Brain Specialization


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Brain Specialization

  1. 1. Dr. Paul A. Rodriguez Brain Specialization and Learning
  2. 2. Brain Lateralization <ul><li>The brain is able to perform unique functions particular to one hemisphere. In complex tasks, both hemispheres are engaged. </li></ul><ul><li>Left hemisphere processes external stimuli such as: speech , interprets words and evaluates material. </li></ul><ul><li>Right hemisphere processes internal messages by gathering information and looking for patterns. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Hemispheric Preference <ul><li>Left Hemisphere Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Right Hemisphere Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Connected to right side of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Processes input in a sequential and analytical manner </li></ul><ul><li>Time-sensitive </li></ul><ul><li>Generates spoke n language </li></ul><ul><li>Does invariable and arithmetic operations </li></ul><ul><li>Specializes in recognizing words and numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Connected to the left side of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Processes input more holistically and abstractly </li></ul><ul><li>Space –sensitive </li></ul><ul><li>Interprets language through gestures, facial movements, emotions, and body language </li></ul><ul><li>Does relational and mathematical operations </li></ul><ul><li>Specializes in recognizing faces, places, objects, and music </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Gender Connection <ul><li>Males </li></ul><ul><li>Females </li></ul><ul><li>Less gray matter than females , with more in left hemisphere than right . </li></ul><ul><li>Higher white matter than females, with the same in both hemispheres. </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebral spinal fluid is higher than in males. </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus callosum is smaller and thinner in females. </li></ul><ul><li>Language areas is located almost exclusively in left hemisphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Amygdala grows faster in teenage boys. </li></ul><ul><li>Hippocampus grows slower in teenage boys than in girls. </li></ul><ul><li>Gray matter is the same in both hemispheres. </li></ul><ul><li>Lower percentage of white matter than males. </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebral spinal fluid is lower than men. </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus callosum is larger and thicker than in males. </li></ul><ul><li>Language areas are in the left hemisphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Amygdala grows slower in teenage girls than in boys. </li></ul><ul><li>Hippocampus grows faster in teenage girls than in boys. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Possible Causes of Gender Differences <ul><li>The Effects of Hormones influence brain development differently in the sexes. Example with testosterone and boys. </li></ul><ul><li>The Effects of Natural Selection have fostered structural changes in the brain that are specific to each gender. </li></ul><ul><li>The Impact of the Environment studies indicate that boys’ and girls’ acuity of senses do not develop identically in both genders. </li></ul><ul><li>The Empathizing Female and Systemizing Male according to Simon Baron-Cohen (2003) proposes that female brains are wired for empathy, and that male brains are wired for systemizing. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Schools and Hemispheric Preference <ul><li>Left-Hemisphere Schools </li></ul><ul><li>-Structured environments that run according to time schedules, favor facts and rules over patterns, and offer verbal instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on Mathematics and Science </li></ul><ul><li>-Male and female brains deal differently with numbers and computation. Both boys and girls are on a level playing field. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Spoken Language Specialization <ul><li>Learning Sounds Called Phonemes </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Grammar </li></ul><ul><li>The total number of phonemes in the world languages is around 90, which represents the maximum number of sounds that the human voice apparatus can create (Beatty, 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>Practice in speaking and adult correction helps children decode the mysteries of grammar’s irregularities. Prolonged television watching can impair the growth of young brains (Zimmerman & Christakis, 2005). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Learning Spoken Language <ul><li>Language Delay to two years is inherited, and thus represents a distinct disorder not easily remedied by environmental interventions (Dale et al.,1998). </li></ul><ul><li>Implications are that the brain’s ability to acquire spoken language is at its peak in the early years, students benefit from a create a rich environment that includes lots of communication activities </li></ul>
  9. 9. Learning To Read <ul><li>Is Reading a Natural Ability? </li></ul><ul><li>-No areas of the brain specializes in reading. </li></ul><ul><li>-Learning to read requires three neural systems: </li></ul><ul><li>-Understanding </li></ul><ul><li>-Auditory Processing </li></ul><ul><li>-Visual Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Skills Involved in Reading </li></ul><ul><li>-Phonological and phonemic awareness </li></ul><ul><li>-Alphabetic principle and phonics </li></ul><ul><li>-Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>-Fluency </li></ul><ul><li>-Text comprehension </li></ul>
  10. 10. Problems in Learning to Read <ul><li>Linguistic Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Nonlinguistic Causes </li></ul><ul><li>-Phonological deficits </li></ul><ul><li>-Differences in auditory and visual processing speeds </li></ul><ul><li>-Structural differences in the brain </li></ul><ul><li>-Phonological memory deficits </li></ul><ul><li>-Genetics and gender </li></ul><ul><li>-Brain lesions in the word processing areas </li></ul><ul><li>-Word-blindness </li></ul><ul><li>-Perception of sequential sounds </li></ul><ul><li>-Sound-frequency discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>-Detection of target sounds in noise </li></ul><ul><li>-Motor coordination and the cerebellum </li></ul><ul><li>-Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder </li></ul>
  11. 11. Reference <ul><li>How the Brain Learns </li></ul><ul><li>by </li></ul><ul><li>David A. Sousa </li></ul>