Planet Del Carmen verde Guardians News A p r i l 1 2 , 2 0 1 1 V o l u m e 1 , I s s u e 1 A p r i lNotes: Vernier Logger Pro LabQuest and good Water pollution in ‘Sabana Llana’ stream products to sample water quality. ArcGIS Explorer Like most people the first ways or non-natural ways. is overloaded by pollutants and Excellent tool for thing you think about when Every body of water like riv- creating dynamic the micro-organism can’t dis- you here the word water ers, seas, lakes and estuaries model where you compose it, this pollutants stay pollution is water you can’t analyze, manipulate in the water polluting it and all and develop data. drink and is probably con- the living beings in and around taminated, and your probably Blogger Web2.0 it. fascinating tool to right . Water pollution is any document the proce- chemical change, physical or The non-natural way of water dure of the project. biological quality of water pollution is cause by domestic that has a harmful effect on discharge, industrial discharge , any living being who con- have a natural ability to clean agricultural wastes, sedimenta-Inside this sumes that water. When hu- itself. They all have a limited tion, erosion, oil and otherissue: mans drink polluted water capacity of micro-organisms, dangerous substances.Introduction 1 often have health problems. which are the ones in charge This projects greatest desire is Water pollution can also of discomposing and changing to solve this problem. But weAbstract 1-2 make it unsuitable for a de- the pollutants into substances can’t do anything if we dont sired use. Pollution in water that can be used by living know anything about the waterPurpose 2 often can occur by natural beings. But when this capacity and its characteristics. In our first field trip we measure theMethodology 3 water’s temperature, ph and turbidity.Procedure 3 AbstractData Results 4 The multidisciplinary project impact the hydrology and Vernier Software LabQuest,Data Analysis 7 Planet Guardians of Colegio how the change in land use MS Publisher 2007, ArcGIS Nuestra Sra. Del Carmen, train- can affect plant and animal Explorer, Adobe PremierConclusion 10 ing students to study watersheds communities that live along it. yThinkquest.org or Blogger and understand what happens to This project will develop Planet Guardians project is a the flow of water over them. technology skills in applica- multi-application where stu- Also, learn how human activities tions such as Logger Pro and dents have the opportunity to
Page 2 research on water quality -Temperature from several points of Sa- -Dissolved Oxygen bana Lllana stream in -Stream Flow Trujillo Alto. To perform these investigations will be -Ammonium ISE used hand held technologies -Nitrate ISE called: Vernier Technology -Chloride ISE Mr. José explaining the sampling process for take water quality measurements. Some of the measurements which will be performed are: -Turbidity -Conductivity Some students making -latitude & longitude water quality measure- -pH ments. Purpose The project Planet watershed to understandFreedom to inquire and Guardians, enable students the flow of water in them,technology excellence to explore their own wa- how human activities within tershed and understand watersheds have been what happens to the flow shaped by its hydrology, of water over them, the and how land use by hu- Students using Vernier way in which human activi- mans is affecting the hydrol- Labquest for sampling. ties depend on the river ogy watershed. and impact the hydrology, As a component of water and the way in which the quality research, the stu- change of land use can af- dents used handhelds Lab- fect plant and animal com- Quest Vernier scientific and munities that live along it. current sensors for meas- This project also seeks to uring pH, dissolved oxygen, develop technology skills in Industrial Discharges an Un- temperature, turbidity, applications such as Vernier natural contamination cause. nitrate ion, Ammonium LabQuest, Logger Pro Soft- ion, calcium ion, chloride ware, ArcGIS Explorer, ion, conductivity and Adobe Premier, MS Office stream flow. Publisher 2007 and Thinkquest.org or Blogger. These will allow students Trash near the stream basins to investigate their own Plan et Gu ardians New s
Volu me 1 , Issu e 1 Page 3 try, levels of nitrates and phos-Methodology phates can be measured with a pho-Planet Guardians used Vernier technology to tometer Chemistries multiple analy-take water quality measurements. It will sis.choose an urban water body near the school Upon completion of the program,and then take two sampling sites. There will students will be able to: Define thebe three shots for each sample with the terms of watersheds, point sourceVernier LabQuest sensors. pollution, pollution from nonpoint sources, pH, dissolved oxygen andThe students took measurements of tem- turbidity.perature, pH, DO, conductivity, stream flow, As a component of water quality re-turbidity, ammonium, calcium, nitrate and search, students observe, calculate andChloride with Vernier