Romanesque art


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Romanesque Art

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Romanesque art

  1. 1. Romanesque art 11 th - 12 th century
  2. 2. Why Romanesque? <ul><li>The art of the 11th and 12th century is called Romanesque because of its similarities to Roman art. </li></ul><ul><li>Builders copied the structure of Roman basilicas and many other elements used by the Romans. </li></ul>ROMAN BASILICA
  3. 3. Main features <ul><li>Reflection of society: Christian art, linked to Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Subordination of sculpture and painting to architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Use of symbols. </li></ul><ul><li>Didactic (educational) purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Works of art made by craftsmen: anonymous artists </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Thick walls supported by buttresses </li></ul><ul><li>Small and narrow windows. Little light inside. </li></ul><ul><li>In religious buildings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dark interior to invite to prayer and meditation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decoration with an educational purpose: sculptures and paintings were used to teach the Gospel and the devil´s temptations to the mainly illiterate people. Decoration appeared everywhere: portals, altars, capitals of columns, walls, crypts… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One or two towers near the main entrance. </li></ul></ul>ARCHITECTURE: Main features
  6. 6. ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS BARREL VAULT Round arch dome semidome Groin vault
  7. 7. Buttress/ counterfort pilaster columns
  8. 8. portal archivolts tympanum jamb jamb trumeau lintel
  9. 9. WHAT KIND OF BUILDINGS? <ul><li>Romanesque art was linked to feudal society. The buildings that survived are the ones built by the privileged: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Castles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Churches and cathedrals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Monasteries or abbeys. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These buildings were built with stone . The buildings built with wood don´t remain. </li></ul>SAN MILLÁN CHURCH, SEGOVIA BODIAM CASTLE, U.K
  10. 10. Monasteries or abbeys San vittore fra sassi abbey, italy Senanque abbey, france
  11. 11. Tournai cathedral, belgium Churches and cathedrals Sainte foi de conques, france
  12. 12. San martín de frómista church, palencia Sainte madeleine of vézelay, france
  13. 13. Sant climent de tahüll, lleida Angouleme´s cathedral, france
  14. 14. Santiago de compostela cathedral Sainte madeleine de vézelay, france Saint sernin de toulouse, FRANCE
  15. 15. Fontenay abbey, france
  16. 16. Santo domingo de silos abbey, spain CLOISTERS
  17. 17. Pisa cathedral And leaning tower
  18. 18. SCULPTURE AND PAINTING: common features <ul><li>Educational and religious purpose: to teach illiterate people about Chistianity. </li></ul><ul><li>Figures adapted to the space available. </li></ul><ul><li>Changing size of figures depending on their importance: the most important ones, were represented as larger. </li></ul><ul><li>Interest focused on expresionism. Artists didn´t care about realistic representations. </li></ul><ul><li>Most common subjects: stories of the Bible, danger of sins, scenes of ordinary life </li></ul>EMAUS DISCIPLES, SANTO DOMINGO DE SILOS´ CLOISTERS, FARMING CALENDAR, SAN ISIDORO DE LEÓN COLLEGIATE CHURCH, SPAIN
  19. 19. sculpture <ul><li>Sculptures were painted in bright colours (not conserved today) </li></ul><ul><li>Sculptures could be found in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the tympanums of the facades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitals of the columns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloisters of the monasteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Altars (normally images of Christ on the cross or Virgin Mary and Child) </li></ul></ul>Saint thomas´doubt, Santo domingo de silos´cloisters
  20. 20. David beheading Goliath, Sainte Madeleine de Vézelay, france Deadly sins, Artous Abbey , France Capital, San Miguel de Almazán church, Spain
  21. 21. Christ in glory, tympanum of the western portal of sainte madeleine de vézelay, france
  22. 22. The last judgement, tympanum of sainte foi de conques, france
  23. 23. Pórtico de la gloria, western portal of santiago de compostela cathedral,
  24. 25. The last judgement
  25. 26. This work of art was sculpted in the 12th century and the statues are not so rigid and unrealistic than at the beginning. The Pórtico de la Gloria is a transition work of art to the Gothic style. Evangelists
  26. 27. Platerías portal, south door of santiago de compostela cathedral Temptation of Christ in the desert Passion of Christ
  27. 28. Three examples of Romanesque Christs on the Cross: hieratic, inexpressive, impassive, trascendent. These sculptures were made of wood.
  28. 29. Four examples of Romanesque enthroned Virgins with Child: hieratic, inexpressive, absent- minded, no relationship between mother and child. Made of wood.
  29. 30. PAINTINGS <ul><li>Location: inside the churches: apses, vaults, crypts,… </li></ul><ul><li>Rigid and schematic human figures </li></ul><ul><li>Figures outlined in black and painted in bright colours. </li></ul><ul><li>No background landscapes. </li></ul><ul><li>The holy figures appear inside an almond form called “mandorla” </li></ul>Christ in glory, sant climent de tahüll, lleida Mandorla
  30. 31. Santa maría de tahüll, lleida
  31. 32. Crypt of san isidoro de león collegiate church