Europe in the second half of the 19th century


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The unifications of Italy and Germany, the Age of Empires and colonialism

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Europe in the second half of the 19th century

  3. 3. Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, Napoleon Bonaparte´s grandnephew, had an important role in the history of Europe between 1850 and 1870. In 1850 he was elected the President of the 2nd Republic in France. In 1852, after a plebiscite, he was elected Emperor and he became Napoleon III. The 2nd Empire started in France (1852- 1870). Napoleon III had an important role in the unifications of Italy and Germany: -he supported the Italians´ fight against Austria -he had to fight against Prussia and this war contributed to the definitive unification of Germany.
  5. 5. VICTOR EMMANUEL II, KING OF PIEDMONT-SARDINIA CAMILO BENSO, COUNT OF CAVOUR, PRIME MINISTER OF PIEDMONT-SARDINIA GIUSEPPE GARIBALDI MAIN FIGURES OF THE ITALIAN UNIFICATION Piedmont-Sardinia was the richest and most industrialized State in the Italian Peninsula. The Count of Cavour, Piedmont-Sardinia ´s prime minister, wanted to unify all the States of the Italian Peninsula under a monarchy led by Victor Emmanuel II. Austria was the main obstacle for the unification and Cavour looked for the support of France against Austria. Giuseppe Garibaldi, a revolutionary, also wanted the unification of Italy, but under a Republic. He created a military group of volunteers called the “red shirts”
  6. 6. SITUATION BEFORE THE UNIFICATION Seven States: Piedmont-Sardinia, Lombardy- Venetia (under Austrian control), Papal States, Parma, Tuscany, Modena and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies UNIFICATION PROCESS - Piedmont-Sardinia got France´s help and declared war to Austria and annexed Lombardy in 1859. - Parma, Modena and Tuscany joined Piedmont- Sardinia immediately. - In 1860 Garibaldi conquered the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and gave it to Victor Emmanuel II - Creation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861.
  7. 7. Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel II´s meeting at Teano. Garibaldi gave the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies to Victor Emmanuel II
  8. 8. King Victor Emmanuel II and the Count of Cavour, authors of Italy´s Renaissance (Risorgimento)
  9. 9. - In 1866 the Austro Hungarias abandoned Venetia and the Italians occupied it. - In 1870 the Italians annexed the Papal States. Rome became the capital city of Italy. The Pope considered himself as a prisoner of the Italians and excommunicated the Italian royal family.
  10. 10. Flag of the Kingdom of Italy Victor Emmanuel II, first king of Italy Italy became a constitutional monarchy ruled by the Savoy dynasty. The Italian Monarchy lasted from 1861 to 1946.
  12. 12. GERMAN CONFEDERATION Created after the Congress of Vienna, it included 38 States, which shared language and a common past, but kept their independence. Austria and Prussia were the most important States. Prussia industrialized very quickly due to its coal and iron mines
  13. 13. Prussia led the creation of a customs union. All the German States except Austria joined it This increased Prussia´s wealth and influence in the region. ZOLLVEREIN
  14. 14. MAIN FIGURES OF THE UNIFICATION OF GERMANY OTTO VON BISMARCK, PRUSSIA´S PRIME MINISTER WILHEM I, KING OF PRUSSIA Otto Von Bismack was known as the “Iron Chancellor”. He knew that Austria would be the main obstacle for the unification of Germany and considered that unification could only be reached through war (“blood and fire”) The unification of Germany was achieved through three wars
  15. 15. WAR AGAINST DENMARK (1864) Denmark controlled two duchies (Schleswig and Holstein), where most of the population were German speakers. Austria and Prussia declared war to Denmark and conquered Schleswig and Holstein. Prussia got Schleswig and Austria got Holstein, although the logic said that Prussia got Holstein (closer to its territory) The disputes between Austria and Prussia about the administration of Schleswig and Holstein led to a second war between them.
  16. 16. AUSTRO-PRUSSIAN WAR (1866) The German States of the North joined Prussia against Austria - Dark blue: Prussia - Blue: Prussian allies - Red: Austria - Pink: Austrian allies - Green: neutral States Prussia and its allies defeated Austria and all the German States of the North created the North-German Confederation (red)
  17. 17. FRENCH-PRUSSIAN WAR (1870) Bismarck knew that he needed a common cause to unite all the German States and he looked for a casus belli against France, the traditional enemy of the Germans. He manipulated a dispatch that explained the result of a conversation between Kaiser Wilhem I and the French ambassador at Ems Spa. The conversation (about the possible candidacy of Leopold Hohenzollern to the throne of Spain) had been friendly, but Bismarck manipulated the dispatch, sharpening the language and presenting the French ambassador´s words as unacceptable. France had no other option than declaring war to Prussia. All the German States united against France EMS DISPATCH, “EDITED” BY BISMARCK