sensors. If desired, to map the physical characteristics of ademonstrate the principles of water chemis- stream bank (riparian) habitat. Quanti- tatively, using handheld scientific Lab- Quest Vernier sensors and currentProcedure Vernier LabquestPart I. Physical Assessment coastal, download speed, quali- the field, running the interactiveof Water Quality tative and quantitative local software water quality, studentsDescription: As a component of watersheds. Identify by name assist in the creation of hy-water quality research, students and number of used tools re- potheses, data entry, records ofobserve, calculate and map the search scientist and physical observation and scientific find-physical characteristics of a mathematics to gather water ings on the local tap water.stream bank (riparian) habitat. quality data build a model of Objectives: Upon completion of Conductivity SensorsQuantitatively, using handheld watershed maps drawn using the program, students will bescientific LabQuest Vernier sen- titles, legends, its role and for- able to: Define the terms ofsors and current flow, measuring mulate ways they can help watersheds, point source pollu-flow velocity stream of students maintain healthy water. Recog- tion, pollution from nonpointand calculate the discharge cur- nize the general state of health sources, pH, dissolved oxy-rent average. Qualitatively, stu- and water quality a stream is gen and turbidity. Identifydents use observation skills to based on physical and chemical. local watersheds by namenote specific characteristics and and the name of number ofphysical flow. For example, titles, Part II. Chemical Evalua- different sources of pollu-legends and symbols, students Dissolve Oxygen Probe tion of Water Quality tion. Explain how pollutantscollect and analyze quantitative Description: As a component travel through the basin andand qualitative information on a of water quality research, stu- river. Explain how differentcurrent map, draw conclusions dents use handhelds LabQuest chemical properties of a stream Ion Selective Electrodesabout the water. Vernier scientific and current affect water quality. De- sensors to measure pH, dis- velop tools to use a scien-Objectives: Upon completion of solved oxygen, temperature tific model watershed andthe program, students will be able and turbidity. electronic books mathematics to gatherto: Define the terms of the wa- in the field, running the inter- chemical data of watertershed, erosion, deposition, active software water quality, quality.
Page 4 Objectives: Upon completion of the pro- Describe how macro invertebrates as gram, students will be able to: an indicator to study the role of species and develop ways they can help maintain Define the terms watershed, benthic healthy water. macro invertebrates, indicator species and local watersheds Identify by name and number of simple dichotomous keys and use flow charts to correctly identify macro different invertebrates. Recognize the overall health and qual- ity of water from a stream is based in physical, chemical and biological . Build a basin. Build the model and in- terpret a graph of distribution function. Sabana Llana Water Quality Results On a field trip to the Sabana Llana Temperature: The temperature of a stream and identifies a point where body of water influences its overall we start the investigation, once the quality. A change in water tempera- sensors are calibrated makes the ture can affect the general health of study begins by using the Vernier the aquatic organisms, thus changing LabQuest. In our investigation site 1 the quality of the stream. The tem- to the Sabana Llana stream we tested perature measured on Sabana Llana the water temperature, pH, conduc- stream is suitable for small mouth tivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, bass and the rest of similar water stream flow, Calcium Ion Selective organism. The average temperature determined using a Vernier Conductivity Electrode, Chloride Ion Selective Elec- in this site was 25.7 °C. Probe to determine the ability of the dis- trode, Ammonium Ion Selective Elec- trode and Nitrate Ion Selective Elec- solved salts and their resulting ions in an trode. unfiltered sample to conduct an electrical current.TDS values in lakes and streams pH: Water contains both hydrogen are typically found to be in the range of ions, and hydroxide ions. The relative 50 to 250 mg/L. The average conductivity concentrations of these two ions of the Sabana Llana stream is 403µS/cm. determine the pH value. If a solution is acidic, the concentration of OH– ions exceeds that of the H+ions. On a The pH level is acceptable for pH scale of 0 to 14, a value of 0 is the most drinking water standard . most acidic, and 14 the most basic. Conductivity: Solids are found The average pH of the Sabana Llana in streams in two forms, sus- stream is 8.2. The water is optimal pended and dissolved. Total for most organisms. dissolved solids or TDS, canPlan et Gu ardians New s
