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Research Explorer
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DUAL MODE...
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snubber capacitors and subsequent turn on of the
reverse diode for conduction

close ...
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switches. When QA/QD or QB/QC conducts, the
input power is transferred to the output load. Zero
voltage...
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the required energy. The transformer is in freewheeling state. A short circuit appear...
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Conclusion

S.B.Zheng and D.Czarkowski, “ Modelling and
digital control of a phase-c...
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Research Explorer
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July - December 2012

TOBACCO U...
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College, Mayabunder in North and Middle Andaman
district(offers three year degree course in six
discipl...
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(56.9 per cent vs. 47.1 per cent), there was no much
difference between the hostellers and days student...
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use was predominant practice among this college
boys and girls, reflecting the cultu...
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7. Gupta, Prakash C. et al., Smokeless Tobacco:
A Major Public Health Problem in the SEA
Region: A revi...
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Research Explorer
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INEQUALIT...
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All countries: rich or poor, all administrators:
politicians or bureaucrats, all governments:
democrati...
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not appear to realise this and still are merrily going
ahead with their dealings unconcerned about the
...
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include elements of technology training and
introduction to new practices, to improve...
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70% of our population are in rural India; the
development of the country depends totally on the
develop...
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Research Explorer
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MICRO FIN...
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Saravanan. S (2008) said that micro finance
Programmes have proved that is an effect...
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Lakhs outstanding. In co-operative banks including
of Rs. 114678.62 Lakhs exclusively from women
SHG Rs...
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5. Narayanan. B (2008). Micro credit in India-an
Overview, Micro Credit and Rural Dev...
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Research Explorer
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INDIAN BA...
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Bank activity in the Housing Sector: LowIncome Focus:

leaves to do documentation fo...
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boards as well as by way of direct finance to
individuals / groups of borrowers belo...
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The HFCs are now eligible to basic refinance
limit from NHB up to 5 times their Net ...
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Research Explorer
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E-GOVERNA...
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Phase III: Transaction

vi) Are we equipped with the leadership and
strategic thinki...
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RESEARCH EXPLORER -2 ISSUE

  1. 1. Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 DUAL MODE SERIES RESONANT DC-DC CONVERTER FOR WIDE LOAD VARIATIONS Harine Kanagaraj Institute of System Science National University of Singapore, Singapore ABSTRACT In order to satisfy demands like higher conversion efficiency and power density, many topologies and control methods are proposed. Among them, dc to dc series resonant converters with zero voltage switching features are getting more attention. This paper presents the design of a dual mode full-bridge series resonant converter (FB-SRC). It is operated in series resonant mode at normal loads or higher loads. The switching frequency is varied to regulate the output voltage. The fixed frequency phase shifted pulse width modulation, on the other hand, is used to adjust the effective duty cycle and regulate the output voltage at light loads . The proposed converter exhibits high conversion efficiency for wide range load conditions. Keywords : Conversion efficiency, phase-shifted full-bridge converter, series resonant converter (SRC), Zero volatge switching (ZVS), pulse width modulation (PWM) Introduction of ZVT soft-switching power converters is the installation of resonant components that reduce conduction losses [6]. The switching devices in converters with a pulse width modulation (PWM) control can be gated to synthesize the desired shape of the output voltage or current. However, the devices are turned on and off at the load current with a high di/dt value. The switches are subjected to a high voltage stress and the switching power losses increases [2]. The turn on and turn off losses could be a significant portion of the total power loss. The electromagnetic interference is also produced due to the high di/dt and dv/dt in the converter waveforms. The disadvantages of the pwm control can be eliminated if the switching devices are turned on and turned off when the voltage and current are forced to pass through zero crossing by creating an LC-resonant circuit , thereby called a resonant pulse converter [4]. The main benefit of the converter is the extension of resonant time using two clamp diodes. The improvement in the voltage and current stress over th ose obtai ne d usin g tradi ti onal re so nant components implies in reduction of switching losses and the elimination of parasitic effect. Due to its high current gain, series resonant converters are mainly used for applications like arc welding, electronic ballast, induction heating and fluorescent lighting involving wide range load variations. Series Resonant Converter Principle of operation The series resonant converter shown in fig.1 converts dc voltage into ac through full bridge inverter and then converts ac voltage again to dc. It works on the basis of resonant current oscillation. The resonating components and switching devices are placed in series with the load to form an underdamped circuit. The size of resonating components is small due to the high switching frequency. The operating frequency is generally The primary design feature of ZVS PWM power converters is the addition of an auxiliary switch in the quasi-resonant circuit. Resonance is dominated by the auxiliary switch, which generates resonance and temporarily stops a period that can be regulated, there by overcoming the disadvantages of fixed conduction or cutoff time in a quasiresonant power converter. The main design feature Research Explorer 1 July - December 2012
  2. 2. Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 snubber capacitors and subsequent turn on of the reverse diode for conduction close to the resonant frequency of the tank. Operation with switching frequency lesser than resonant frequency is called sub reson ant frequency operation. The input voltage sees a net capacitive tank circuit and facilitates ZCS. When switching frequency is greater than resonant frequency, the operation is termed as super resonant frequency and the tank presents a net inductive circuit which facilitates ZVS. The delay time has to be small enough to prevent the tank current from reversing before the switch turns on. The Resonance Concept From a circuit standpoint, a dc-to-dc resonant converter can be described by three major circuit blocks as shown in the figure 2 Dual mode condition The dc-to-ac input inversion circuit, the resonant energy buffer tank circuit, and the ac-to-dc output rectifying circuit For a series resonant converter, the output voltage is regulated by changing the switching frequency. However, it is impractical to raise the switching frequency at lighter loads due to the limitation of semiconductor switch device. Several schemes are proposed to solve this problem such as burst mo de con trol [7] , turn off ti me modulation,etc. The penalty is that the ZVS feature is no longer kept. In this paper, the phase-shifted duty cycle control with ZVS at a fixed highest switching frequency is proposed to regulate the output voltage at light loads. Although the phaseshifted modulation features the constant switching frequency and ZVS function over wide input voltage and output load ranges, its efficiency at heavy load is lower than that of an SRC due to the high duty cycle loss. Therefore, the proposed control scheme adopts the frequency modulation with heavy-load efficiency and the phase-shifted modulation [5] with a better output voltage regulation and ZVS function at light loads. Through this dual mode operation higher conversion efficiency is fulfilled for widerange load variations. The resonant tank serves as an energy buffer between the input and the output is normally synthesized by using a lossless frequency selective network Th e ac-to-dc co nversi on is ach ie ve d by incorporating rectifier circuits at the output section of the converter Proposed Circuit and Its Operation It consists of a full bridge inverter consisting of four MOSFETS fed by a dc source. The next section is the resonant tank section formed by a resonant inductor and capacitor connected in series. Finally a diode rectifier along with filter and load circuit is used. Here Dc to Ac and again to Dc conversion is carried out. Figure 3 shows the circuit diagram of the proposed series resonant converter. Zero voltage switching When the PM-SRC is operated such that its switching frequency is greater than the resonant frequency of the tank, zero-voltage turn-on of the inverter devices is possible because the effective impedance offered by the resonant tank is inductive. Tank current lags the input voltage. ZVS ensures the inherent output capacitance in the switching devices is discharged prior to switch turnon, thus prevent turn-on losses and generated EMI. Fig 1 Proposed series resonant converter The proposed FB-SRC has 4 MOSFET switches Q A ~ Q D with the output parasitic capacitors Coss, A ~ Coss, B. Lr and Cr forms the series resonant circuit. A centre tapped transformer of turn ratio n: 1:1 is used. Two rectifying diodes D1 and D2 are employed. The filter capacitor is Co. RL is the load resistance. The control signals of QA/QD and QB/QC are complementary. Dead times preventing the simultaneous conduction of switches are inserted to delay the turn-ons of the Basic requirements of ZVS · The device should turn off with a positive current flowing through it · The delay time and turn off current have to be large enough to completely charge/discharge the Research Explorer 2 July - December 2012
