The crisis of the Ancien Régime in Spain (1788-1814)

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Spain during the French REvolution: Charles IV´s reign and the Peninsular War

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The crisis of the Ancien Régime in Spain (1788-1814)

  1. 1. SPAIN DURING THE FRENCH REVOLUTION: THE CRISIS OF THE ANCIEN RÉGIME AND THE PENINSULAR WAR (1788-1814)
  2. 2. CHARLES IV (1788-1808) When Charles III died, his son Charles IV became the new king. He was not gifted to rule and Charles III adviced him to keep the counts of Aranda and Floridablanca as ministers. His reign was conditioned by the French Revolution. COUNT OF ARANDA COUNT OF FLORIDABLANCA
  3. 3. MANUEL GODOY, PRINCE OF THE PEACE, PAINTED BY GOYA This alliance strongly conditioned Charles IV´s reign and was decisive in its embarrassing end. In 1792 Charles IV appointed Godoy, a former royal guard, as prime minister . At the beginning Godoy decided to fight against France, but after Spain’s defeat in the War of the Pyrenees (1793-1795), he signed an alliance with France, against their common enemy: Great Britain.
  4. 4. BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR (1805) VILLENEUVE GRAVINA NELSON In 1805 France and Spain declared war to Great Britain, but the Hispano-French Armada was defeated in Trafalgar (Cádiz). In 1806 Napoleon decided to order the Continental Blockade against Great Britain.
  5. 5. TREATY OF FONTAINEBLEAU (OCTOBER 1807) Signed in the Château of Fontainebleau, near Paris, it allowed the French armies to cross Spain to invade Portugal. The French troops started coming into Spain and occupying cities CHÂTEAU OF FONTAINEBLEAU
  6. 6. MUTINY OF ARANJUEZ (MARCH 1808) In March 1808 Godoy moved the royal family to Aranjuez, fearing that Napoleon wanted to occupy Spain. Godoy´s enemies, led by Prince Ferdinad, conspired against Godoy and instigated the people to storm the Royal Palace. Godoy was arrested and fired and Charles IV abdicated on his son, who started reigning as Ferdinand VII. MUTINY OF ARANJUEZ
  7. 7. Charles IV regreted his decision and sent a letter to Napoleon, asking for his help to get the crown back. In May Napoleon called Charles and Ferdinand to Bayonne (France) FERDINAND VII
  8. 8. THE BEGINNING OF THE PENINSULAR WAR(2ND MAY 1808) On the 2nd of May 1808, some people of Madrid observed that the members of the royal family were going out of the Royal Palace, escorted by French soldiers. They thought that the royal family was being abducted by the French and a revolt against them started. The French troops strongly repressed the revolt, but protests spread throughout all the country. Francisco de Goya, the painter, witnessed the events in Madrid and reflected them on his paintings The 2nd and the 3rd of May 1808 (painted after the end of the war).
  9. 9. ABDICATIONS OF BAYONNE (5TH MAY 1808) Meanwhile in Bayonne Napoleon obliged Ferdinand VII to give the crown of Spain back to his father Charles IV. Charles IV gave it to Napoleon and Napoleon gave the crown to his elder brother, Joseph, who became Joseph I. JOSEPH I
  10. 10. PENINSULAR WAR (1808-1813) 1808: FIRST MONTHS END OF 1808 TO 1812: -ALMOST TOTAL FRENCH CONTROL OF THE COUNTRY - ONLY RESISTANTS: GUERRILLA APRIL 1812- END OF 1813 - RETREAT OF FRENCH TROOPS FOR THE RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN - HISPANO-BRITISH OFFENSIVE FROM PORTUGAL - INITIAL DISORGANIZATION - UNEXPECTED VICTORY IN BAILÉN - SIEGES
  11. 11. THE PENINSULAR WAR (1808-1814) - Initial disorganization of the Spanish army, commanded by nobles and poorly prepared to fight against the French. - The French army found big resistance in some cities: sieges of Zaragoza and Girona. - Unexpected victory in Bailén (19th July 1808). The Spanish troops, commanded by General Castaños, defeated the French troops, commanded by Dupont. The Spanish troops took advantage of their knowledge of the ground. Bailén was the first French major defeat in Europe. BAILÉN SURRENDER FIRST STAGE