Volu me 1 , Issu e 1 Page 5 Dissolved Oxygen: Trout and given period of time. Discharge is small bass can’t live with this usually measured in units of cubic amount of dissolved oxygen found feet per second. Flow velocity is in this site of the Sabana Llana influenced by the slope off the stream. Oxygen gas dissolved in surrounding terrain, the depth of water is vital to the existence of the stream, the width of the most aquatic organisms. The aver- stream, and the roughness of the age DO of this site of the Sabana substrate of stream bottom. The Llana stream is 4.3mg/L. Some to the USGS, the turbidity of sur- stream flow of this site of the Sa- organisms Carp, Catfish, May fly face water us usually between bana Llana stream is low. 0.064 cfs, larvae can live in this amount of 1NTU and 50 NTU. Water is because there is not much depth, DO. visibly turbid at levels above 5 the stream channel is not wide, NTU. The average turbidity in this there are many rocks, and there is Turbidity is a measure of water’s no slope or inclination. site of the Sabana Llana is 55.4 lack of clarity. Water with high NTU. The water is visibly turbid . turbidity is cloudy while water with low turbidity is clear turbidity Stream Flow: Is the volume of . is measured in Nephelometric water that moves through a spe- turbidity Units, NTU. According cific point in a stream during aStudents used the Logger Pro software for graphing the collected data of the Sabana Llana water qualityInvestigation.Calcium Ion: Most calcium is cation. The concentration of cal-surface water comes from cium in fresh water is found in astream flowing over limestone , range of 4 to 100 mg/L. The aver-gypsum, and other calcium- age concentration of Calcium ioncontaining rocks and minerals. of this site of the Sabana LlanaThe concentration of calcium stream is 6.3 mg/L. This amountions in freshwater is found in a of calcium is in the expected lev-range of 0 to 100 mg/L, and els for organisms and for drinkingusually has the highest concen- water.tration of any fresh water
Page 6 Chloride Ion: These salt, 5.5mg/L. The obtain and their resulting chloride amount is within the nor- ions, originated from natu- mal levels. ral minerals, saltwater in- trusion into estuaries and industrial pollution. There are many possible sources of manmade salts that may contribute to elevated chlo- Vernier Labquest ride readings. Freshwater streams and lakes have a significant chloride level that can range from 1 to 250mg/L. In Sabana LlanaVernier Water Qual- stream the average concen-ity Package in action. tration of Chloride ion is Ammonium Ion Selec- in this water isn’t accepted tive Electrode: While levels for drinking water. Am- of ammonium nitrogen in monium-nitrogen levels drinking water should not are usually quite low in exceed 0.5 mg/L, streams moving surface waters. or ponds near heavily fertil- This is because there is ized fields may have higher little decaying organic mat- concentrations of this ion. ter collecting on the bot- The average of the concen- tom. If there is a high level tration of ammonium ion of ammonium nitrogen in are 6.29mg/L. These a moving stream, it may amounts of ammonium are be an indication of pollu- above the expected values. tion of some kind enter- The amount of ammonium ing the water. Nitrate Ion Selective Elec- high amount of nitrate trode: The nitrate level in which can’t permits life freshwater is usually found for many organism. in the range of 0.1 to 4 mg/ L . Unpolluted waters gen- erally have nitrate levels below 1 mg/L. The average concentration of nitrate ion in this site of the Sabana Llana stream is of 4.6 mg/L. This body of water has a Plan et Gu ardians New s
Sabana Llana Water Quality AnalysisIn this investigation of water quality that the club made Planet Guardians took several samples of parameters thatwill dictate whether that body of water is contaminated or is already polluted. As you know Vernier technologyused to measure the following parameters: temperature, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, current velocity, andconcentrations of ammonium, nitrate, chloride and calcium.Research tells us that most of the parameters are expected and normal levels, but we have to watch some ofthese which are the maximum allowed or are already at higher levels than expected.The parameters are:TurbiditySabana Llana - Site 1According to the USGS, the turbidity of surface water is usually between 1 NTU and 50 NTU. Water is visibly turbid atlevels above 5 NTU. The standard for drinking water is 0.5 NTU to 1.0 NTU. The average turbidity in this site of the Sa-bana Llana Stream is 45.8 NTU. The water is visibly turbid and in the standard range. It can’t be used for drinking water.Sabana Llana - Site 2The average turbidity in this site of the Sabana Llana Stream is 55.4 NTU. The water is visibly turbid and in the standardrange.Possible causes of high TurbidityMany factors can contribute to the turbidity of water. An increase in stream flow due to heavy rains or a decrease instream-bank vegetation can speed up the process of soil erosion. This will add suspended particles, such as clay and