THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AND THE LABOUR MOVEMENT
DEMOGRAPHIC REVOLUTION CAUSES CONSEQUENCES LESS-LESS WARS DEATHS - STRONG POPULATION-IMPROVEMENTS GROWTHIN MEDICINE AND HIGH -LIFE EXPECTANCYHYGIENE BIRTH INCREASE-BETTER DIET RATES MORE DEMAND FOR ALL TYPES OF PRODUCTS AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTIONChanges introduced by farmers toproduce more and satisfy theincreasing demand for food andraw materials. -EXTENSION OF CULTIVATED LANDS -INVENTIONS AND INNOVATIONS -IMPROVEMENTS IN STOCKBREEDING
EXTENSION OF THE CULTIVATED LANDSEnclosures: many communal lands (commons) were seized by private farmers,enclosed and converted in private lands.Consequences: more land cultivated. ENCLOSURE
FOUR- FIELD SYSTEM OF CROP ROTATION (NORFOLK SYSTEM) Alternation of cerals and fodder crops. This way the farmers: -got cereals -got food for the cattle -got natural fertilizers (manure) for the land - could renew the land without leaving any part fallow CHARLES “TURNIP” THOWNSEND
TURNIPS RYEGRASS CLOVERThese crops fixed nitrogen and increased land fertilty and could be used to feedthe cattle. WHEAT BARLEY
INVENTIONSSome inventions made the mechanization of some works possible:SEED DRILL (invented by Jethro Tull) ROTHERHAM IRON PLOUGH (invented by Joseph Foljambe) THRESHING MACHINE( Andrew Meikle)
SELECTIVE BREEDING He was the first to breed only animals with certain qualities. He elaborated genealogical records of his valuable animals and maintained his stock carefully. He had great success with sheepROBERT BAKEWELL LEICESTER LONGWOOL SHEEP
CONSEQUENCES-INCREASE OF PRODUCTION MORE POPULATION AND MORE RESISTANT-RICHER AND MORE VARIED DIET TO ILLNESSES-SURPLUS OF FARMERS IN MIGRATION TO CITIES INTHE COUNTRYSIDE SEARCH OF JOB
THE FIRST INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - STEAM ENGINE INVENTIONS AND INNOVATIONS - NEW ENERGY SOURCES: TO PRODUCE MORE HYDRAULIC POWER AND MINERAL COALMORE DEMANDFOR ALL TYPEOF PRODUCTS NEW WAY OF ORGANIZING WORK: FACTORY SYSTEM
STEAM ENGINE The water is boiled and the steam is used to move an engineJames Watt
NEW ENERGY SOURCESMINERAL COAL HYDRAULIC POWER COAL MINE
FACTORY SYSTEM Concentration of machines and workers in big factories and division of work. Working conditions got worse
- TEXTILE INDUSTRY (Cotton fabric industry)INDUSTRIESTHAT DEVELOPEDMOST - IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY (Production of steel)
TEXTILE INDUSTRYMECHANIZATION OF SPINNING MULE JENNY (Samuel Crompton) WATER FRAME (Richard Arkwright) SPINNING JENNY (James Hargreaves)
MECHANIZATION OF WEAVING POWER LOOM FLYING SHUTTLE (Edmund Cartwright) (John Kay)
IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY ABRAHAM DARBY HENRY BESSEMERhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/history/interactive/animations/blast_furnace/index_embed.shtml
MORE PRODUCTIONNEED FOR MOVING PRODUCTSFROM FACTORIES TO MARKETSTRANSPORT REVOLUTION
TRANSPORT REVOLUTION -Amelioration of traditional infrastructures: roads, river canals -Use of the steam engine for road transport and maritime and fluvial transport LOCOMOTIVE BUILT BY GEORGE STEPHENSON (1816) Consequences: - speed increased - travel duration and expenses reduced - people´s trips and trade increasedSTEAMBOAT BUILT BY ROBERT FULTON (1806)
CONSOLIDATION OF MARKET ECONOMY-PRODUCTS PRODUCED TO BE SOLD IN THE MARKET-CAPITALISM: PREDOMINANT ECONOMIC SYSTEM BASED ON THE PRINCIPLESOF ECONOMIC LIBERALISM: - Economy based on self interest and the search of maximum profit - People´s interests meet in the market and they interact according to the law of supply and demand - Means of production belong to a reduced group of people (capitalists) - The people who don´t have properties (proletarians/workers) have to work to survive. They receive a salary in exchange for their work. - The State doesn´t have to intervene in economy. Its role is reduced to guarantee private property and free economic relations- DEVELOPMENT OF BANKS: LOANS, DIRECT INVESTMENTS, OWNERS OFCOMPANIES´ SHARES AND FACILITATION OF PAYMENTS- PUBLIC LIMITED COMPANIES, TO DIVIDE THE RISK BETWEEN ALL THESTOCKHOLDERS.
SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - DEVELOPMENT: 2nd half of the 19th century -NEW ENERGY SOURCES: ELECTRICITY AND OIL -NEW INVENTIONS: dynamo, alternator, transformer, incandescent light bulb, trains, FIRST ELECTRIC GENERATOR tramways, subway, telegraph, telephone, radio, (Michael Faraday) cinematograph, phonograph, different types of engines (Diesel and explosion engine)INCANDESCENT LIGHT BULB PHONOGRAPH TELEPHONE(Thomas A. Edison) (Edison) (Meucci)
INDUSTRIES THAT DEVELOPED MOSTMETALWORKING INDUSTRY CHEMICAL INDUSTRY Production of metals: Production of different chemical stainless iron, aluminum products: cement, concrete, pesticides, dyes, pharmaceutical products…
NEW WAYS OF ORGANIZING WORKTAYLORISM/ PRODUCTION LINE MASS PRODUCTION/ STANDARDIZATION Every worker makes a part Many copies from the same model of the product These two ways of organizing work were used in car industry, in the production of the first standardized car (Ford T)
INDUSTRIAL CONCENTRATIONCompanies merged or signed agreements to save money and eliminatecompetitors.
CONSEQUENCES OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION-DEVELOPMENT OF CONSUMER SOCIETY-MASSIVE EXPLOITATION OF RESOURCES: BALANCE BETWEENPOPULATION AND RESOURCES BROKE UP (UNSUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENT)-POLLUTION-ACCELERATION OF THE URBANIZATION PROCESS-CYCLICAL CRISES IN CAPITALISM: RELATED TO LACK OF PREVISIONAND OVERPRODUCTION. CONSEQUENCES: UNEMPLOYMENT.
CONSUMER SOCIETYMore products could be bought by more people
ACCELERATION OF URBAN GROWTH POPULATION IN CITIES IN 1850
CYCLICAL CRISESBUSINESS CYCLE Related with the lack of planning, overproduction or lack of investments (difficulties of access to credit) Kondratiev waves
CLASS- BASED SOCIETY High bourgeoisie BOURGEOISIE Middle bourgeoisie (owners of capital or means of production Petty bourgeoisie PROLETARIAT/ WORKERS (obliged to work to survive)No estates, theoretical equality before the law, but differences related to the citizens´wealth
WORKING AND LIVING CONDITIONS OF WORKERSDreadful conditions
FIRST WORKERS´ PROTESTS: LUDDISMWorkers destroyed the machines, Captain Ned Luddbecause they considered themresponsible for their bad workingconditions Imaginary figure invented by the workers who signed the threat letters to the factories´ owners.
CLASS CONSCIOUSNESS Living and working together made the workers become aware of their situation and start organizing themselves to improve their working conditions.
FIRST WORKERS ASSOCIATIONS MUTUAL BENEFIT SOCIETIESThey helped workers in case of illness or unemployment. Workers paidmonthly fees to cover these situations.