  3. 3. Vol . I : Issue. 2 switches. When QA/QD or QB/QC conducts, the input power is transferred to the output load. Zero voltage switchings are achieved by the resonance of Lr and the equivalent capacitor formed by the parallel connection of Cr and the output parasitic capacitors of the switches during dead times. ISSN:2250 - 1940 The gate pulses applied to the above converter is shown in fig 3. The leading leg switches are given by S1 and S1’ and lagging leg switches are given by S2 and S2’. The tank current i(t) is rectified by a diode bridge rectifier and filtered by a capacitive filter to get required output voltage. The magnitude and wave shape of the resonant current depends on fs, D and the load factor (Q) of the converter. Q is defin ed as the ratio o f reson an t tank characteristic impedance and the resistive load as seen from the resonant tank. Fig 3 The gate pulses for switching frequency modulation mode This mode of operation can be explained under 3 states. They are:  First energy transfer state (t0 d” t d” t1)  First resonance state (t1 d” t d” t2)  First commutation state (t2 d” t d” t3)  For phase modulation full bridge inverter with fully controlled devices is required as shown in fig 3 each device is switched at 50% duty ratio with the switching of the devices on the same leg being complementary. As shown in fig 4, conduction of switches on the same leg of the inverter (S1 and S1’) is phase shifted with respect to the conduction of switches on the lagging leg (S2 and S2’) , resulting in the quasi-square input voltage. First Energy Transfer State (t0 d” t d” t1) : In this state, QB and QC are turned on, and QA and QD are turned off. D1 conducts and energy is tran sferre d to th e se co ndary throu gh the transformer.  First Resonance State (t1 d” t d” t2) All the switches are turned off during this state. Since the inductor current iLr must be continuous, it discharges Coss, A and Coss, D to zero voltage, and charges Coss, B and Coss, C to VI. Then zero- voltage turn-ons of QA and QD can be achieved. As long as iLr is larger than the reflected secondary load current, D1 is still conducting. The load power is supplied by Lr. Fig 2 Gate waveforms of series resonant converter  In this state, QA and QD are turned on, and QB and QC are turned off. iLr flows through body diodes DA and DD initially. Since the energy at the primary side is insufficient, the load power is supplied by C0. Modes of Operation There are two modes of operation in the proposed FB-SRC. They are:  B. Phase shift modulation mode Frequency Modulation keeping duty ratio constant  The gate signals for phase shift modulation scheme are presented in fig 4. For the PS PWM, it can be observed that dead times. During which ZVS is accomplished, are inserted before turning on switches . It can also be noticed that before ZVS takes place, there are two resonance states (t1 ~ t2 and t3 ~ t4) . Phase Shift Modulation keeping switching frequency constant A. Switching frequency modulation mode The gate signals for switching frequency modulation mode is shown in fig 3. Research Explorer First Commutation State (t2 d” t d” t3) : 3 July - December 2012
  4. 4. Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 the required energy. The transformer is in freewheeling state. A short circuit appears at the transformer secondary . To achieve ZVS, the energy stored in the equivalent resonant inductor must be larger than that in the equivalent resonant capacitor.  Commutation State (t4 d” t d” t5) : During this state, the transformer primary is short-circuited. A voltage of -VI is across the Lr – Cr combination. Therefore, iLr decreases linearly until its magnitude is larger than the reflected load current. Then, the transformer starts to transfer energy and the other half switching cycle begins. D1 is turned off, and D2 conducts. Co is also charged. Fig 4 The gate signals for phase shift modulation scheme Here there are 5 operating states They are :  Energy transfer state ( t0 d” t d” t1) Defining Terms and Assumptions  First resonance state (t1 d” t d” t2)  Linear Discharge state (t2 d” t d” t3) The resonant tank has a natural frequency determined by the resonant capacitor and resonant inductor.  Second resonance state (t3 d” t d” t4) fs = switching frequency  Commutation state (t4 d” t d” t5) fr = resonant frequency  Energy Transfer State ( t0 d” t d” t1) : Pin = Input power Pout = Output power In this state, QB and QC are turned on, and D1 conducts. The input energy is transferred to the secondary through the transformer, and C0 is charged.  D = Duty ratio = Efficiency First resonance state (t1 d” t d” t2) : At t1, QC turns off. iLr stops increasing , then charges Coss, C to VI and discharges Coss, D to zero voltage. DD conducts at t = t2 . The equivalent resonant inductor (Lr) and the equivalent resonant capacitor ( Cr + Coss) starts resonanting. Since the primary current is larger than the reflected load current , D1 still conducts and D2 carries no current.  where Lr and Cr are resonant tank elements D = Ton / Ts/2 Where Ts = switching period VI = Input voltage Vo = Output voltage short-circuited. A voltage of Linear Discharge state (t2 d” t d” t3) : M = gain = Vo/ VI DD conducts at the end of the last state. Therefore QD can be turned on at zero voltage . The primary voltage is zero. The energy stored in Lr is transferred through the transformer to the secondary.  The parameter Zc called the characteristic impedance of the tank is defined as Capacitor Cr can be found by the following relation Second resonance state (t3 d” t d” t4) : Cr = 1/ùrZc This state starts when QB is turned off. iLr charges Coss, B to VI and discharges Coss, A to zero voltage. Then DA conducts and the resonance stops. During this state, Lr is not capable to supply Research Explorer Inductor Lr can be given by Lr = ùr/Zc Current is given by i = VI / Zc 4 July - December 2012
  5. 5. Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Conclusion S.B.Zheng and D.Czarkowski, “ Modelling and digital control of a phase-controlled series-parallel resonant converter” , IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron ., vol. 54, no.2, pp. 707-715. Apr. 2007. To avoid poor output voltage regulation and low conversion efficiency at light loads, a dual-mode control strategy is presented in this paper. The FB SRC is operated under switching frequency modulation for most of the load range to achieve ZVS and low switching noises. For the lighter loads, the FB SRC is operated under phase-shifted duty cycle modulation to regulate the output voltage and maintain the ZVS feature. The proposed two-mode control scheme for a FB SRC is especially suitable for applications with wide input voltage and load variations. Z.M.Ye, P.K.Jain, and P.C.Sen, “ A full-bridge resonant inverter with modified phase-shift modulation for high frequency ac power distribution systems”, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 2831-2845, Oct. 2007 G.B.Koo, G.W.Moon and M.J.Youn, “New zerovoltage-switching phase-shift full-bridge converter with low conduction losses”, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron ., vol.52, no1, pp 228-235 , Feb 2005. References Y.K..Lo, S.C.Sen and C.Y.Lin , “ A high efficiency ac-to dc adaptor with a low standby power consumption”, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol.55, no.2, pp. 963-965, Feb 2008. M.K.Kazimierczuk , “S ynthe sis o f phase modulated resonant Dc/Ac inverters and Dc/Dc converters”, Proc. Inst.elect. Eng. B – Elect. Power Appl. . vol. 139, no.4, pp. 387-394, Jul 1992. B.R.Lin, K.Huang, and D.Wang, “ Analysis and implementation of full-bridge converter with current doubler rectifier “, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. – Elect. Power Appl., vol 152, no.5, pp.1193-1202, Sep. 2005. M.K.Kazimierczuk and D.Czarkowski, Resonant Power Converters, New York : Wiley- Interscience, 1995 X.Ruan and Y.Yan,” An improved phase shifted zero-voltage and zero-current switching PWM co nverte r”, in Pro c. IEEE. Appl . Po we r. Electron.conf.1998, pp 811-815. BOOKS AVAILABLE IN SELP TRUST The following books are available with attractive discount in the Selp trust office Books Financial Management Author Price ( Rs) Discount (%) C.Paramasivan T.Subramanian 200 20 Research methodology C.Paramasivan 250 25 Human Rights C.Paramasivan 100 25 Women Empowerment C.Paramasivan 1350 50 Bank finance to SSI C.Paramasivan 850 50 IT in financial sectors C.Paramasivan 500 50 A¿]ÂïVâ|© AéDÃ_ï^ ïsB[Ã[ 50 20 g>oªV_ ïV>_ ïsB[Ã[ 50 20 yâÄ[B ÃVìçk ïsB[Ã[ 50 20 ÄV>çªï^ ÄVÝ]B¼ ïsB[Ã[ 50 20 Research Explorer 5 July - December 2012
  6. 6. Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 TOBACCO USE AMONG STUDENTS IN A RURAL COLLEGE IN ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS Dr. B. Prabhuram Associate Professor and Head, Department of Cooperative Management, Mahatma Gandhi Government College, Mayabunder-744 204, Andaman and Nicobar Islands ABSTRACT The present study was conducted in order to find out the use of tobacco among the students in a rural college of North and Middle Andaman District. From the total 556 students, 283 were boys (51 per cent) and 273 girls (49 percent). Majority of them hailed from rural areas and stayed in hostel. About 180 (32.4 per cent) were using tobacco in both smoking as well as smokeless form (boys 53.7 per cent and girls 10.3 per cent); 72 (12.9 per cent) were past tobacco users and remaining were non-users. Smokeless form of tobacco use was more popular among boys and girls and girls did not smoke. Use of tobacco was high among the students hailing from rural areas and among the students staying in hostels. Key Words : Tobacco use, college, Students, Andaman and Nicobar Islands Introduction Tobacco is the second major cause of mortality leading to the death of one in ten adults worldwide, accounting for about 5.4 million deaths every year constituting approximately 12 per cent of global deaths. The death toll from tobacco is expected to increase to eight million a year by 2030; and if the current trend continues unchecked, there will be up to one billion tobacco-related deaths during 21st century, many of which will be from developing countries. The state of the epidemic of tobacco use in India was comprehensively described in the recently completed Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). Over 35 per cent of adults in India use tobacco, primarily smokeless (about 164 million), but there are 42 million users of both smokeless and smoked products, and an additional 69 million who only smoke. India is the second largest consumer of tobacco in the world; second only to China where tobacco is popular both in smokeless as well smoked forms. With the growing evidence of harmful and hazardous effects of tobacco, the Government of India enacted various legislation and comprehensive tobacco control measures. The Government of India enacted comprehensive legislation, the “Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Research Explorer 6 Products (prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act” (COTPA) as a multimeasure law in May 2003. This Act sought to curb tobacco use through a variety of measures, including requiring smoke free public places, banning advertising of tobacco products and sale of tobacco products to minors, mandating pictorial depiction of health warnings on tobacco packets, and prohibiting tobacco sponsorship of sports and cultural events. Rules were framed to implement this law, most recent was “The Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Packing and Labeling) Rules, 2006” on July 5, 2006. India has played a strong leadership role in the global fight against tobacco and in the development of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Materials and Methods In the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, there are four colleges established by the Government – three situated in Port Blair the capital of the UT (each one in Arts and Science; Education and Engineering) and the fourth one in a rural area of North and Middle Andaman district. The study was carried out in Mahatma Gandhi Government July - December 2012
