indian family. While Mistry’s A Fine Balance focuses on caste discriminations and power politics, this is about the religious, ethnic and class division which shatters the ver y foundations of the Indian community. Various dimensions of family and social life of individuals are composed diligently and intelligently by the novelist. He is a creative genius who can even establish a great system SELP Journal of Social Science The most widely desired residential unit is the joint family, ideally consisting of three or four patrilineally related generations, all living less than one roof, working, eating, worshiping, and cooperating together in mutually beneficial social and economic activities. Patrilineal joint families include men related through the male line, along with their wives and children. Most young women expect to live with their husband’s relatives after marriage, but they retain important bonds with their natal families.” The peoples of the northeastern hill areas are known for their matrilineal marriages, tracing descent and inheritance in the female line rather than the male line. This story follows the similar situation where the daughter becomes the guardian of her aged father.. Besides all, having an elderly, bed ridden family member in close contact is purely Indian reality. This story is written in the Indian texture but the issues discussed 30 Januray - March 2013
  31. 31. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 diagnosed by Dr. Tarapore, a fellow Parsi, and a former student of Nariman, is suffering from a fracture to his left ankle complicated by Osteoporosis and Parkinsonism. So his left leg is x- r ayed and plaster ed by Mr. Rangarajan, a non– Parsi technician and the old man’s bantering with him brings in the Shiv Sena’s supposed infiltration of the post offices and the non – delivery of letters addressed to Bombay Muslims. Nariman’s acquainta nce with Rangar ajan, is an opportunity to reveal the horror stories of new born babies eaten by rats and the outbreak of plague in 1994. Two decades have passed since such a large epidemic in India occurred. This was the worst biological weapon. India was gripped by this mass epidemic of plague at twin locations. It created waves of horror in the West and they cancelled all the flights to India in the late September1994. The unhygienic Indian hospitals make the patients’ even sicker. This is not only a disease but also as an infectious disorder. Mistry focuses on the changes it produced in politics and religious phase of the country. are international. Nariman, the aged patriarch, whose advancing Parkinson disease and its related complications threaten to destroy his large Parsi family. He lives with his step children, Jal and Coomy, the children of his wife’s first marriage. Running a Family is an important phenomenon in everybody’s life. Mistry’s novel depicts a family torn apart by lies, love and its demands of traditions. The disease of the family’s elderly man worsens the already strained family relationship. The story takes place in present India. The family of Nariman Vakeel including her daughter and her husband, Roxana and Yezad Shenoy their two sons Murad and Jehangir and Vakeel’s step- children, Jal and Coomy contractor ,live in Bombay. At the opening of the novel, Nariman is living with his stepchildren in a large flat in a building known as chateau felicity. It is where Nariman lived with his wife, Yasmin and where they raise their family till Yasmin’s untimely death some years before the start of the story . As the s tor y begins, C oomy is preparing to have a party for Nariman’s 79 th birthday. Roxana and her family are coming over. Coomy is worried by Nariman’s practice of going alone for a walk in the evening. He is beginning to show the early signs of Parkinson’s disease and she is afraid that he will hurt himself. The fear of Coomy becomes true when Nariman falls down again soon after his birthday party. His subsequent loveless marriage affects the family for decades. The decision of mar rying the Par si widow with two children born to her first husband reveals Nar iman’s enor mous, hear t to accept someone’s wife as his own, hiding all the eleven happy years he spent with his lover. From the above situations, it is understood that the concept of family is very important. The second fall does more serious damage and he has to be carried home. Coomy sends Jal for Dr. Fitter who lives in a neighboring building to attend to Nariman, but the doctor suggests they straight away must take him to a hospital. Nariman is taken to the Parsi General hospital, the ageing community’s succor in Mumbai; He has been SELP Journal of Social Science Families are the building blocks of societies they perform important functions in nurturing a culture of its citizens. There was a time when families lived their lives in a very limited space. Mistry reveals that matters of a family are not confined to four walls but it’s universal. Nariman’s memories 31 Januray - March 2013