TRADE UNIONSAssociations of workers of the sameprofession (trade) created to improve theworking conditions of their members.Declared illegal until the CombinationActs (1824)THE TOLPUDDLE MARTYRS (1832)They were condemned because they created afarmers´ union
CHARTIST MOVEMENTPolitical movement that demandedpolitical rights for the workers. Theypresented a chart to the Parliamentwith their demands. They didn´tget what they wanted.Great Chartist meeting atKennington Common( 1848)
-UTOPIAN SOCIALISM - SOCIALISM -SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM OR MARXISMPOLITICALIDEOLOGIES -ANARCHISM
UTOPIAN SOCIALISMPropositions based on collective property and the idea that humans are goodby nature and willing to cooperate. All these propositions failed. ROBERT OWEN He owned a cotton fabric factory, he worried about his workers and created a model community called New Lanarck (schools, no child labor, hospital, free housing). He tried to extend his project to the USA, but the experience failed COUNT OF SAINT SIMON He considered the kings, nobles and clergy to be useless and parasitical groups. He promoted the abolition of inheritance and he trusted in progress through industrialization CHARLES FOURIER He created the phalanstères: communities formed by 1,620 people, where every worker could choose the activity they wanted to do. All the phalanstères failed (none survived more than 2 years)
SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM OR MARXISM MARX AND ENGELSThey studied capitalism and reached someconclusions , reflected on several books, suchas the Communist Manifesto and The Capital.Main ideas: COMMUNIST MANIFESTO- Class struggle and proletarian revolution- Proletariat empoverishment- Trust in industrial workers only (as revolutionary)- Workers´organization- Surplus value- Workers´alienation.
CLASS STRUGGLE-History of humanity: continuous fight (struggle) between opressors andoppressed-19th century: CLASS STRUGGLE between the bourgeois (oppressors) and theWorkers (oppressed) WORKERS BOURGEOIS -The hard working conditions and exploitation of workers would lead to a workers´ revolution (proletarian revolution)
PROLETARIAN REVOLUTIONTWO STAGES1st STAGE: Dictatorship of the proletariat intoWorkers would take the Statemake a revolution and use it toand2nd STAGE: Communist society CLASSES Society without STATE PRIVATE PROPERTY
ORGANIZATION OF WORKERSMarx and Engels considered that workers had to organize themselves, creatingparties and unions, to get ready for the revolution, but also to participate inpoliticsDifferent socialist parties were created following Marxist ideas: Socialdemocratic Section Française PSOE (Spain) Party (Germany) de l´Internationale Ouvrière (France)
SURPLUS VALUEProfit workers produce with their work, but they don´t enjoy, becuse it servesto increase the capitalists´wealth.
WORKERS´ALIENATIONMonotonous work in factories destroyed the creativity of workers and theybecame slaves of the machines
ANARCHISM As a political ideology, it means “without government” (not chaos) MIJAIL PIERRE JOSEPH PIOTR BAKUNIN PROUDHON KROPOTKINMain ideas:-People are born free, but institutions (school, Church, State, army) snatch their freedomand limit their possibility of developing their capabilities.-The only way of recovering freedom is destroying everything that limits people´scapabilities (through revolution) and let the people decide how to organize their lives:cooperating with other people or staying apart.-Collective property-Trust in the revolutionary capability of both peasants and industrial workers.
PROPAGANDA BY THE DEED A minority of the anarchists defended the use of violence to eliminate the representatives of capitalism and they prepared terrorist attacks against bourgeois, politicians, military men, processions, kings Murder of Cánovas del Castillo (former President of the Government) at SantaTerrorist attack against Terrorist attack at the Liceu Águeda´s Spa (1897)the National Assembly, Theater, Barcelona (1893).France (1893) 20 people were killed
ANARCHO- SYNDICALISMThe majority of the anachists preferred creating unions in order to beorganized and educated for revolution. Anarchist union created in Spain in 1910
THE INTERNATIONAL WORKINGMEN´S ASSOCIATION (IWA) International organization created in London in 1864 to coordinate all the workers´efforts against capitalismThe First International included Marxists, Anarchists, trade unionists, but itDissolved in 1876 due to disagreements between Marxists and Anarchists.
THE SECOND INTERNATIONALCreated in 1879 only by Marxists: workers´anthem (L´Internationale), Labour Day, (1st May)and campaign for 8 working hours.Disputes between Marxists:-Some wanted to make revolution to reachpower-Others wanted to participate in the elections(Social- Democrats)The Second International dissolved during WW1.