CÁNOVAS DEL CASTILLO MARTÍNEZ CAMPOS RESTORING ALPHONSE XII´S PORTRAITCánovas del Castillo, former moderate, planned a legal restoration of the Monarchy, butGeneral Martínez Campos led a pronunciamiento and proclaimed Alphonse of Bourbonking in December 1874. In January 1875 Alphonse came back to Spain, was proclaimedking by the Cortes and reigned as Alphonse XIII
CÁNOVAS´ MAIN OBJECTIVES Cánovas wanted to avoid past mistakes: -Preference of the monarch for the moderates, which obliged the rest of the parties to conspire and prepare pronunciamientos to access power. - Constant intervention of the military in politics. -Continuous changes of laws with every new government. - Permanent instability: civil wars and periodic revoltsHis goal was creating a stable political system, based on the following principles- New Constitution- Bipartisan political system- Exclusion of the army from politics- End of the 3rd Carlist War and the Ten Years´ War in Cuba
- Subordination of the military to civil power: In 1875 a law established that the army´s mission was to keep national independence without intervening in politics. They received a high budget and certain autonomy in exchange. -The end of the wars contributed to the stability of the system: - End of the 3rd Carlist War in 1876: the pretender Charles VII escaped and the fueros of the Basque Provinces were definitively abolished, although these provinces got certain financial autonomy in 1878. - End of the Ten Years´War in Cuba, with the signature of the Peace of Zanjón in 1878: amnestyGeneral Martínez Campos for the revolted, promise of abolition of the slavery and administrative reforms, which were not undertaken. In 1879 a new war started (Little War, 1879-80)
CONSTITUTION OF 1876 It had to be wide enough to avoid changing it every time the government changed. Main features: -Ideology: conservative liberalism -Census suffrage. -Shared sovereignty between the monarch and the Cortes -Wide powers for the monarch: veto power, appoint ministers, call and dissolve the Cortes without the government´s consent. -Two chambers: elective Congress and Senate chosen by the monarch or the government. -Confessional State, although all religions were allowed (but they couldn´t make public demonstrations). The State was responsible for the Catholic cult and clergy - Wide range of rights (but limited by future laws).
DYNASTIC PARTIESPacific alternation between twodynastic parties: the ConservativeParty and the Liberal Party. Theyagreed on some basic principles:-They renounced to conspiracy toaccess power-They accepted monarchy, theConstitution, private property and acentralized StateThese parties only represented aminority of the population. ALTERNATION BETWEEN THE DYNASTIC PARTIES
CONSERVATIVE PARTY - Leader: Antonio Cánovas del Castillo - Formed by former moderates, most of the members of the Liberal Union and some carlist dissidents. - Support: Big landowners, high bourgeoisie - Conservative ideology: census suffrage, Catholic CÁNOVAS DEL CASTILLO Church and social orderThe conservatives ruled during thefollowing periods:- 1875 to 1881- 1884 to 1885- 1890 to1892- 1895 to1897, until Cánovas waskilled by an Italian anarchist.From then on Francisco Silvelabecame the leader of theConservative Party. Cánovas ´s murder at Mondragón Spa
LIBERAL PARTY-Leader: Práxedes Mateo Sagasta.- Formed by former progressives, members of theLiberal Union, democrats and some republicans.- Support: middle and small landowners and well-offmiddle bourgeoisie-Ideology: universal male suffrage, social reforms andless power to the Church.They ruled during the following periods: SAGASTA- 1881 to 1884.- 1885 to1890 (“Long rule”)- 1893 to1895- 1897 to1899The main reforms of the Restoration were done under liberal rule: universal malesuffrage for local elections(1882), Law of Associations(1887), abolition of slavery (1888),trial by jury, new Civil Code (1889), military and finance reform, universal male suffrage(1890).
The king had an arbitration role and had to be neutral. When there was a political crisis, the king called the leader of the oposition party and gave him the decree to dissolve the Cortes. Then, the prime minister of the new government called elections to get enough number of deputies to have majority in the Cortes.Alfonso XII ruled from 1875 to hisdeath in 1885. His wife Mª Cristina ofHabsburg ruled as regent until 1902.
