Rapid prototyping


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Rapid prototyping

  1. 1. Arvind Deshpande
  2. 2.  Refers to processes and technology which can produce physical models directly from the 3D CAD model data. Variety of specialized equipment, software and materials capable of using 3D CAD design data input to directly fabricate geometrically complex objects. Layered manufacturing STL (Standard Triangular Language) – Most common and generally supported by all the RP equipment Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 2
  3. 3.  A CAD model is generated and converted to STL format RP device processes the STL file by creating sliced layers of the model. Resolution of model depends on number of layers or layer thickness. First layer is created, the model is then lowered by one layer thickness and process is repeated until completion of the model The model and any supports are removed; the surface of the model is then finished and cleaned. Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 3
  4. 4.  Stereolithography Selective Laser Sintering 3-D Printing Fused Deposition Modeling Laminated Object Manufacturing Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 4
  5. 5. Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 5
  6. 6.  Most commonly used process for RP. First commercialized process. Build shapes using light to selectively solidify photo curable resins Uses support platform that is lowered into a reservoir of liquid photo curable resin. A UV-laser “writes” on the surface tracing the outline of the part, producing single layer of solidified resin. Laser beam is guided across the surface by servo controlled galvanometer mirrors. Initial layer is lowered incrementally by the height of the next slice, the layer is recoated with resin and another is traced on top of it. The process is repeated until entire part is made. Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 6
  7. 7. Materials – Liquid photo sensitive resinsAdvantages1. High accuracy2. Medium range of materials3. Large build sizeDisadvantages1. Expensive2. Support structures needed3. Limited to some of the photo curable plastics only Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 7
  8. 8. Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 8
  9. 9.  A layer of powdered material is spread out and leveled in the plane CO2 laser selectively traces the layer to fuse areas defined by geometry of the cross- section along with fusing to the bottom layer The powder can be joined by melting or surface bonding. After initial layer is formed, powder is reapplied and laser processes the next layer Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 9
  10. 10. Materials – Plastics, waxes, low temp. melting metal alloys, Nylon based materialsAdvantages1. Large range of materials2. Good accuracy3. Large build size4. Has the highest strength of any RP models.Disadvantages1. High cost process2. Poor surface finish Generally used in applications such as directtooling applications for investment and die castingapplications. Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 10
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  12. 12.  Similar to SLS but instead of laser beam, liquid binder is applied to bond the powder particles. The printer spreads a layer of powder from the feedbox to cover the surface of the build platform and then prints binder solution on to the loose powder, forming the first cross section of the part. Where the binder is printed, the powder’s particles are glued together. When the cross section is complete, the build platform is lowered slightly and a new layer of powder is spread over its surface. The process is repeated until the whole model is completed. The build platform is raised and loose powder is vacuumed away revealing the completed part. Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 12
  13. 13. Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 13
  14. 14.  A plastic filament is unwound from a coil and supplied material to an extrusion nozzle. The nozzle is heated to melt the plastic. Nozzle can move in horizontal and vertical direction. As the nozzle is moved over the table in the required geometry, it deposits a thin bead of extruded plastic to form each layer. The plastic hardens and bonds to the layer below. Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 14
  15. 15. Materials – Wax, polycarbonate, polypropylene and various polyesters.Advantages1. Good accuracy2. Functional materials3. Medium range of materialsDisadvantages1. Support structures needed Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 15
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  17. 17.  The paper foil comes off the material supply roll and the laser cuts around the outline of the layer. A heated roller moves over the top of the foil to bond the layer to the rest of the object. Model has the properties of laminated wood. Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 17
  18. 18. Laminated Object manufacturing (LOM) Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 18
  19. 19. Material - PaperAdvantages1. Good accuracy2. Large build sizeDisadvantages1. Limited range of material2. Support removal necessary3. Poor material properties Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 19
  20. 20.  Similar to the SLA except uses a photo-mask and a UV lamp to cure photoreactive resin instead of UV-laser. Can build multiple parts simultaneously. Parts are encased in water-soluble wax eliminating the need for supports Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 20
  21. 21. 1. Check the feasibility of new design concepts.2. Conduct market tests/evaluation.3. Assess the fit of complex mechanism.4. Promote concurrent product development.5. Make many exact copies simultaneously.6. Make moulds for wax cores in castings.7. Use as a master for silicon and epoxy moulds. Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 21
  22. 22.  Must be a solid model. Converts solid model into a collection of connected triangles. The size and number of triangles determines the accuracy of the RP part. Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 22
  23. 23. Example Slices of a Solid Model Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 23
  24. 24.  Process where all surfaces are converted into a collection of triangles. Curved surfaces can only be approximated by triangles. It is controlled by two parameters: ChordHeight and Angle Control. Angle Control is important when a surface feature is bounded by a curve with very small radii relative to its part size. Chordal Height specifies the maximum distance between a facet edge and the precise surface of the solid model. Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 24
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  27. 27. SLA SGC SLS LOM FDMSystem: 3-D Sys. Cubital DTM Helisys StratasysTypical slice: .010” .006” .006” .0037” .010” .25 mm .15 .15 .0925 .25 Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 27