  32. 32. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 of the past expose the reader to earlier moments in the city’s as well as nation’s history in a novel that moves across three generators of the same family. The lives of the residents of chateau felicity and pleasant Villa, remind the reader of Kodhadadad building in such a long journey (1996) and the world of Firozha Baag. (1991) married your mother and wrecked my middle years. Now you want to torment my old age. I won’t allow it. “Such lies!” flared Coomy. “You ruined Mamma’s life, and mine, and Jal’s. I will not tolerate a word against her. (17) She baths him begrudgingly twice a week and grimaces at the old man when he asks for the simplest human needs. Jal listens to his bossy sister always; Coomy often emphasizes the biological difference between herself and Jal and Roxana his own daughter. She tells Nariman bitingly: Readers come to know soon, that the reason for the crisis is his past story. The young professor wanted to marry outside his Parsi religion but forced by his family members to marry a Parsi widow with two childr en Jal and Coomy. N ar iman’s willingness to obey his parents not to marry a non- Parsi girl who he was in love with Lucy for eleven years is not an act of weakness. One may find that it is his willingness to submit his conscience to the religion he belongs to show his great respect and regard for his Zoroastrian religion. Once again it is revealed that this masterpiece is not a fiction but a philosophy which has a plan about human interaction. Nariman looks back his past with much regret, that “And he, when he looked back on it all the blame lay with the ones thirty-six years ago, the marriage ar rangers, the willful manufactur ers of misery” (79). The novel reveals that the strict religious rules are to be borne in mind before falling in love or else one should be ready to face the complexities of life. If you don’t like what we’re saying, ask your daughter ’s opinion when she comes tomorrow,” said Coomy. “Your own flesh and blood, not like Jal and me, second class.””That is unnecessary,” said Nariman. (7) She expresses her resentment over caring for Nariman: “I don’t owe Pappa anything. He didn’t change my diaper or wash my bum, and I don’t have to clean his shit either (77). Roxana takes her father in’ though they live in ver y cr owded two r ooms flat. T he expectation is that he will need to be there only thr ee weeks, so even Yezad does complain. The boys are delighted to have their grandfather there, Jehangir even feeds his grandfather: She felt she was witnessing something almost sacred, and her eyes refused to relinquish the precious moment, for she knew instinctively that it would become a memory to cherish, to recall in difficult times when she needed strength. (98) When Nariman becomes the burden of the entir e family they face many trials and tribulations. Jal and Coomy cannot cope with the stress. Coomy resents having to look after Nariman who she considers the cause of her mother’s suffering and death. But Nariman still regrets for the sad bygone days he mourns: After getting discharged from the hospital Jal and Coomy decide to inform Roxana about her step father’s fracture and make the old man dump at Roxana’s doorstep. Coomy In my youth, my parents controlled me and destroyed those years. Thanks to them, I SELP Journal of Social Science 32 Januray - March 2013
  33. 33. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 Contractor ’s own father dies at young age they are prepared for an alternative, to live with a stepfather chosen by their mother. Nar iman s car ifies his love with Lucy Braganza and fulfills his parents’ intentions by marrying Yasmin Contractor and adds a daughter to the family branches develop, some die out and some flourish. is fed up of the physical labour of taking care of his stepfather. She is upset with the foul adour in the flat. She persuades her brother Jal to hire an ambulance to leave their stepfather at her sister’s home. They have to summon for an ambulance. He is to be lifted on to a stretcher and as they take him out he wants to tell the ambulance man to make a tour of each room so that he can fix all the materials at home in his mind before leaving for hospital. In such a way, he has been depressed of his decision making power. This happens to all the aged people and crippled on earth. The novel gives the effects of religious bigotry and rigid traditionalism…. “No happiness is more lasting than the happiness that you get from fulfilling your parents’ wishes” (17), a family friend tells him, and he allows himself to believe this. Disregarding their own advice, in a matter of days his parents’ friends arranged an introduction for him. “You will meet Yasmin Contractor, a widow with two children,” they told him. “And that’s the best you can expect, mister, with your history” (27). The argument about who will take care of Nariman intensifies. Coomy’s disclosure to her and Jal some fifteen years ago comes as a shock to Yezad and Roxana. After Yezad and Roxana leave, Jal finally expresses his anger and impatience with his sister. He clearly feels bad about their dishonesty toward Roxana and Yezad. An ideal family is the one where the members live for the sake of each other. This is the very principle of creation, of which humankind is still ignorant. After the death of his wife Yasmin Contr