GENOESE MAP (1457)Based on the information provided by the traveller Niccolo da Conti to Asia
FRA MAURO´S WORLD MAP (1459)Made by the Venitian monk Fra Mauro, under a commission by Alphonse Vof Portugal
MARTELLUS WORLD MAP (1490)Inspired on a map drawn in Lisbon in 1485 by Bartolomeo Columbus ,Christopher Columbus´s brother.
THE FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE (1453) In 1453 the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople and closed the terrestrial route to Asia
TECHNICAL IMPROVEMENTS Portulan charts were maps of the coasts, which included indications to use the compass and the estimated distances between different placesPORTULAN CHARTCOMPASS QUADRANT ASTROLABE
-They existed before the 15th century -Advantages: - more spacious, because they didn ´t need oarsmen. This left more space for cargo and allowed longer voyages - Faster: they moved with wind.CARAVEL
PORTUGUESE DISCOVERIESThe Portuguese were the first to try to find anew route to Asia.Prince Henry sponsored voyages to thecoast of Africa and financed navigators andcartographers (map-makers )As a result of these investments, thePortuguese discovered several PRINCE HENRY THEarchipelagoes in the Atlantic Ocean and NAVIGATOR (1394-1460),territories on the African coast: PATRON OF PORTUGUESE EXPLORATION-1420: Madeira Islands-1427: Azores Islands-1434: the Portuguese reached CapeBojador-1455-56: Cape Verde Islands-1462: exploration of the Gulf of Guinea
The Portuguese mapped the coast of Africaand were very interested in having controlover these territories, especially for trade. Theycreated trading posts along the Africancoasts.1479: Treaty of ALCAÇOVAS: Castile andPortugal signed an agreement that recognizedthe Castilian sovereignty over the CanaryIslands, but gave the exclusive exploration ofthe African coasts to Portugal.
1488: Bartolomeu Dias reached the Cape of Good Hope1498: Vasco da Gama reached Calicut in India.
CASTILIAN DISCOVERIESCHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS´S PROJECT Christopher Columbus notes on his copy of The travels of Marco PoloColumbus miscalculated the diameter of the Earth and he thought that theEarth was smaller than it is. This is why he had a lot of problemsto find the money he needed for his exploration voyage to the Indies.
COLUMBUS´S IDEA OF THE WORLD, INSPIRED ON TOSCANELLI´S MAP
Finally, the Catholic Monarchs agreed on financing Christopher Columbus´ voyage and they signed a contract with him, the Capitulations of Santa Fe: If Columbus reached the Indies, he would receive some rewards:THE CATHOLIC MONARCHS - Viceroy and governor of the discovered lands - 20% of the wealth discovered - Admiral of the Ocean Sea.CAPITULATIONS OF SANTA FE
THE FIRST CIRCUMNAVIGATION VOYAGE MAGELLAN-ELCANO EXPEDITION
BEGINNING OF THE GLOBALIZATION PROCESS Relationships between different parts of the world, which shared products, people and knowledge.
PRE-COLUMBIAN PEOPLESThe Europeans came into contactwith different indigenouscivilizations.They were called Amerindians(American Indians), but at presentthey are called Pre- Columbianpeoples. AZTEC CIVILIZATION: Present Mexico MAYA CIVILIZATION: Yucatan Peninsula INCA CIVILIZATION: Andes Mountains
DISEASES BROUGHT BY THE EUROPEANS TO AMERICA SMALLPOXCHICKENPOX MEASLES These diseases became lethal for the indigenous peoples at the beginning of colonization and a demographic catastrophe took place, especially in Central America and the Caribbean Sea. The Europeans started bringing black slaves from Africa to replace the dead.
KNOWLEDGE AND PRODUCTS´ EXCHANGEPRODUCTS BROUGHT FROM AMERICA