  12. 12. The French troops had to retire to the Ebro Valley and Napoleon had to come personally in the Iberian Peninsula with his Great Army (Grande Armée)
  13. 13. JUAN MARTÍN DÍAZ EL EMPECINADO FRANCISCO ESPOZ Y MINA The French Army, commanded by Napoleon, occupied all Spain except Cádiz. Only guerrilla fighters resisted the French. They invented a new way of fighting (Guerrilla), based on the knowledge of the territory and the support of the local population: they constantly harassed the French soldiers, who were more and better prepared. The guerrilla fighters used irregular military tactics, like surprise attacks and sabotage.Their objective wasn´t winning, but discouraging the enemy. 2ND STAGE: END OF 1808-APRIL 1812
  14. 14. GUERRILLA WAR: MAIN GUERRILLA GROUPS
  15. 15. THE DISASTERS OF WAR: GOYA´S SERIES OF ETCHINGS
  16. 16. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Los_desastres_de_la_guerra ALL THE ETCHINGS OF THIS SERIES:
  17. 17. In April 1812, Napoleon started retiring troops for the Russian Campaign. The Hispano-British army, commanded by the Duke of Wellington, took advantage of this and invaded Spain from Portugal Their victories in Ciudad Rodrigo, Los Arapiles, Burgos, Vitoria and San Marcial forced the French to withdraw from Spain THIRD STAGE: APRIL 1812- END OF 1813
  18. 18. GOVERNMENT DURING THE WAR OFFICIAL GOVERNMENT: -Joseph I, supported by the Francophiles - Very little popular support - He tried to extend the reforms of the Revolution to Spain, but his orders were not obeyed and the war situation made the implementation of many laws almost impossible. LEANDRO FERNÁNDEZ DE MORATÍN, JOSEPH I JUAN MELÉNDEZ VALDÉS FRANCOPHILES The Francophiles considered the war as the opportunity of modernizing Spain.
  19. 19. CORTES OF CÁDIZ REBEL GOVERNMENT COUNT OF FLORIDABLANCA, PRESIDENT OF THE SUPREME CENTRAL BOARD Those who didn´t recognize the authority of Joseph I created boards (Juntas) in every city and province, coordinated by a Supreme Central Board that assumed the executive and the legislative power. The Supreme Central Board assumed the regency and organized the defense of the country. They got in contact with the British and the Portuguese in order to get their support against the Napoleonic army. They also decided to call Cortes in 1810. The Cortes met in Cádiz. Many deputies defended liberalism and this ideology was reflected in the first Spanish Constitution.
  20. 20. CONSTITUTION OF 1812 - It was passed on the 19th March 1812 (called the “Pepa”) - Inspired on the ideas of political liberalism: - National sovereignty - Division of powers - Wide declaration of rights - Indirect universal male suffrage - But there were some remains of the Ancien Régime, such as Catholicism as the only allowed religion in Spain (many deputies were members of the clergy) and wide powers to the monarch (veto power). . The Cortes of Cádiz also passed a lot of laws to abolish the Ancien Régime: abolition of feudalism, guilds, the Inquisition, the estates. But these reforms couldn´t extend due to war.
  21. 21. At the end of 1813 Napoleon signed the Treaty of Valençay with Ferdinand VII: he gave the crown of Spain back to Ferdinand VII and promised to retire the French troops from Spain with the condition of respecting the Francophiles. TREATY OF VALENÇAY (December 1813) CHÂTEAU OF VALENÇAY ALLEGORY OF THE RETURN OF FERDINAND VII
  22. 22. The consequences of the Peninsular War were devastating: agriculture was abandoned, cities and industries were destroyed and almost a million people died in the war (200,000 French soldiers and between 300,000 and 500,000 Spaniards). Another consequence was the return of absolutism, with Ferdinand VII’s comeback. Goya’s etching called “Against the general wellbeing”, a critical cartoon that reflects the return of absolutism and repression with Ferdinand VII’s comeback

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