silt, tothe water.ConductivitySabana Llana - Site 1TDS values in lakes and streams are typically found to be in the range of 50 to 250 mg/L. Drinking water will tend to be 25to 500 mg/L TDS. The average conductivity of the Sabana Llana Stream is 403 μS/cm. There is little amount of metals be-cause the standard levels of conductivity are low. Sabana Llana - Site 2Llana Stream is 432 μS/cm. This measurement is of our concern because is in the maximum limit of this parameter. Wehave to watch very carefully the conductivity of the Sabana Llana Stream.Possible Causes of high Conductivity - Site 2Solids are found in streams in two forms, suspended and dissolved. Suspended solids include silt, stirred-up bottom sedi-ment, decaying plant matter, or sewage-treatment effluent. Total dissolved solids, or TDS, can be determined usinig aVernier Conductivity Probe
Ammonium Ion Selective ElectrodeSabana Llana - Site 2While levels of ammonium nitrogen in drinking water should not exceed 0.5 mg/L, streams or ponds near heavily fertilizedfields may have higher concentrations of this ion. The average of the concentration of ammonium ion are 6.29mg/L. Theseamounts of ammonium are above the expected values. The amount of ammonium in this water isn’t accepted for drinkingwater.Possible causes of high Ammonium concentrations –Site 2Ammonium-nitrogen levels are usually quite low in moving surface waters. This is because there is little decaying organicmatter collecting on the bottom. If there is a high level of ammonium nitrogen in a moving stream, it may be an indicationof pollution of some kind entering the water.Nitrate Ion Selective ElectrodeSabana Llana - Site 2The nitrate level in freshwater is usually found in the range of 0.1 to 4 mg/L . Unpolluted waters generally have nitrate lev-els below 1 mg/L. The average concentration of nitrate ion in this site of the Sabana Llana stream is of 4.6 mg/L. This bodyof water has a high amount of nitrate which can’t permits life for many organism.Possible causes of high Ammonium concentrations –Site 2Nitrates are an important source of nitrogen necessary for plants and animals to synthesize amino acids and proteins. Al-though nitrate levels in freshwater are usually less than 1 mg/L, manmade sources of nitrate may elevate levels above 3 mg/L. These sources include animal feedlots, runoff from fertilized fields, or treated municipal wastewater being returned tostreams. Levels above 10 mg/L in drinking water can cause a potentially fatal disease in infants called methemoglobinemia,or Blue-Baby Syndrome.
Page 9 Sabana Llana Site 1 Water Quality Investigation Sabana Llana Site 1I Water Quality InvestigationPlan et Gu ardians New s
Analysis of a Watershed in Puerto Rico Possible dynamic models : A) climatic data including seasonal and station densities a) Buffer zones map vs actual construction or aerial of both: extremes and averages. photos. b) road map b) Population density vs. amount of available water re- c) hydrographic maps sources d) hydrological data (inventory of water, surface runoff, c) Analysis of potential areas for reforestation prevent- river network); ing contamination of the canal. e) lists of species for the fauna and flora, land and wa- d) Map of places that could be designated as protected ter, its distribution, life histories, economically impor- reserves or for the benefit of all. tant species, rare species and unique or that are in dan- e) Map of the hot spots and dividing by their effect ger of extinction; (minimum, medium, severe) f) population density g) flood map h) ecosystem i) Soil maps (distribution, nutrients, toxic minerals); j) Anthropological studies; k) Sources of pollution past, present and future can do so by searching or a tour of the area using GPS. l) location and description of existing environmental problems, location of critical areasDiscussion of the resultsAccording to the dynamic model created with the ArcGIS Explorercan be seen clearly that the population density surrounding thesampling area is extremely high. Research tells us that most of theparameters are expected and normal levels, but we have to watchsome of these which are the maximum allowed or are already athigher levels than expected.With this model, students can create spatial analysis of data ac-quired, organized and manipulated by them.Students sampled two areas of Sabana Llana Stream. In the first site of the stream thesamples showed normal levels of measurement, except turbidity and conductivity that arein the maximum level of the accepted range. In the second site the samples showed a levelof nitrate and ammonium above the of the maximum level of range accepted. This secondpoint is the most affected by pollution which the NH4 and NO3 levels are strongly af-fected, reflecting a level far above the expected level. The possible causes are the agricul-tural runoff, some kind of human pollution entering the water, animal feedlots, runoff fromfertilized fields, or treated municipal wastewater being returned to streams.
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