  7. 7. Vol . I : Issue. 2 College, Mayabunder in North and Middle Andaman district(offers three year degree course in six disciplines in arts and science) being the only college in rural area; covering total students of 556. A se lf-admin iste re d, an on ymou s pre-te sted questionnaire for tobacco use survey of college students consisting of questions related with the identification data and tobacco use by students was used. The self-administered questionnaire was administered in the class room. Students were explained about how to fill up the questionnaire and motivated to provide authentic information. They were assured that all information would be kept confidential. The survey was carried out in February and March 2012. There were 556 (86.5 per cent) responses out of 643 students on roll; 87 students (13.5 per cent) were absent. From a total of 556 students 283 were boys (85.6 per cent to total boys of the college) and 273 were girls (87.2 per cent to total girls). ISSN:2250 - 1940 Students used tobacco because it made them feel alert, quieted their nerves or helped them control their appetites – or just because smoking or chewing tobacco felt good and not smoking or not chewing tobacco doesn’t. The arguments for not consuming tobacco are logical and persuasive. Hence the reasons for not continuing the tobacco use by past users i.e., 72 students were recorded. Among 72, two-third of the students has tasted tobacco just for fun because of peer group influence. About one-fourth informed that they did not find the taste in food after having consumed tobacco. Use of tobacco among rural and urban students: The table 2 depicts that out of total 441 rural students more than one-third of them (i.e. 35.1 per cent) used tobacco in this college, as compared to 22 per cent of the urban students 115. Not a single urban girl was using tobacco during the survey period in this college. The inter-area (rural vs. urban) differences in use of tobacco among the college students are significant statistically as the calculated c2 value is higher than table value at the 5 per cent level. Result A total of 556 (51 per cent boys and 49 per cent girls) students (17-25 years old) were studied. Among these, 70 per cent of students (almost an equal number of boys and girls) were residing in hostels. Of the 556, 441 students i.e. 79 per cent came from rural area and the remaining 115 (21 per cent) from urban area. Of the total students, about 39 per cent had studied in first year degree course; 32 per cent in second year and 29 per cent were in third year. Table 1 depicts that among 556 students of the college, 180 of them i.e. 32.4 per cent were current tobacco users in this college. The boys had high rate of current tobacco use (53.7 per cent) as compared to the girls (10.3 per cent). Three hundred four students i.e., 54.7 per cent (Boys 29.3 per cent and Girls 80.9 per cent) had never used tobacco at any point of time in their past life. Seventy-two students forming 12.9 per cent had not used or tasted tobacco just before 30 days of the survey. Table 2: Rural-Urban Classification of Students using tobacco Boys n (%) Girls n (%) Rural 28(10.3) 48(17.0) 24(8.8) 83(29.3) 221(80.9) 283(100) 273(100) 152 (53.2) 28 (10.3) 180 (32.4) Boys n (% ) Hosteller 111 (56.9) Day Student 41(47.1) Total 152 (53.2) Girls n (% ) Total n (% ) 20 (10.4) 131(33.6) 8 (10.1) 49 (29.5) 28 (10.3) 180(32.4) Hostellers=390 Students (Boys=195; Girls=193) Day Students =166 (Boys=87; Girls=79) c2 = 0.348 Table value: 3.84 Table value: 7.81 Research Explorer 25(21.7) Table-3: Classification of Tobacco Users as Hostellers and Day Students 556(100) 2 = 155.84 0 Consumption of Tobacco by Hostellers and Day students: 304(54.7) Total 25(47.1) c2 = 5.37 Table value: 3.84 72(12.9) Not Consuming 155(35.1) Rural =441 Students (Boys=232; Girls=209) Urban=115 Students (Boys=51; Girls=64) 180(32.4) Past users of tobacco 28 (13.4) Total Boys n (%) Girls n (%) Total n (%) Current tobacco users 152 (53.7) 127(54.7) Urban Table-1: Distribution of Tobacco Users Tobacco Use Total n (%) 7 Among the hostellers, 33.6 per cent used tobacco while it was 29.5 per cent in day students (Table 3). Even though there was higher per cent of tobacco users in boys hostel than the day students July - December 2012
  8. 8. Vol . I : Issue. 2 (56.9 per cent vs. 47.1 per cent), there was no much difference between the hostellers and days students of the girls in use of tobacco. The c2 statistics show that there is no significant difference in use of tobacco between hostel students and day students. ISSN:2250 - 1940 Figures in parentheses indicate percentage (Yule Co-efficient of association Total: 0.43; Boys: 0.30 & Girls: 1) The college was established in 1994 at Mayabunder. Till then the college did not have play ground and the existing indoor games facility would accommodate less than 10 per cent of the students. Further, no co-curricular and extra-curricular activities were conducted in this college since November 2009. The teaching work starts in this college at 9.00 am and ends at 2.40 pm. The college could not engage the students especially the hostel inmates in productive way after college hours. He nce it may be i nferre d that th e po or infrastructure might be the reasons for additional tobacco users year after year. The structural weakness in implementing the ban on tobacco use on campus was another reason for more tobacco users. More than half of the tobacco users used tobacco during the college hours that formed 17 per cent to the total students surveyed. There was no comprehensive tobacco control effort in this college which is substantiated that two-third of the employees, especially the teachers were also tobacco users. The use of tobacco products by the teachers and other staff in front of the students sends a dangerous message about the social acceptability of tobacco use on the campus. Hence it may be said that tobacco use by parents, teachers and friends are associated with students’ tobacco habits in the present study. Factors Associated with tobacco use: An attempt was made to assess the factors associated with tobacco use among the college students. The factors were assessed in two phases: at the student level and at the college level. As student level factors it was observed that among the current tobacco users, 50 per cent of them entered the college with the habit of tobacco use who formed 16.2 per cent to the total students of the college. The prevalence and intensity of tobacco use progressively increased with the number of years in this college. For instance, the use of tobacco increased from 16.2 per cent in the beginning of the first year to 27.2 per cent in beginning of second year; to 31 per cent in the beginning of third year and ultimately to 32.4 per cent at the end of third year. Thus it may be said that these 16.2 per cent of the students influenced their friends which became 32.4 of the tobacco users in this college. It was observed that 178 out of 180 current tobacco users and all the past tobacco users i.e. 72 students in this college said that their friends were the first source to uptake tobacco use. Thus peer pressure is an important direct factor that influenced the tobacco use of young people. However, the parental influence cannot be ignored in tobacco use among the college students. It is noted that out of the total tobacco users in this college 91 per cent of them belonged to the family in which at least any one family member, parents or siblings consumed tobacco while only 9 per cent belonged to non-consuming family (Table-4). When 89 per cent of the tobacco using boys belonged to tobacco consuming family, the entire tobacco using girls belonged to the tobacco consuming family. Discussion This is the first study in Andaman and Nicobar Islands to assess the prevalence of tobacco habit among college students. The study had two limitations, first: it was based on tobacco users’ self report; second: the tobacco use among staff of the college was based on personal identification or personal count, which might have been prone to recall bias. This study has showed that nearly half (45.3 per cent) of respondents had used a tobacco in the past month and one-third (32.4 per cent) currently used tobacco and similar results were obtained in a survey conducted among U.S. college students in 1999 which reported 45.7 per cent of students had used a tobacco in the past year and 32.9 per cent consumed tobacco the tobacco cu rren tl y. Whil e ci gare tte smo ki ng w as predominant among health care students in Jaipur, this study pointed out that the smokeless tobacco Table-4: Distribution of tobacco users according to the tobacco consuming family and none consuming family -wise: Research Explorer 8 July - December 2012
  9. 9. Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 use was predominant practice among this college boys and girls, reflecting the cultural practices of the community. According to GATS (Global Adult Tobacco Survey) 2009-10 report, 34.6 per cent of adults currently used tobacco in India (47.9 per cent of males and 20.3 per cent of females). This study indicated that the prevalence of tobacco use among college students was less than the national average especially among girls – 10.3 per cent but the use of tobacco among the boys was above the national average i.e.., 53.7 per cent. This study reported some good news; there was no smoking habit among college girls. The social and cultural taboo attached to smoking by young girls was reflected in the present survey. In this college, tobacco use was more popular in smokeless form. The simple reason was that the students found convenient to use tobacco anywhere at any time. Some students saw it as being less harmful than smoking. The smokeless tobacco needs as much attention in control efforts because of high prevalence of spitting leading to an unhygienic environment. have simply followed in the first step of their parents; if mother and father used tobacco, chances were good that the children would also. Conclusion: The decision to use tobacco is a lifestyle choice that impacts health, longevity and the quality of life. College appears to be a time when many students are trying a range of tobacco products an d are in dang er o f de ve lopin g ni co ti ne dependence. Many studies have shown that tobacco free workplace policy was found to have a si gn ifican t associati on w ith l ow er tobacco prevalence. College offers a potential site for interventions to discourage tobacco use. One key component is to make college buildings including hostels tobacco free. Hence tobacco cessation programme should be initiated on the campus. There is need of community based tobacco cessation facilities. Much more survey needs to be carried out in urban colleges of these islands in order to build comprehensive data base for future policy decisions on tobacco control and cessation programmes. All the students including the tobacco users were aware that tobacco was harmful; however, they were unsure about the type of damage it causes. All of them were only aware that tobacco causes cancer. While all were aware of the relationship between tobacco and cancer, they did not realize that an even stronger link existed between cigarette smoking and coronary heart disease. This is proved from the reasons for not continuing the tobacco habit recorded in this study: only insignificant po rtio n of the past u se rs said that th ey discontinued due to health problems. Despite all the students including the tobacco users said that tobacco is injurious to health, they have continued to use tobacco. It is not ignorance that moves the students to use tobacco. By the time they were in school most know that use of tobacco is dangerous. Then the reason for starting tobacco might be that they did not identify with illness and death, viewed as old people problems. The students might have thought that life would go forever. Another reason was peer pressure. No teenagers wanted to appear different or strange; the group mentality might have been very strong during these years. For many of the students, tobacco use might be a means of becoming an accepted part of the group. That’s why the majority of the past users replied that they used tobacco just for fun. Some students might Research Explorer References 1. Editorial, World No Tobacco Day 2011: India’s progress in implementing the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Indian Journal of Medical Research, May 2011: 455-457. 2. Editorial, It is time to make smoke free environments work in India, Indian Journal of Medical Research, May, 2007: 599-603. 3. El-Amin, Salma El-Tayeb., et al., The role of parents, friends and teachers in adolescents’ cigarette smoking and tombak dipping in Sudan, Tob Control 2011; 20:94-99. 4. Gao, Jia Ning, et al., Workplace Smoking Policies and their Association with Male Employees’ Smoking Behaviours: A crosssectional survey in one company in China, Tob Control, 2011; 20: 131-136. 5. Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Global Adult Tobacco Survey: Fact S he et I ndia 2009-10, M umbai: International Institute for Population Science. 6. Gupta, P.C. and C.S. Ray, Tobacco, education & health, Indian Journal of Medical Research, October 2007; 126: 289-299. 9 July - December 2012
