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Motivational Theories


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This presentation describes about various theories of motivation and explains how they play role in real life.

Published in: Leadership & Management

Motivational Theories

  2. 2. MOTIVATION  Process that accounts for individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal.  3 major component of motivation  Intensity  Direction  Persistence
  3. 3. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Hierarchy of needs theory • Theory originated by Abraham Maslow in 1943. • Within every human being there exist a hierarchy of 5 needs and if that human being has a physiological need at a point of time then he can’t be motivated for self actualization need.
  5. 5. Theory X and Theory Y
  6. 6. Two Factor theory  Originated by Fredrick Herzberg  A framework that says there are certain factors in the workplace that cause job satisfaction, while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction
  7. 7.  According to Herzberg, intrinsic motivators such as challenging work, recognition, and responsibility produce employee satisfaction, while extrinsic hygiene factors, including status, job security, salary, and fringe benefits – if absent – produce dissatisfaction.  Hygiene factors are needed to ensure an employee is not dissatisfied.
  8. 8.  McClelland theory of needs  He proposed that an individual’s specific needs are acquired over time and are shaped by one’s life experiences.  These needs are classified as: o Need for achievement o Need for Power o Need for affiliation
  9. 9. CONTEMPORARY THEORIES…  SELF DETERMINATION THEORY It is concerned with the beneficial effects of intrinsic motivation and harmful effects of extrinsic motivation.
  10. 10.  GOAL - SETTING THEORY • Goal setting involves establishing specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time- targeted (S.M.A.R.T) goals.
  11. 11.  SELF EFFICACY THEORY  An individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task  People with a strong sense of self-efficacy: View challenging problems as tasks to be mastered Develop deeper interest in the activities in which they participate Form a stronger sense of commitment to their interests and activities Recover quickly from setbacks and disappointments
  12. 12.  REINFORCEMENT THEORY  Reinforcement theory focuses on the environmental factors that contribute to shaping behaviour.  There are four primary approaches to reinforcement theory: Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Extinction Punishment
  13. 13.  EXPECTANCY THEORY  Theory says that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual  It focuses on three relationships  1. Efforts Performance Relationship  2. Performance Reward Relationship  3. Rewards Personal goals Relationship
  15. 15. EQUITY THEORY/ ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE  Individual compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities.
  16. 16. RATIO COMPARISON  O/Ia < O/Ib (Underpay)  5/10 10/10  Inequity  O/Ia = O/Ib (Equity)  10/10 = 10/10  O/Ia > O/Ib (Overpay  5/10 10/10  Inequity
  17. 17.  Based on equity theory, employees who perceive inequity will make one of six choices  1. Change Inputs  2. Change Outcomes  3. Distort perception of self  4. Distort perception of others  5. Choose a different referent  6. Leave the field
  18. 18. BIBLIOGRAPHY Organisational Behavior (15th edition) - Stephen P. Robbins - Timothy A. Judge - Neharika Vohra   Google images
  19. 19. THANK YOU