actor his step children are hesitant to look after him. Nariman is an epitome of sacrifice. But his sacrifice never brings him happiness. A couple has to establish a family with the affection generated from each other. This is lacking in their relationship. To understand the character of Coomy and Jal, one needs an extensive knowledge of the politics of genealogy. The step children are entitled to get the property equally divided with the biological daughter. When the medication runs out of Roxana’s expenses Roxana discovers that Coomy is not prepared to share her father ’s entire pension money. Roxana waited for her to continue. But there was nothing else. “Could I…could I have the rest More quickly, money becomes a major problem. Yezad who is an honoured employee at the Bombay goods emporium, tries various things to help fatten the family budget envelopes. He even tries playing the local numbers game, but manages to lose about everything they have when the numbers game is shut down. His boss at the emporium has expressed an interest in running for office, which would give Yezad more responsibility and more money but then changes his mind. Yezad works up a plan aiming at getting the boss back on his track, but his plan works out ver y badly but of the owner ’s mur der. Jehangir helps his mother to increase the budget, takes money for overlooking his classmates mistakes. Positive and negative connotations are shaded to the concept of ‘family’ in the novel. Coomy and Jal SELP Journal of Social Science 33 Januray - March 2013
  34. 34. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 of the pension?”(241). She retains a portion of the pension as a way of exacting compensation for her own brief period of caretaking. be taken in the lighter sense. She looks after the budget for the family, she has the habit of putting cash into the budget envelopes whenever Yezad is paid. She receives him with much concern and care, she allows her father to be in her sons’ room. Now Murad is set up out on the balcony. Mistry narrates Murad’s experiences in the balcony as an exciting adventure In the Indian concept, the structure of the family composition is changing. T he demographic study reveals the demise of the joint family. Nuclear family is gaining momentum as the assimilation of the increased members only adds miseries to the entire group. Different modes of travel, complicated family demands, and per capita income have changed the scenario. But the residential separation of the family members creates a vacuum during celebrations and other family functions. The diasporic status gives a different definition to the family. Bane (1976) has observed that smaller family sizes led to stronger attachment of residence based family members. In human family children are competing not so much for survival but more for the scarce resources of parental time, attention, love and approval. Children all over the world are sensitive to any intimations of preference by one or both parents. The rivalries of childhood can continue into adult hood and r elationship ca n change dramatically when parents happen to die. In the case of Roxana, both Coomy and Jal are elder to her by more than thirteen years. They enjoy every activity of the little sister but as adults, difficult choices, difficult approach of life, life partner change of homes all constitute their behavior. A family is generally regarded as a major social institution and a focus of much of a person’s sound activity. It is a social unit created by blood, marriage or adoption and can be described as nuclear (parents and children) or extended (encompassing other relatives).In the United States and other Western countries, the family is defined in census and surveys as two or more persons related by blood, marriage or adoption and living in the same residence. A good family is a gift of life. The duty of each person is to protect such member in the family. T he synonym for ma r r iage is commitment’. More than security Mistry tries to emphasis ‘commitment’. This family commitment if discharged dutifully that person is morally elevated to a respectable position by others in the society. She lives for the ‘family’ like most of the Indian family women. Yezad too understands the sincerely and depth of her love for the family. The horror and chaos that engulf most of the episodes are driven aside as Roxana brings life to her home. Roxana finds pleasure in serving her father as he gives Gandhi’s injunction: Roxana is devout and sweet natured. Her husband, a short tempered, working for Bombay sports Emporium is prone to stress. Mistry creates their model family which reflects Indian society at large. Despite all hur dles, Roxana feels it’s her pr ime responsibility to educate their children. She cultures the social virtues which are needed for every citizen. In the Indian concept, the differences in the family composition are to SELP Journal of Social Science What is so bad about the bottle? I keep it 34 Januray - March 2013