  10. 10. Vol . I : Issue. 2 7. Gupta, Prakash C. et al., Smokeless Tobacco: A Major Public Health Problem in the SEA Region: A review, Indian Journal of Public Health, 2011; 55(3): 199-209. ISSN:2250 - 1940 14. Mishra, Gauravi A. et al., Workplace tobacco cessation program in India: A success story, Indian J ournal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2009; 13(3): 146-153. 8. HRID AY ( He alth Re late d I nformati on Dissemination Amongst Youth), Tobacco Control Laws and Initiatives in India: Issue Based Factsheets, New Delhi, n.d. 15. Narain, Raj, et al., Age at Initiation and prevalence of tobacco use among school children in Noida, India: A cross-sectional questionnaire based survey, Indian Journal of Medical Research, March 2011; 133: 300-307. 9. Jiloha, R.C. Tobacco Smoking: How far do the legislative control measures address the problem? Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 2012; 54(1): 64-68. 16. Satyanarayana G. et al., A Smoking Survey of College Students in India: Implications for Designing Antismoking Policy, Japan Journal of Cancer Research, 1991; 82: 142-145. 10. Kaur, Jagdish and D.C. Jain, Tobacco Control Po li ci es i n In di a: Impl emen tati on and Challenges, Indian Journal of Public Health, 2011; 55(3): 220-227. 17. Singh, Iqbal., et al., Prevalence of Tobacco Habits Among Health Care Students in Jaipur, JK Science, 2010; 12(3): 116-119. 11. Kishore, Surekha, et al., Tobacco Addiction Amongst Adolescents in Rural Areas of District Wardha, JK Science, 2007; 9(2): 79-82 18. Sinha, D.N. et al., Tobacco Use among Youth and Adults in Member Countries of South-East Asia Region: Review of Findings from Surveys under the Global Tobacco Surveillance System, Indian Journal of Public Health, 2011; 55(3): 169-176. 12. Man-kit Leung, C. et al., Fighting Tobacco Smoking – a Difficult but Not Impossible Battle, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2009; 6(1): 69-83. 19. Rigotti, Nancy A., et al., US College Students’ Use of Tobacco Products, JAMA, 2000; 284(6): 699-705 13. Mathur, Prashant and Bela Shah, Evidence Building for Policy: Tobacco Surveillance/ Surveys and Research in India, Indian Journal of Public Health, 2011; 55(3): 177-183. 20. Toghianifar, Nafiseh, et al., Smoking Cessation Support Availability, Sources & predictors, Indian Journal of Medical Research, June 2011; 133: 627-632. SELP ACADEMY SELP academy is a unit of SELP trust which established mainly for providing in-depth coaching to the competitive examinations and specialized in TRB, TET, NET, SET. Classes are conducted by eminent professors and subject experts with intensive teaching and model examinations. Success rate will be predetermined with restrictive strength in each section of classes Reader gracious study material with full coverage of syllabus will be supplied to the candidates in the first class itself and reviewing the performance in regular intervals. Research Explorer 10 July - December 2012
  11. 11. Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 INEQUALITY AND GROWTH: CHALLENGES FOR INDIAN ECONOMY Dr. Anurodh Godha Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, Vardhaman Mahaveer Open University, Kota (Rajasthan) India ABSTRACT India is the largest democracy in the world, something to be very proud of, but, does this democracy really offer average Indian the choice that it ought to? Rapid economic growth over the past decade in India was the main driver of poverty reduction, but, rising income and non income inequalities (e.g. inequalities in health, education, and economic assets such as land) could be an inherent by-product of the growth process. Inclusive growth focuses on creating opportunities rapidly and making them accessible to everyone but in India the growth is not uniform across various sectors; and large cross sections of the population remain outside its purview. Several economic, political and social factors need to be tackled for sustaining a rapid rate of growth, as well as to make the growth inclusive. Key Words: Inequality, Inclusive growth. Introduction gradation and it obviously gives us pride to see highest Billionaires in Asia are from India. India is roaring but I bet they need to save face to know that India houses highest numbers of BPL (below poverty line) people in world. Our malnutrition data are worst. According to a recently conducted survey by the NSSO, around one- fifth of rural India survives on Rs 12 a day. “The benefits of growth seems to have bypassed the overwhelming majority of India’s population, the Indian economy’s rapid expansion has actually widened inequality, shrunken job opportunities and reduced w ages” - National Commi ssion for Enterprises in the Unorganized Sector (NCEUS). The pain of hunger is the worst thing to happen in someone’s life. We can never feel how it feels, when there is nothing to eat, and it is impossible for those people who take pills to increase their appetite. We are living in a society where one person is dieing of over eating and the other without food. Looking at the darker side the growth is lopsided. There are people in this country still who can’t afford two square meals a day. We still find so many people begging, picking rags and plastics from garbage. The government instead of doing the balancing act is playing facilitator to big industries. Th e grow th of i ncome in equ al ity is a phenomenon that is being witnessed in all countries, both developed and developing, but in a democracy like India, these inequalities are likely to lead to social unrest because greater degree of income inequality put lower impact of growth on poverty reduction. As rising income inequalities and the persistence of unacceptably high levels of non income inequalities pose a clear and present danger to India’s progress, so the paper advocates some strategies to make that growth inclusive. Likewise in the realm of health and education and other human development indicators, India’s performance has been far from satisfactory. The rich-poor divide has increased and poverty reduction figures of India are now lower than those of Bangladesh. There are disparities among regions, states, sectors, and communities. Among the states, the north-eastern and the central regions, which have large tribal populations, are lagging behind. Among sectors, agriculture has fallen behind industry and the service sector. Although some of the poorest states are rich in natural and forest resources, the predominantly tribal population is unable to take advantage of this. Since independence the Indian economy has striven hard for improving its pace of development. Notably in the past few years the cities in India have undergone tremendous infrastructure up Research Explorer 11 July - December 2012
  12. 12. Vol . I : Issue. 2 All countries: rich or poor, all administrators: politicians or bureaucrats, all governments: democratic or totalitarian, all systems: capitalist or socialist have claimed to be working for “inclusive growth”. They have all perhaps done their bit in finding ways for such a growth. There are theories and philosophies propounded for the purpose; there are programmes and schemes announced with that intent. There are measures and machineries put in place. Governments have won and lost elections on this issue. However, the issue remains there today, as it was before centuries and decades. ISSN:2250 - 1940 Challenges and Prescriptions: collective efforts for inclusive growth “If inclusive growth is the objective, we need to shift focus from formal to informal sector given its size,” - K.P. Kannan (a former commission member of National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganized Sector) The main problems in India are poverty & corruption. The later one that is corruption is the main cause for the underdeveloped condition of our country even after 60 yrs. There is a race amongst bureaucrats, politicians and entrepreneurs to enrich themselves at any cost: corruption being a central tool in this game of enrichment. Corruption is definitely one of the ills that prevent inclusive growth, rather, enabling the rich to get richer and keeping the poor poorer. In India you have to work hard to get something correctly and in legal way but if you offer bribe to somebody in the middle then your work would be over in minutes. Rajiv Gandhi had once remarked that hardly ten percent of the money earmarked for rural projects in India reached the actual beneficiaries. Unfortunately, the situation hasn’t changed much at all since. What is Inclusive Growth? Each one of us will have a different definition of the term “inclusive growth”, different approaches for analyzing the issue and different strategies for arriving at solutions. However, the term, in common parlance, would mean “growth by which everyone benefits”. There cannot be any dispute with either the letter or spirit of this definition. It is an ideal, which must be achieved. Growth is inclusive when it allows all members of a society to participate in, and contribute to the growth process on an equal footing regardless of their individual circumstances. Inclusive growth by its very definition implies an equitable allocation of resources with benefits accruing to every section of socie ty . The re are some attri bu te s of inclusiveness and these are: The most disquieting aspect of the widespread corruption in India is the fact that it is not anymore confined to politicians or the government machinery alone. It is prevalent amongst almost every section of the society at every level. It does not shock Indians anymore to know that not only the politicians, ministers and IAS & IPS officers are corrupt but even the judges, professors, doctors and NGO organisations are. Opportunity: Is the economy generating more and varied ways for people to earn a living and increase their incomes over time? Capability: Is the economy providing the means for people to create or enhance their capabilities in order to exploit available opportunities? The study of world phenomenon on corruption has repeatedly branded India as one of the most corrupt countries in the world. Unfortunately, this view has not disturbed most of the Indians at all and they do not seem to care as to what others think of them. Access: Is the economy providing the means to bring opportunities and capabilities together? Security: Is the economy providing the means for people to protect themselves against a temporary or permanent loss of livelihood? The ‘educated’ Indian is well aware of the condition of the poor, the apathy of the corrupt politician and the flawed system, but is too self centred, busy in making the most of the ever ballooning stock market, they are not at all bothered about the system, everyone want to be a part of the ‘dirty game’ that is politics, movies like Rang De Basanti are rare to make and if produced than these type of movies put impact on Indian youth only in theatres. In India growth is far from inclusive. We all know it, we see the beggars on the streets, about the biggest slums in the world, we know of the cleaning lady who cannot afford treatment for her ailing husband, we read about the farmer suicides in Punjab and Maharashtra but who went to India Gate with candles??? Who talked hours together in Main TV channels??? Who came voluntarily to fight their case...??? We all understand their plight; we even sympathize and empathize with them, for the ten minutes after reading an article in a newspaper or seeing an amputated beggar on the street. Research Explorer Now, what can be the future of the Indian society in such conditions? Corruption exists in all societies at all levels, especially developing ones. The point is how serious we are about tolerating it. It is sad that those who are in charge of the nation today do 12 July - December 2012
  13. 13. Vol . I : Issue. 2 not appear to realise this and still are merrily going ahead with their dealings unconcerned about the harm that it would inevitably do to the larger national cause. Th e strate gy to tackl e corru ptio n mu st necessarily be multi-pronged – at the legal level, the enforcement level, as well as at the educational and social levels. Efforts at inclusiveness of society are predestined to failure unless more than just a semblance of attention is brought about on the corruption front. The system would be changed only when there is a perfect legislation that the hands that give bribe and take them should be cut and when it is implemented the scenario would change. One of the tools to deal with the corruption issue is to bring about greater transparency, both in the policy making and in the delivery systems. The Right to Information Act was a step in this direction. Though in its infancy still, its implementation does appear tardy. Governments have been defensive in their thinking. No growth can be inclusive unless it takes adequate care of women and children. In India exploitation of labour is widely prevalent. Despite the promulgation of minimum wages, the feudal system in the rural areas and industry in the urban conglomerates continue to fleece labour, paying them wages far below than prescribed. Child labour has been banned by law in India and there are stringent provisions to deter this inhuman practice. But millions of young children continue to work in roadside eateries, glass factories, carpet looms or sweeping and cooking in homes which is a violation of the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act. To stop this there is a need to tackle poverty which is the main reason driving parents into pushing their young children to work instead of sending them to schools. This mammoth problem is one of the main challenges to resolve in addressing inclusive growth. We