MANIPULATION OF THE ELECTIONSENCASILLADO, PUCHERAZO AND CACIQUES (local political bosses)
ENCASILLADO The minister of the Gobernación“prepared” the elections,assigning the deputies to thedistricts where they had to beelected:-He decided which candidates hadto be elected in every province.- He sent orders to the governorsof every province, so that theadequate candidates were chosen.-The governors communicatedthese orders to the caciques, whowere in charge of carrying themout.There were also some seatsreserved for the oppositioncandidates.
PUCHERAZO (Electoral rigging) All the tricks used to make the “selected” candidates be elected.Thugs hired by the caciques to threatenthe voters at the gates of polling stations - Votes´ purchase - Deads´“Resurrection” - Ballot boxes´ change of place
Map of local political bossesThe caciques (local political bosses) were influential people, especially in rural areas,who could solve people´s problems (give work, get rid of military service, give licenses).They demanded the vote for the candidates they promoted in exchange for their favours.
During the Restoration, when there was a danger of distabilization, the ConservativeParty handed the power over the Liberal Party:-Alphonse XII´s death in 1885: signature of El Pardo Pact to support the Regent andguarantee the monarchy and foresee possible carlist or republican uprisings.- Cánovas del Castillo´s murder in 1897: the liberals came back to the government Mª Cristina swearing the Constitution as Regent
DYNASTIC PARTIES´ ALTERNATIONThe regularity in the number of deputies of the ruling party can only be explainedthrough the election manipulation
OPPOSITION PARTIES Out of the system: REPUBLICANS ULTRA-CATHOLICS NATIONALISTS SOCIALISTS - Posibilistas -Carlists (Carlos VII) -Catalanists: PSOE (Pablo (Castelar) LLIGA Iglesias) -National Catholic REGIONALISTA -Progressives Party (Nocedal) (Prat de la Riba) (Ruiz Zorrilla) -Catholic Union - Basque Nationalists: -Unitarians (Pidal) PNV (Sabino Arana) (Salmerón) -Federalists (Pi y Margall)At the beginning they were illegal. When the Law of Associations (1887) was approvedthey could take part in the elections, but the electoral manipulation limited the number ofdeputies they could get and they were not in conditions of creating problems to thedynastic parties.
REPUBLICANS They were divided after the Sexenio. Their support came from the cities, the petty and middle bourgeoisie and industrial workers. With the development of labour movement, they started losing popular support.Partido Republicano Partido RepublicanoPosibilista: Progresista Partido Republicano Partido Republicano Centralista (1887) FederalCastelar became more Ruiz Zorrilla didn´t rejectconservative and violence against the Led by Salmerónconvinced that Monarchy Led by Pi y Margall and Monarchy and prepared supported by an importantcould coexist with some several coups d´État (alldemocratic principles. part of the workers. failed)
CARLISTS-After the defeat in the 3rd Carlist WAr,Charles VII exiled.- Some carlists, such as Cabrera,accepted the Constitution of 1876 andparticipated in the elections. CándidoNocedal became its leader-Loredan Act (1886): update of thecarlist program: they continued todefend religion, the fueros, Charles VIIlegitimity and were againstdemocracy. But they didn´t defend the Carlos VII and Cándido NocedalAncien Régime any more andaccepted the liberal and capìtalistsystem.-At the beginning of the 20th Century,they created the Requeté, aparamilitary group. Ramón Nocedal
WORKERS´ASSOCIATIONS A minority of the Spanish workers followed Marxism: - 1879: Foundation of PSOE by Pablo Iglesias. Ideology: Marxism, workers ´defender and pro social revolution. -1888: Creation of UGT, trade union also founded by por Pablo Iglesias. They declared themselves apoliticist -1889: PSOE joined the 2nd Internationale.Restaurant where the PSOE was created -1890: first demonstration of the 1st May and decision of participating in the elections. Pablo Iglesias
ANARCHISTS -The majority of the Spanish workers became anarchists. They got more support in Catalonia and Andalusia. - A minority used violence against politicians and bourgeois (propaganda by the deed): terrorist attacks strongly repressed by the authoritiesTerrorist attack at the Liceo Terrorist attack during theBarcelona, 1893 Corpus procession, 1896
Most of the anarchists preferredanarcho- syndicalism. Main leaders:Anselmo Lorenzo and Federico Urales. Execution of anarchists after the Montjuic trialsAnselmo Lorenzo Federico Urales
NATIONALISTS AND REGIONALISTSCATALANISM During the 1830´s: Renaixença: cultural movement to recover Catalan language and culture, with no political ambitions. 1882: Valentí Almirall, federalist republican, created the Centre Català, with the objective of making the Catalan population aware of the need for more autonomy.