  35. 35. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 clean and hygienic!” She said perhaps he should try to remember the teachings of Gandhiji, that there was nothing nobler than the ser vice of the weak, the old, the unfortunate. (248) difficult reality will not damage their future but will stimulate in them a new vision for the future. The ordeal of the present reality then will not restrain them the love and friendship between husband and wife grow into a desire for children. Roxana’s character is contrary to Coomy. She accepts the family burdens with her financial dent, raising her children with a meager amount her husband brings home. Coomy’s biological father is not known to her: Thus, Roxana Cheynoy and Yezad Chenoy are blessed with two boy babies who at the start of the story are thirteen and nineteen years of age. The intimacy between Roxana and Yezad provides stability for themselves and their children for they are the fruit and bond of a marriage. Sacred scripture begins with the creation of man and woman in the image and likeness of God and concludes with a vision of the wedding feast of the lamp (Revelation 19: 7, 9). The bond of marriage is compared to God’s undying love for Israel in the Old Testament and Christ’s love for his church in the New Testament. During her gir lhood, r elatives would scrutinize her and remark sadly that a father’s love was sunshine and fresh water without which a daughter could not bloom; a stepfather, they said, was quite useless in this regard. Once, they were careless and spoke in her hearing. Their words had incandesced painfully in her mind, and she had fled to her room to weep for her dead father. (4) Roxana is a very loving person. She devotes all her energy to talking care of her family. Her relationship with Yezad provides a solid foundation for love. The very biology of human body is such that the man gives to the woman and the woman receives the man. When a husband and wife live hand in hand, dreaming optimistically of the future and denying the fallen reality, they will be able to go through any difficult environment. The Mistry’s couple Roxana and Yezad is the typical Indian couple who live for each other. Marriage is the essence of Indian way of life. In Wester n countr ies, pr ivate passions dominate family responsibilities. In India, though progressing toward modernity people remain bound to communal orthodoxies. Mistry addresses the conditions of society through Family Matters. ATTENTION TO THE SEMINAR ORGANIZER We invite the articles of the participants in the national or international seminar organized by the academic institutions published as edited volume with ISBN / special issue of SELP journal of social science with ISSN -0975-9999. Seminar organizer/director may conduct us for the publication of Edited volume or special issue by mail at SELP Journal of Social Science 35 Januray - March 2013
  36. 36. Vol . IV : Issue. 14 ISSN:0975-9999 HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENTAPPROACHES TO BANK EMPLOYEES A. Mohammad Fawzi, Head Department of Commerce, Tagore Arts College, Puducherry ABSTRACT HRM has been much talked about and written about in recent years. Indian Banking has come from a long way from being a sleepy business organization to a highly proactive and dynamic entity. There is a need to understand organization culture and the extent of emerging challenges impacting existing organizational cultures. Therefore, the need of the hour for Banking Industry is an integrated Human Resource approach that would develop an appropriate organization culture towards change with continuity Employees were made to work on ad-hoc basis, for longer hours and at low remuneration and employees were discontent with the working conditions and facilities like leave, medical aid that were almost unknown It was suggested that a shift from an administrative to a market driven organization would lead to a greater priority for the management of human resources. Keywords : Human Resource, Business Strategy, Liberalization, Innovative Employee. Introduction its plan of organizational transformation HRM has  been  much  talked  about  and through people processes and systems, the written about in recent years. For some, it Bank has launched various innovative heralds a new age where human resource employee centric initiatives and has also issues at last become significant in the undertaken revamp of key systems and consider a tion of business str ategy, practices. Indian Banking has come from a and HR practitioners at last attain a place in long way from being a sleepy business the sun. However, much of the debate has organization to a highly proactive and been conducted in purely theoretical terms dynamic entity. This transformation has been covering HRM definitions and meanings .The brought by the liberalization and economic experience suggests that whilst HR type reforms that allowed Banks to explore new policies are being implemented, the outcomes business opportunities. Banking in India has can by no means be taken for granted. In the evolved through five distinct phases. Each ongoing Business Tr ansf or mation phase could be separated from the other by a Programme, our PEOPLE play a vital role and landmark development in the sphere of are one of the key business enablers.Under Banking Sector. SELP Journal of Social Science 36 Januray - March 2013