need to attract children from poverty stricken families to schools. Mid-day meal schemes of Governments have met with partial success. Again, however, lack of transparency has ensured that funds and rations are misappropriated and misused. Ri gh ts o f wo me n, ch il dren , mi no ri ty communities and the other marginalised sections of society must be constantly watched and protected if we wish to reach our goal of a truly developed society. In recent years, India has become a country of demonstrations, agitations and ‘bandhs’ (forcible closure of shops, offices & transport). For Research Explorer 13 ISSN:2250 - 1940 the slightest pretext, trains are stopped, buses and private vehicles burnt and offices and business establishments forcibly closed. This leads to unimaginable loss of man hours and economic output, besides loss of confidence of the outside world for making investments. A peaceful and stable environment is a must for sustained foreign and domestic investments. In this regard, one has to look at initiating proper reforms in the criminal justice system, especially in the police. The Supreme Court has time and again reminded the Government of the need to reform the police force. The outdated Police Act of 1861 needs to be replaced with a modern Act. The Police force needs to be made more responsive and accountable. It should no longer be a tool in the hands of corrupt politicians but responsible to the law of the land. Only then would it be able to provide a secure atmosphere for economic activity to prosper and remove age old impediments towards inclusiveness. While on the subject of economic growth and its impediments, we must also refer to the impact and consequences of increasing world fuel prices and the associated threat that looms large over India’s future economic growth as oil prices go through the roof, India’s situation is becoming difficult. Within the last one year, the fuel prices have more than doubled from 65 dollars to nearly 150 dollars a barrel of crude oil, upsetting the entire economic applecart. We need to do some serious reflection on how to tackle this. We have to pay much more attention towards alternative sources of energy. “An overall growth of nine per cent will further increase income disparity between agriculture and non-agriculture households, unless around 10 million people currently employed in agriculture find remunerative non-agricultural employment,” - RBI Governor Y V Reddy. Every major industrialised economy in the world has followed a path which began with agriculture being the main source of income for the majority of the population and ended with agricultural employment being a very small fraction of the total labour force. In India more than 60 per cent of the population depended on agriculture while it contributes only 20 per cent to the GDP. Agriculture is extremely important for inclusive growth, since a large majority of the Indian population is dependent on farming. Improved agricultural productivity would bring in its wake increased family incomes for this vast majority. It is possible that growing urbanization, improved July - December 2012
  14. 14. Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 include elements of technology training and introduction to new practices, to improve farm efficiencies and productivity. It is also equally important to invest in value addition, in marketing chains and food processing. standards of living and consumption, would see a build up of pricing pressures on cereals, pulses and oilseeds in India. As an opportunity, this gives scope to revitalizing investments and returns in agriculture. The centre of focus for the business has shifted somewhere else but not the villages and agrarian economy. To achieve high pay-offs in terms of growth and inclusiveness we have to pay special emphasis on development of rural infrastructure such as rural roads and housing, primary and secondary education, health and sanitation SMEs and labour-intensive export-oriented industries and social sector expenditure like MGNREGA. • • There should be a policy of distribution of cooking fuels like kerosene and domestic gas at subsidized prices, as well a food grains at below market prices to urban poor. • Increased public spending on education and health care, including strengthening the midday meal programme and offering scholarships to the needy • Empowering the scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, other backward classes, minorities, women and children, socially, economically and educationally. • True inclusive development would mean that even the poorest Indians get a chance to move into the modern, high-productivity sectors. For that, we will need greater liberalization. Three reforms will be especially important. One, we have to create a entrepreneurial spirit, Two, new labour laws that will give companies a reason to use less expensive capital and more permanent labour, Three, The national rural employment guarantee scheme needs to be extended to urban areas where most of the affected workers are likely to be found. We believe some of the following reforms will also ensure truly inclusive growth. These include: Increased rural employment, including the provision of a unique social safety net in the shape of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme. • Such contra-cyclical small-ticket targeted government expenditure (eg. MGNREGA) attempts to address the issue of a equitable distribution of income and balanced growth. They are very basic social security schemes at best and lodestones of corruption at worst. But Inclusive growth doesn’t mean farm loan waiver and the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme only. Increased credit availability, particularly to farmers an d othe rs, and o fferin g th em remunerative prices for their crops. Ensuring that, through public investment, the growth process spreads to backward regions and districts of our country. Local selfgovernment, as elaborated in our Constitution, provides the essential means of reconciling ‘accelerated growth’ with ‘inclusive growth. • The quantity and quality of public investment (in electricity, irrigation, rural roads, and storage and transport of food grains) in agriculture and rural infrastructure needs to be substantially increased. • R&D for innovation in agriculture needs to be encouraged. The Green Revolution that substantially increased food grain output and productivity were as a result of better seeds and technology. India needs to continue to leverage global technologies to increase yields. India has the third largest pool of scientists, engineers and doctors in the world, but it has yet to reach anywhere near its full potential with a majority of its vast population still illiterate or semiliterate. There are around 550 million youths in the country, almost half of the total population. However, due to poverty and social inequalities and caste system, more than a hundred million youths are illiterate or uneducated. In rural India, drop out rates of children attending school are very high. There are many institutions in rural areas, but their prospects are dim, because of lack of good governan ce, lack of far-sighted poli cies on education, etc. • Abolishing controlled prices, eliminating taxes on inter-state movement of goods, allowing farmers to sell directly to organised retail, and removing restrictions on land holdings (which are currently circumscribed by land ceiling acts), leading to fragmented land holdings, would increase productivity. It is important to In fact, the challenges are mighty and it may take long years to achieve the goal. Nevertheless, we need to work towards the betterment of our country through cooperation and collaboration. We need to go to the base; we need to explore our villages, not the forests and mineral resources only, but their inner talents of the people. Being about Research Explorer 14 July - December 2012
  15. 15. Vol . I : Issue. 2 70% of our population are in rural India; the development of the country depends totally on the development of rural communities. And that development will be achieved only when the people are educated for what education is one of the most powerful instruments to reduce poverty, inequality an d so un d go vernance. The me an in g of a democratic country will be clearer and clearer only when its people are educated. Literacy levels have to rise to provide the skilled workforce required for higher growth. We should give emphasis on building an intellectual environment in our villages and rural areas. This implies that the government should increase its spending on educational sector far and wide across the country. Better governance is the need of the hour, because the government in India still has a majority stake in almost all essential sectors e.g. the crucial sectors of health, sanitation, water arms, railways etc. A well-functioning democracy should allow citizens to have more voice in evaluating the quality of services they receive, for governments and service providers to be accountable, and for citizens to pay directly for services received. Without better governance, delivery systems and effective implementation, India will find it difficult to educate its citizens, build its infrastructure, increase agricultural productivity and ensure that the fruits of economic growth are well established. To resolve these issues, there has been greater accountability of politicians to the citizen, greater ability of citizens to hold service providers to account for the services they deliver. The elements of reform, in our view, should comprise: Encou rage greater private-sector participation; the regulatory constraints need to be removed. The private sector should take more social responsibility and contribute towards making growth more inclusive. There also ought to be greater accountability for politicians and civil servants. Allowing the private sector to provide public services in most essential sectors such as health, primary education, building infrastructure, water supply and inner-city transport would solve several important problems. It would enable the government to fulfil its obligations to supply core services, which are badly served. Citizens would exercise choice over providers, and it would clearly separate the role of provider and regulator, with the government becoming the latter (regulator). By decentralising provision of public services, the government can unbundle responsibilities across tiers of government to create checks and balances. Research Explorer 15 ISSN:2250 - 1940 This can only happen if the Government and the private sectors become equal and willing partners. All impediments in the path of publicprivate partnership should be removed. The Government needs to come out with transparent procedures for schemes like Special Economic Zones (SEZ), and also make willing partners and shareholders in the process to the people/farmers, whose lands are acquired for this purpose. Inflation, which is a major obstacle today to make the growth inclusive, worst affect the poor man. To reduce the impact of price hike on poor people the government should subsidise only the lowest income people and not special groups of people, provide help to people in investing their own skills and future incomes, playing the role in economy as light as possible (to the regulatory extent), making tax rates low and broad based, try to keep the ratio of public debt to GDP under control by limiting liabilities and finally applying rigorous social cost benefit tests to all spending and regulation decisions. The main instrument for a sustainable and inclusive growth is assumed to be productive employment. Employment growth generates new jobs and income for the individual (from wages in all types of firms, or from self employment, usually in micro firms), while productivity growth has the potential to lift the wages of those employed and the returns to the self-employed. After all, in many lo w-in co me cou ntri es th e proble m is n ot unemployment, but rather underemployment. He nce, i ncl usive growth is n ot on ly abo ut employment growth, but also about productivity growth. Moreover, it is not only about wageemployment but also about self-employment which means that returns to capital, land and other assets matter to the income potential of the focus group as shown in the identity above. Conclusion India has been endowed with some of the world’s most essential minerals, beautiful places, cultural diversities and capable & talented people. It is the time to make the most of what other countries can never even dream to have. There is much to be done, but if done and done correctly and then nothing can stop us from reaching the pinnacle of the world. References: www.ecomomictimes.indiatimes.com, www.google.com, www.rbi.org.in, www.economicshelp.org, www.economywatch.com, www.financialexpress.com, www.indiamart.com July - December 2012