Memorial de Greuges1885: Offenses´ Memorial (Memorial deAgravios) written by Almirall andpresented to Alphonse XII, consideredto be the first document of politicalCatalanism. They demanded autonomyfor Catalonia. Bases de Manresa 1891: creation of Unió Catalanista , by a group of conservative people opposed to Almirall´s proposals. 1892: Bases de Manresa: political program of conservative Catalanism. They demanded a confederate organization of Spain and internal autonomy for Catalonia.
1901: Creation of the Lliga Regionalista, party which represented the interest of the Catalan commercial and industrial bourgeoisie. Conservative program, against the corruption of the Restoration and in favour of the political autonomy of CataloniaEnric Prat de la Riba Francesc Cambó The Lliga Regionalista broke the dynastic alternation in Catalonia and became hegemonic until 1923Official newspaper of the Lliga Regionalista
BASQUE NATIONALISMIt appeared as a reaction against theloss of the fueros after the 3rd CarlistWar, the arrival of immigrants and as adefense of Basque language andculture.In 1894 Sabino Arana, former carlist,created the PNV (Basque NationalistParty):- Its motto was “God and old laws”.- Anti-liberal and traditionalist program. -They wanted to recover the fueros,defended religion and purity of Basque Sabino Arana“race” (racism).At the beginning, the PNV was pro-independence. Since 1901 theymoderated their ideology and oriented toautonomy, partly to attract the supportof the high industrial bourgeoisie. Sabino Arana invented the ikurriña (Basque flag) and the term Euzkadi, which included the 3 Basque Provinces and 4 departments of the South of France.
1898 CRISIS: LOSS OF THE LAST COLONIESAs the government didn´t keep the promisesmade in the Zanjón Peace (1878), a new warstarted in Cuba in 1879 (Little War,1879-1880).Slavery was abolished in 1888, but in 1891 ahigh tariff was established in Cuba for theforeign products and the autonomy projectfor the island wasn´t approved.En 1893 José Martí created the CubanRevolutionary Party and joined other pro-independence supporters (Maceo, Gómez). José Martí1895: Grito de Baire: general uprising inCuba, supported by the USA.
The conservative government sent general MartínezCampos, who defended the idea of reaching anagreement with the rebels. His strategy didn´t workand the government sent general Weyler.Weyler used repression and concentrated peasantsin camps so that they couldn´t give support to therebels (origin of concentration camps) Valeriano Weyler
Weyler´s strategy didn´t work either: the Spaniards didn´t know the territory, most ofthe army was formed by conscript soldiers and they were affected by tropicaldiseases.
In 1876 another pro-independence uprisingstarted in the Philippines, after José Rizal´sexecution. The revolt was directed by theKatipunan. José Rizal Katipunan Volunteers
In 1897 the liberal government led bySagasta tried to accelerate reforms inCuba (autonomy, universal suffrage,tariff freedom), but it was too late.The USA government was interested inthe independence of Cuba and theylooked for a casus belli against Spain:accidental explosion and sinking ofbattleship Maine at Havana port. Battleship Maine´s sinking at Havana port
Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearstmanipulating the USA public opinion to goto war against Spain.
The USA gave an ultimatum to Spain.The Spanish government didn´t accept itand they went to war, convinced that theywould be defeated.
- The Spanish float was destroyed inthe battles of Santiago (Cuba) andCavite (Filipinas).- Peace of Paris (December 1898):Independence of Cuba and Spain gavethe Philippines, Puerto Rico and Guamto the USA Reina Mercedes sinking in Santiago de Cuba En 1899 Spain sold the Mariana and Carolina Islands and Palaos to Germany for 25 million pesetas, due to the impossibility of defending them.Signature of the Peace of París, 1898
IMPACT OF THE LOSS OF THE COLONIESReduced political and economic impactBigger moral and ideological impact:“1898 Disaster”:-Pessimism of the “generation of ´98”-Regenerationism: awareness of the needfor the modernization of Spain. JoaquínCosta was the most importantregenerationist Crítique of the Restoration system (“oligarquía y caciquismo”) and bet for education and the modernization of the country. His motto was “school and larder” Joaquín Costa