  18. 18. The French army was defeated at the Battle of Sedan and Napoleon III was captured. Consequences: -the 2nd Empire disappeared and the 3rd Republic was proclaimed in France -France lost Alsace and Lorraine -all the German States became united and the 2nd German Empire (Reich) was proclaimed.
  19. 19. Proclamation of the 2nd Reich in the Hall of the Mirror of Versailles Palace. Wilhem I became Emperor of Germany and Bismarck became chancellor of Germany
  21. 21. Colonialism is the practice of wealthy or powerful nations (mother countries) of extending their control over other territories, in order to establish settlements or exploiting their resources. The Age of Empires was an era between the last decades of the 19th century and the end of WW2 in which the most industrialized countries extended their control and influence to other territories. They took advantage of their technological superiority and created colonies or submitted territories to their interest. BENJAMIN DISRAELI AS AN OCTOPUS SEIZING COLONIES ALL OVER THE WORLD
  22. 22. CAUSES OF COLONIALISM ECONOMIC REASONS: search for cheap raw materials and workers, markets to sell manufactured products and invest capitals DEMOGRAPHIC REASONS: emigration was encouraged by the governments to reduce the excess of population and social conflicts POLITICAL REASONS: control strategic places or gain international prestige
  23. 23. JUSTIFICATION TO IMPERIALISM The Europeans tried to justify their ambitions by saying that they had the responsibility of civilizing the least developed territories of the colonies (“civilizing mission”, “the white man´s heavy burden”). But this wasn´t true: it was an excuse based on racism.
  24. 24. ATTITUDES TOWARDS COLONIALISM JULES FERRY BENJAMIN DISRAELI GEORGES CLEMENCEAU LENIN -Most of the population didn´t have any opinion about colonialism -Most of the politicians were in favour of colonialism. Examples: Jules Ferry (France) and Benjamin Disraeli (United Kingdom) -Trade unionists and some socialist politicians were against colonialism and defended the right of the colonized peoples to decide by themselves. Examples: Georges Clemenceau (France) and Lenin (Russia)
  25. 25. THE CONQUEST It was fast due to the technological and military superiority of the Europeans. The indigenous tried to resist, but they couldn´t stop the occupation. The Europeans used tribal rivalries to divide the indigenous or hired some tribes to fight against other peoples
  26. 26. TYPES OF COLONIES COLONIES OF EXPLOITATION: they totally depended on the metropolis. The Europeans owned the lands, mines and export companies and their main interest was exploiting the colonies and extracting their economic resources. Most of the African colonies belonged to this type COLONIES OF SETTLEMENT: colonies with an important number of Europeans. They had an autonomous government, but their foreign policy was controlled by the metropolis. Examples: Australia, New Zealand, Canada PROTECTORATES: in theory they were independent, because they had an indigenous government, but they didn´t have an independent foreign policy. Examples: Morocco (controlled by France and Spain between 1907 and 1956) and Egypt (controlled by the UK)
  27. 27. Caricature of Cecil Rhodes anouncing a telegraph line from Cairo to Cape Town The main European powers became confronted in the colonization of Africa. France and the United Kingdom wanted to create continuous empires in Africa (France from West to East and the United Kingdom from North to South) THE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA
  28. 28. BERLIN CONFERENCE (1885) FIRST MEETING OF THE CONFERENCE BISMARCK OFFERING SLICES OF AFRICA TO THE EUROPEANS In order to avoid a war between the European powers in their race to occupy Africa, Otto Von Bismarck sponsored an international conference in Berlin. Main decisions: -the country that occupied the coast of a territory could also seize the interior. -free navigation of the African rivers -creation of the Congo Free State, given to King Leopold II of Belgium Consequences: All the continent was distributed between the Europeans. Only Liberia, Abyssinia and Morocco remained free.
  29. 29. King Leopold II of Belgium as a rubber snake entangling a Congolese rubber collector Rubber collectors who didn´t complete their rubber collection quotas and whose hands were cut off as a punishment King Leopold II of Belgium exploited Congo as a private property
  33. 33. CHINA QUEEN VICTORIA, WILHEM II, NICOLAS II, THE FRENCH REPUBLIC AND A SAMURAI DIVIDING CHINA After the two Opium Wars, the British obliged the Chinese to open China to the foreigners. This provoked some revolts against the foreigners (Boxer rebellion)
  34. 34. CONSEQUENCES OF COLONIALISM -Introduction of some advances: infrastructures, industries, technonolgy, hygiene habits and healthcare, schools, but only for the interest of the colonists. - Acculturation process: loss of local cultures and their way of living - Balance between population and resources broke up and periodic famines started. - Unequal and segregated society. Discrimination of the indigenous in their own territories..