  16. 16. Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 MICRO FINANCE BY BANKS IN INDIA Dr. C. Paramasivan, Ph. D., Assistant Professor & Research Supervisor R. Anandaraman Ph. D Full Time Research Scholars PG & Research Department of Commerce, Periyar EVR College, Trichy – 23 ABSTRACT Micro finance is the basic concepts helping to self-employment people, low income groups, poor entrepreneurs in rural areas. It provides thrift, credit, savings and other financial services and products of small amount to poor in rural, semi urban or urban areas. Micro finance is the target raising their income, improve standard living, increasing economic growth, and reduce poverty. Micro finance is another aspect given empowers to poor women especially for handicapped women, divorce women, widow women. This paper focus on the role of banks in micro finance in India Key words: Entrepreneurship, Eradication of Poverty, Social Capital, Bank Finance Introduction marketing, money transfer, life cycle product, fund transfer etc. Microfinance means provide small loans to poor families helping them to engage in productive activities of small business namely petty shop ,flower shop, idly shop, candle making, vegetables, vending, wire basket, weaving etc. The term Micro finance refers to extending the whole range of financial services from savings to credit to micro insurance to micro enterprises and a lot more for the poorer sections of society whose scale of operations are so small and hence are generally excluded from the purview of the existing service providers. The effectiveness of microfinance is better realized by the deprived sections when their capacities are also enhanced along with access to financial services. In the Indian context, the search for supplementary delivery mechanism to provide microfinance started with internal introspection regarding the innovations, which the poor had been traditionally making, to meet their financial service needs. Review of literature Amutha. J and Ramakrishnan (2011) suggest th at the G overnmen t o f In di a en co urag es entrepreneurship among micro entrepreneurs through EDP. Cooperative banks linkage to retail credit outlets of the formal banking sector comprising 12,000 branches of district-level cooperative banks, over 14,000 branches of Regional Rural banks and over 30,000 rural and semi-urban branches of commercial banks; in addition to 1,12,000 cooperative credit societies at village level. Micro Finance The concept of micro finance was introduced Grammen bank of Bangladesh by Mohammed yunus severing over 7.34 million people with recovery rate of 98.35 percent. Micro finance refers to the provision of financial service to low income groups and self employment people. Micro finance has come to include a broader range of services li ke savin g, cre di t, in su rance, remittance, Research Explorer Kayar Kami (2011) concluded that the Self Help Group really helps the women folk to participate in organized activities apart from helping members to mobilize funds. The present study concludes that the respondents are economically and social empowered by becoming members of SHGs in Tuticorin District. 16 July - December 2012
  17. 17. Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Saravanan. S (2008) said that micro finance Programmes have proved that is an effective instrument for eradication of poverty. The spread of micro finance and the mobilization of women serve the twin purposes for enabling the state to withdraw from economic activities and diffusing any form of resistance against the state in the present economic conditions. banks and saving amounted to Rs. 701630.28 Lakhs off which 6098034 SHG exclusively belongs to women SHG and their savings amounted to Rs. 529864.47 Lakhs. Table – 2 Bank Loans Disbursed to SHGs Agency-wise (Rs. in Lakhs) Narbada Ghimire (2011) concluded that even though microfinance collateralizes social capital and makes credit accessible to the poor more than traditional banking institutions, some of the poorest women remain excluded, particularly those who might represent high risk in the eyes of other group members who evaluate the appropriateness of loan. Narayanan. B (2008) pointed that micro credit Programme has become an important tool to eradicate po verty in In di a. It is gathe ri ng momentum to become a major force in India. The Self-help groups (SHG) model with bank lending to groups of poor women without collateral has become an accepted part of rural finance. Source: NABAR Report 2011 Table no 2 reveals that the loan disbursed to SHG with bank position as on 31 st March 2011.commercial bank disbursed loans to 667941 SHG which amounted to Rs. 972455.27 Lakhs of which Rs. 879829.07 Lakhs disbursed exclusively to women SHG during the period. Co- operative bank disbursed loans to 229620 SHG which amounted to Rs. 162556.33 Lakhs off which Rs. 95956.54 Lakhs disbursed exclusively to women SHG during period 2011. Regional rural bank disbursed loans to 296773 SHG which amounted to Rs. 319761.59 Lakhs off which Rs. 286447.78 Lakhs disbursed exclusively to women SHG during the perid-2011. As on whole Rs. 145477.19 Lakhs disbursed to 1196134 SHG which includes Rs. 1262233.39 Lakhs exclusively to 1017218 women SHG Table – 1 Savings of SHGs with Banks Agency –Wise (Rs. in Lakhs) Table – 3 Bank Loans Outstanding Against SHGs Agency - Wise Soruce: NABARD Report 2011 (Rs. in Lakhs) Table no 1 indicates that the savings of SHG with bank wise position as on 31st March 2011. There are 4323473 Lakhs SHG opened account with commercial bank, of wise 3655322 Lakhs SHG exclusively belongs to women. Savings of the SHG with commercial banks amounted to Rs. 42300.42 Lakhs off which Rs. 332560.07 Lakhs by women SHG. Savings of the SHG with Co-operative banks amounted to Rs. 135084.19 Lakhs of which Rs. 78059.57 Lakhs by women SHG. Savings of the Regional bank Rs. 143539.67 Lakhs off which Rs. 119244.83 Lakhs by women SHG. As on whole, there are 7461946 SHG were opened account with Research Explorer Source: NABARD Report 2011 Table 3 reveals that the bank loans outstanding against SHGs wish position as on 31st March 2011. Rs. 2188325.67 Lakhs loan outstanding in commercial banks including of Rs. 1848765.4 Lakhs exclusively from women SHG Rs. 190785.65 17 July - December 2012
  18. 18. Vol . I : Issue. 2 Lakhs outstanding. In co-operative banks including of Rs. 114678.62 Lakhs exclusively from women SHG Rs. 743005.23 Lakhs loan outstanding. In regional rural bank including of Rs. 648931.55 Lakhs exclusively from women SHG. The table concludes that the total loan outstanding amounted to Rs. 3122116.55 Lakhs which includes Rs. 2612375.57 Lakhs exclusively women SHG. Table – 4 Non Performing Assets of Bank against SHGs Loans Outstanding (Rs. in Lakhs) ISSN:2250 - 1940 As on total there are 469 MFIs were disbursed loans to the SHG which amounted to Rs. 760518.02 Lakhs. Suggestions Banks are playing a key role in the field of socio economic development of the country trough providing micro finance to the rural women SHG in the country. With the help of SHG, mobilisations of micro savings in the banks have been increased in a remarkable position. Hence, bank and micro finance is the interdependent mechanism which promotes the smooth running of the banking services as well as SHG. SHGs in the India is one of the largest segment in the world which consists of 43, 23,473 groups with the savings of Rs.423006.42 Lakhs in th e ye ar 2011.Thi s is o ne of the n otable achievement of the SHG with help of bank and micro finance institution. Hence, the Source: NABARD Report 2011 It i s se en fro m abo ve table n o 4 th at nonperforming assets of banks against SHGs loans outstanding bank wise position as on 31st March 2011. NPAs against SHG were highly recorded in co-operative banks (7.04% ) followed by commercial banks (4.88% ) and regional rural bank (3.67% ) average NPAs against SHG as march 31st 2011 is 4.72 percent. Commercial bank placed first in amount wise NPAs (Rs. 106698.92 Lakhs) followed by regional rural bank (27281.73 Lakhs) and cooperative bank (Rs. 13430.15 Lakhs). Table - 5 Bank Loans provided to MFIs during 2010-2011 and Loans outstanding (Rs. in Lakhs) Banks the banks should encourage the SHG to increase the savings habits also deal more micro finance Bank financial assistance to SHG is not in appreciable manner due to adverse mantality of the banking personnel. Hence, the banking personnel should change their attitude towards the SHG Loan distributed to SHG by banks during the year 2011 is also progressive trends as compare to the previous years. Commercial banks are the largest loan distributors to the SHG. But it compare to the saving of SHG, the amount of loan will be nominal. Hence, the commercial banks should come forward to liberalise the loans to the SHG Loan outstanding is one of the indicators which reflect the repayment of the loan wider in a time. Most of the banks are unable to recover their loans to weaker section and poor people due to personal and political reason. In the situation bank should develop a voluntary mechanism to reduce the loan outstanding in due course. NPA against SHG loans is also quit common, which can not eliminate completely. The banks should aware about the utilization of the loans amount by the beneficiary Source: NABARD Report 2011 It is seen from the above table no 5 that the loans provided to MFIs during 2010-2011 and loan outstanding as on 31st March 2011. Commercial banks provided loans to SHG through 460 MFIs amounted to Rs. 760102.33 Lakhs regional rural bank provided loans to SHG through 9 MFIs provided loans to SHG through has not applicable. Research Explorer Conclusion Micro finance is an important tool of poverty alleviation programmee in India which helps to re duce the poverty i n rural are as. Overall performance of micro finance, commercial bank has good performance in India. Co-operative bank has very poor performance of microfinance through self help groups. Regional rural bank must improve the overall progress of MF. Especially the banker July - December 2012 18
  19. 19. Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 5. Narayanan. B (2008). Micro credit in India-an Overview, Micro Credit and Rural Development, pp 21-26. provided credit to MFI has poor performance in India. Banks are responsible to actively involved in the field of Micro finance wide social development of the country. Cooperative banks must meet the rural people to promote the Micro credit and provide liberal micro finance to needed people and make them as a self sustainable person in the society. 6. Narbada Ghimire. (2011). Micro finance as a Policy Tool for Women Empowerment, Oregon State University, pp 1-33. 7. Neeta Tapan. (2010). Micro Credit Self Help Groups and Women Empowerment, New Century Publication, New Delhi. Reference 1. Amutha. J and Ramakrishnan. (2011). Role of women Self Help Groups in Co-operative Bank Linkage-with Reference to Nagapattinam District, Tamil Nadu Journal of Co-operation. 8. Paramasivan.C. (2012). Women Empowerment Issue and Challenges, Regal Publications, New Delhi. 9. Prasenjit Bujar Baruch. (2009). Self Help Groups and Asset Creation: A Case Study of Deharkuchi Gaon Panchayat of Nalbari District Assam, Journal of the Centre for Micro Finance Research, Volume. 1, No. 1, pp 183-194. 2. Aranganathan. T Sundar. K and Sathees kumar. L (2008). Micro Credit and Rural Development, Sabanayagam Publication, Chidambaram. 3. Jamie Morgan and Wendy Olsen. (2011). Aspiration Problems for the Indian rural Poor: Research on SHGs and MF, Institute for De ve lo pmen t Pol icy an d M an ag emen t, University of Manchester, pp 1-22. 10. Saravanan. S (2008). Micro Finance and Rural Development in Tamil Nadu, kissan world, Volume.35,No.8, pp 9 11. Sudhansu kumar Das and Sanjay kavi Das. (2011). Micro finance and India’s, Rural Economy, New Century Publications, New Delhi. 4. Kayarkani. (2011). SHG Based Micro finance on Women Development-an Empirical Study, Self Journal of Social Science Volume. 2, No. 7. SELP AWARD Scientist and academicians with outstanding contribution in their academic and social service fields are honoured by the trust by confirming them awards on the recommendation of the experts. Resume should be submitted to the president of the trust in the concerned application forms. SELP- Young Social Scientist Award Academician and researchers in the field of social sciences below the age of 40 are motivated in their field. SELP - Best Faculty Award To motivate the college teachers belong to the social sciences subject with the age of below 35 years are eligible to apply. Ambethkar Social Service Award Those who are contributing outstanding performance in the field of upliftment of weaker sections are eligible to apply. Periyar Social Reformer Award Those who are contributing outstanding performance in the field of inter caste marriage, abolition of caste and religions are eligible to apply. Research Explorer 19 July - December 2012
  20. 20. Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 INDIAN BANKING INDUSTRY: A FOCUS STUDY ON HOUSING FINANCE Dr. Kastoori Srinivas Sr. Lecturer & Project Director Department of Commerce, Vivek Vardhini (AN) College of Arts & Commerce, Jambagh, Hyderabad- 95. ABSTRACT Shelter is a basic human need. To a modern man no other problem is as intriguing and mind boggling as the housing problem. The capital cost of a house is very high multitude of the average income of the person. Against the milieu of rapid urbanization and a changing socio-economic scenario, the demand for housing has grown explosively. Having identified housing as a priority area in the present five year plan, the National Housing Policy has envisaged an investment target of Rs. 2500 billion (App) for this sector. In order to achieve this investment target, the Government needs to make low cost funds easily available and enforce legal and regulatory reforms. The present paper analyzes the extent of role for public sector and private banks related to housing finance. Keywords: Banking, Housing banking, Housing Finance, ICICI, Commercial banks. Introduction attempting to reduce the scale of national housing problems through public expenditure. Conversely, improving housing conditions can have a major in fl ue nce on po ve rty al le viati on throu gh improvements in the living standards of low-income families, and on poverty reduction via increased employment opportunities. Furthermore, the problems of poor housing and poor environmental conditions are closely interrelated in many cities. The scale of housing problems in Latin America is vast, and the dimensions of the problem varied and broad. Currently most Latin American economies do not supply fully serviced dwellings for all the population. The formal mechanisms of housing production and financing do not reach all segments of the population, while informal mechanisms produce solutions that are either substandard r expensive. Lack of sanitation se rvices, overcrow din g an d in su fficie nt environmental protection are the most pervasive problems, while extended travel time to employment and urban services centers worsens the problem for most urban households. Poor housing affects mostly low-income households in urban areas. Rural housing problems are also serious yet attract less attention. Housing problems are not only complex and severe, but vary in character from place to place. Interventions in one housing sub market often have spillover effects in others. The physical housing unit superstructure is only one dimension of the problem. Indeed the critical issue of poor housing may have little to do with the condition of the physical superstructure. Infrastructure (water, sewerage, electricity, telephones, transport) and access to employment are often as or more important problems. Moreover, when it comes to providing solutions, families and communities have some capacity to build their own houses, but have difficulty solving these o ther no n-divisible problems. One set of factors deserves emphasis. Poverty is both cause and effect of poor housing conditions. Lack of effective demand resulting from the low income of households is the underlying cause that prevents the private provision of houses through normal channels for most of the population an d pre sen ts a ch all eng e for g ove rnmen ts Research Explorer 20 July - December 2012
  21. 21. Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Bank activity in the Housing Sector: LowIncome Focus: leaves to do documentation for housing loans. Interest rates were also made by the institution a major issue to think before deciding on housing loans. Bank experience with housing projects shows the difficulties of establishing efficient and sustainable mechanisms to reach the poor. Many attempts have proven unsustainable and others lacked the capacity to reach the target population. Success often came with a high financial and institutional price tag for governments. However, IDB-8 mandates commit the Bank to emphasize lending for poverty alleviation projects, and lending for housing can be very effective in solving povertyrelated problems of households. Shelter and sanitation services provided by housing projects rank high in the priorities of households and governments. Cautious adaptation of successful cases will enable the Bank to effectively collaborate with governments in establishing low-income housing support mechanisms that respond to ho useh ol d ne eds an d pri oritie s, and are institutionally and financi ally sustai nable. Management of the Bank will ensure that, as part of the process of project identification, the relative merits of different types of programs will be duly considered. This consideration should include an estimate of how the benefits of different programs might be distributed over different income groups. ICICI Opens New Era in Housing Finance It is life time achievement for a person to purchase a sweet home for him and his family. The accommodation in Mumbai is affordable by and large with the help of housing finance. One has to keep in mind so many options available in the market. ICICI, a premier financial institution in the country is offering best financial product with value added services. It is not just finance but it is love and affection, which is been transacted. Most personalized service at your door step offered by the ICICI for housing finance seekers. Like a family member and good friend ICICI fulfills your need to have your sweet home. When you want someone to guarantee on your behalf to some financial institution, it is quite embarrassing. As if you are beggar, begging for your own money. ICICI is giving loans only on your credentials. There is no need to give any guarantor to ICICI. If you are lucky enough and had won a lottery or your father has given a large sum in his will or you have got casual income in lumsum and you are in a position to repay entire loan at one go, then you have to pay penalties. But ICICI is welcoming such steps and imposing no penalties on prepayment of loans. Most competitive interest rates and services at your door step, so that you do not bunk office hours, is been offered by ICICI. People working in ICICI are real assets since most professionalism and polite in manner gives ICICI true sense of belonging in the industry. With hitech technology ICICI also offer on-line processing of your loan application. Housing Finance: Housing finance is becoming major issue and  major area of operation for corporate in India. Besides private sector, semi government and nationalized banks are in the race. With various schemes to suit your requirement and with attractive interest rates, these housing finance companies are offering most attractive finance options for home seekers. Recently entered ICICI and IDBI bank have changed total equations in the housing finance market. With personalized housing finance loans to suit every need are offered by ICICI. IDBI Bank has first experimented with in-house customers, and now in big leap with other corporate in the league. It is learnt, that more then 100 crore disbursement by  ICICI,  has started ball rolling in the market. With most professional team, the institution has achieved and created new horizon in the housing finance market. The retail outlays of the institutions are giving services, which home seekers often do not get with traditional housing finance companies. One has to take countless Research Explorer Commercial banks and housing finance: The commercial banking sector, consisting mainly of the nationalized banks, makes a small contribution to house financing efforts. An overall quantum equivalent to about 0.5 per cent of total bank credit is earmarked every year for housing finance for various category for borrowers, excluding housing loans to banks own employees. The major portion is to be provided by way of subscriptions to the guaranteed bonds and debentures of HUDCO and various state housing 21 July - December 2012
  22. 22. Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 boards as well as by way of direct finance to individuals / groups of borrowers belonging to scheduled castes / tribes and economically weaker sections of the community. The balance amount is to be provide directly to HDFC. Commercial Banks could also finance housing cooperative societies, depending upon the feasibility of such housing projects. In case any housing project requires big investment, a consortium may have to be arranged comprising commercial banks, HUDCO, LIC, housing boards and other bodies, depending upon the type of scheme. areas for low /middle income groups. (v) Education, health, social, cultural and other institutions / centers which are part of housing projects and considered essential for the development of markets or townships. (vi) Shopping centers / markets catering to the daily needs of residents of housing colonies. NHB’s as an apex in housing finance: Th e Nati on al H ou si ng Ban k (NHB), established by an Act of Parliament (1987) as an Apex H ousing Fin ance I nsti tution , started functioning from July 9, 1988. NHB is responsible, inter alia, for the development of housing finance system on sound lines. The Act empowers NHB to make loans and advances, among others to scheduled commercial banks in respect of their lending for housing. Accordingly, a refinance scheme has been formulated for scheduled commercial banks in respect of certain categories of housing loans extended by them. The refinance scheme will be effective from January 1, 1989 and specified housing loans granted by the scheduled commercial banks as from that date will be eligible for being covered under the scheme. Scheduled commercial banks desirous of availing refinance facilities from the NHB will have to execute an agreement in the prescribed form and have an appropriate resolution passed by their respective Boards of Directors. The agreement will need to be stamped in accordance with the laws in force in a particular state where the agreement is executed. After execution of the agreement, the bank concerned will become eligible for refinance facility from NHB in respect of housing loans sanctioned on or after January 1, 1989. The RBI’s Working Group on Housing (1978) in its report on “Finance for Housing Schemes” estimated that the total annual advances of banking sector averaged at Rs. 75 Crore till 1980 and Rs. 100 Crore in 1991. Commercial banks do not lend money for more than 10 years for any housing scheme, because long-term housing loans have problems like (i) problems of liquidity arising out of the high statutory reserve ratio imposed by the RBI, (ii) lack of technical and financial expertise for appraising housing finance proposals and (iii) the feeling that housing is basically a speculative activity in nature. Another problem for banks is that of security, against which they have to lend for housing. Though house property has some book value, it has negligible marketable value and further legal problems make it difficult for banks to realize the value of security in the event of default. In view of these risks and peculiar nature of h ousing finance, the commercial ban ks cautiously refrained from this field. But, however, of late, there has been a tremendous change in their outlook. Banks now have been directed to treat housing as a priority sector for the purpose of lending. Under the 20-Point Economic Programme, the banks are required to extend direct loans up to Rs. 5,000 to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and other weaker sections of the society. They also finance Government agencies for constructing houses exclusively for the benefit of scheduled castes / tribes and low income groups where the amount of loan does not exceed Rs. 5,000 per unit. The objective of this refinance scheme is to encourage construction of new houses / flats as also extension and up gradation (including major repairs) of the existing stock by persons belonging to low income category, i.e., the small man first. Refinance will be provided only in respect of direct lending to individuals / groups of borrowers (formal or informal, including cooperative societies). Housing finance routed through Regional Rural Banks by Sponsor banks will be treated as direct lending of the latter. Refinance will be restricted to housing loans – (i) up to Rs. 50,000 per individual for acquisition or construction of a new housing unit not exceeding 40 sq.mtrs., of built-up area, and (ii) up to Rs. 30,000. Bank l oans can be avail ed for : ( i) Construction of houses and hostels for scheduled castes / tribes. (ii) Houses under the slum clearance schemes. (iii) Family planning clinics and health centers covered under the public health programs. (iv) Housing schemes in urban and semi-urban Research Explorer 22 July - December 2012
  23. 23. Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 The HFCs are now eligible to basic refinance limit from NHB up to 5 times their Net Owned Funds (NOF is paid up capital plus reserves). Additionally a separate refinance limit is given to HFCs up to Rs. 10 crore of NOF, additional refinance up to 3 times the amount of their deposits is allowed. For HFCs above Rs. 10 crore of NOF, additional refinance up to 2 times the amount of deposits is allowed. Special consideration is given by NHB for finance provided to rural areas by the concerned HFCs. Taking all these factors into account, an overall ceiling is kept at 15 times the NOF for all types of refinance by NHB to HFCs. requiring separate house), and replacement/ upgradation of kutcha/ unserviceable kutcha houses and obsolescence/ replacement of old houses, etc. had grown over the decades. Indian public sector banks to lead and initiate to improve the housing situations in india. References 1. Basu D.N. and Mehta V.K., 1993. Housing Finance System in India, Urban India, XIII (1), January – June; 36 – 50. 2. Chitharanjan, K.V. 1986. Finance for Housing, Economic Trends, 15, (17), September, 5 – 9. The Extent Problem 3. Das Samantak, 1996. Housing Finance – Some Relevant Issues. The Management Accountant, December, 888 – 893. The Working Group on Rural Housing for the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007- 12), has estimated the total housing shortage in rural areas at 47.43 million units at the end of 2012. As per Government estimates, the total housing shortage in the urban areas, at the beginning of the 11th Plan period was around 24.71 million units and is likely to go up to 26.53 million units by 2012. The urban situation is equally appalling with 99 per cent of the housing shortage pertaining to the Economically Weaker Section (EWS) and Low Income Group (LIG) categories. It is also of major concern that 90 per cent of the rural housing shortage (approximately, 42.69 million units) are in respect of Below the Poverty Line (BPL) categories. 4. Lal, V.D., 1987. Budget and Housing Sector. Economic and Political Weekl, 22, (15), April 11 : 671 – 675. 5. Munjee, Nasser, 1985 – 86. Conceptualizing a viable housing finance system. Capital (Annual Number), PP : 47 – 50. 6. Nambirajan, R., 2001. Home loans and Tax Benefits, Indian Infrastructure, May, PP 42 – 43. 7. Nathan Narendra, 2002. Cheap and Best. Intelligent Investor, October 31, New Delhi, PP 50 – 56. According to a report of ICRA†, housing loans as a percentage of GDP have remained at around 7 per cent, significantly lower than the levels achieved in most of the developed countries. It indicates the extent of opportunity for deeper penetration of such marke t. With impro vin g demo graphics and economies of scale, the mortgage to GDP ratio is likely to increase. The stakeholders, however, need to reckon with problems and impediments in the process which may arise from changes in the economic cycle, uncertainties surrounding land acquisiti on poli cies, chang es in the poli cy framework and systemic risk that could arise out of rapid credit expansion with lax due diligence standards. 8. Various Annual Reports of NHB, New Delhi. 9. Various Trends and Progress of Housing in India, NHB, New Delhi. 10. Annual Reports of HDFC, PNBHF, LICHF, SBOP and Housefed 1990 – 91 onwards. 11. Narasimham N.V., 2005. The Indian Journal of Commerce, Vol. 58, NO. 2, PP 71 – 78, April – June, 2005. 12. Vasant D asai, 2006 – 07. Ban ks and Institutional Management in India, Himalaya Publishing House, Hyderabad, Housing Finance (23), PP 372 – 389. Conclusion 13. Annual Reports, ICFAI Publications in Banking Sector, Journals and Other Response Books. Housing shortage has always been a major problem over the years in our country since independence. Such shortage estimated as excess households over houses including houseless households, congestion (number of married couples 14. Jasmaindeep Kaur Brar and J.S. Paricha, 2005. Article on Housing Loans – A Comparative Study of Institutions published in the Indian Journal of Commerce, Vol. 58, No. 2, April – June, 2005. Research Explorer 23 July - December 2012
  24. 24. Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 E-GOVERNANCE IN INDIA: SOME ISSUES Devendra N. Vyas Asst. Professor, Department of Commerce, G. S. Science Arts and Commerce College Khamgaon, Dist. Buldhana 444 303 (MS) ABSTRACT E-Governance means giving the citizens the choice of when & where the access to the government information and services so that openness, accountability, effectiveness and efficiency may be achieved. E-Governance would also cater to automated applications for the government sector, which helps in achieving SMART governance which some define as - Simple, Moral, Accountable, Responsive and Transparent Governance. Egovernance is not just about government web site and e-mail. In this paper objective, challenges, opportunities in terms of different models and issues for successful implementation of e-governance are discussed. For successful implementation of e-governance Standards, Infrastructure, Legislations, Strategy all needs to be in place. It requires a Global Vision and local implementation. Key Words : E-Governance, accountability , back office automation, knit infrastructure Introduction E-governance is the application of electronic means in (1) the interaction between government and citizens and (2) in internal government operations to simplify and improve democratic, government and business aspects of Governance. In simpler terms E-Governance means giving the citizens the choice of when & where the access to the government information and services so that openness, accountability, effectiveness and efficiency may be achieved. There are three aspects of E-governance: culture of self-service wherein citizens can help themselves wherever and whenever required. 2) Government can become more integrated into the community itself. Also government can focus its resources where they are needed the most. The specific objectives are: a) IT enabling the government functions something similar to back office automation b) Web enabling the government functions so that citizens will have direct access and 1. To develop the high-level awareness and co mmitme nt that wil l carry fo rw ard eGovernance for development. 2. To develop the capacities necessary to address e-governance strategically. 3. To develop the human and data infrastructure necessary for e-governance. 4. To implement pilot projects. c) Improving government process. Challenges: Objectives of E-Governance: The strategic objective of e-governance is to support and simplify the process and activities for government and citizens. For a government to operate effectively government-community-citizens infrastructure should be in place. A closed knit infrastructure would yield to fold benefits, which would save time and money for all concerned1) Citizens can enjoy faster, effective and timely government services. This would also evolve a Research Explorer 24 The fundamental strategic challenge faced by egovernance is e-readiness. This is a multi fold challenge posing basic questions such as: i) ii) iii) iv) Are the Data Systems infrastructure Ready? Is the institutional infrastructure Ready? What about the Legal infrastructure? Can we cou nt o n the techn ol og ical infrastructure? v) Is the human infrastructure ready? July - December 2012
  25. 25. Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Phase III: Transaction vi) Are we equipped with the leadership and strategic thinking? Wi th phase thre e th e co mpl ex ity of the technology is increasing, but customer (G2C and G2B) val ue w ill also be h igh er. Co mple te transactions can be done without going to an office. Examples of online services are filing income tax, filing property tax, extending/renewal of licenses, visa and passports and online voting. Phase three is mainly complex because of security and personalization issues – e.g., digital (electronic) signatures are necessary to enable legal transfer of services. Opportunities for e-governance: There is no dearth of opportunities for egovernance; government may follow some of the popular models implemented world across, which is bound to create varied opportunities. Government-Citizen conjoined model: With the advent of information technology, there is a probabili ty of adoption of gove rnme nt community conjoined model, which will inherit its traits from the culture of each government and society. Phase IV: Transformation The fourth phase is the transformation phase in which all information systems are integrated and the public can get G2C and G2B services at one (virtual) counter. One single point of contact for all services is the ultimate goal. Service delivery model: In the service delivery model, citizens will also participate in decision making processes, replacing the top-down process that characterizes too many governments. The ultimate focus will be on effective and efficient delivery of government services. Issues for E-Governance: The fundamental issues that need to be stressed to meet good governance goals in India are Gartner’s Model This is an innovative model suggest by Gartner (An E-business Research consulting Firm). As per this model, the e-governance is a FOUR-phase activity. Funding: Since there will be more focus on the long term capitalisation of the investments made in this area, though the e-governance could have very laudable objectives and ambitious work plans, they have to be weighed in terms of available resources both in the plan sector and outside it. Funding is the foremost issue in e-Governance initiatives. Phase I: Information In the first phase e-governance means being present on the web, providing the external public (G2C and G2B) with relevant information. The format of the first government websites is similar to that of a brochure or leaflet. The value to the public is that government information is publicly accessible; processes are described and thus be come mo re tran sparent, w hich improves democracy and service. Internally (G2G) the government can also disseminate information with static electronic means, such as the Internet. Management of Change: Most often, when the E-governance initiatives are implemented, it would lead to mandatory changes which do affect both people and levels of the Delivery chain through which services are delivered. The delivery of Government services through the electronic media including Internet and other IT based technologies would necessitate procedural and legal changes in the decision and delivery making processes. Phase II : Interaction In the second phase the interaction between government and the public (G2C and G2B) is stimulated with various applications. People can ask questions via e-mail, use search engines for information and are able to download all sorts of forms and documents. These functionalities save time. In fact the complete intake of (simple) applications can be done online 24/7. Normally this would have only been possible at a counter during opening hours. Research Explorer Privacy: The privacy of the citizen also needs to be ensured while addressing the issues. Whenever a citizen gets into any transaction with a Government agency, he shells out lot of personal information, which can be misused by the private sector. Thus, the citizen should be ensured that the information flow would pass through reliable channels and seamless network. 25 July - December 2012

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