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TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills
in the Primary ESL classroom
lgp/wsl/kj 2012
TOPIC 3 SELECTION AND ADAPTATION OF MATERIALS
AND ACTIVITIES
3.0 SYNOPSIS
This topic aims to enhance learner’s knowledge of selection and
adaptation of materials to teach listening and speaking skills. It focuses
on the principles of selection and adaptation. It also provides the criteria
for evaluation of materials. Finally, some activities on devising listening
and speaking tasks based on selected learning outcomes for practice.
3.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of Topic 3, you will be able to:
 A. demonstrate an understanding of the principles of selection and
adaptation of materials
 B. select, create and evaluate materials for developing listening and
speaking skills
 C. devise listening and speaking tasks based on selected learning
outcomes
A & B. 3.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS
Selection and Adaptation of
Materials
Principles of selection and
adaption of materials
Criteria for evaluation of
materials
Devising and listening and
speaking tasks based on
selected learning outcomes
TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills
in the Primary ESL classroom
lgp/wsl/kj 2012
3.3 CONTENT
CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION OF MATERIALS
Language teachers have a wide choice of materials to be used in the
language classroom. The textbook is one of the materials. Textbook
writers produce the materials to meet the needs of the intended users,
however, they are subject to adaptation when they are actually used in
the classroom. This is because the textbooks are not written for any
particular class and only the teacher teaching the class will be able to
tell whether the materials are suitable for the target group of students or
not. In most ELT cases, teachers have to adapt the materials they are
using if they want their teaching to be more effective and more
interesting.
Before a material is used in the classroom, teachers need to evaluate
the suitability of the material so that there is no mismatch between what
is needed and what is provided by checking the criteria for material
selection.
Criteria for material selection
 The material must match the goals and objectives of the syllabus
or language programme.
 The material should be consistent with the teaching-learning
situation / approach.
 The authenticity of the material.
 the material must suit the target audience –level /ability, needs,
interest, time
 The material should be reasonably priced if cost is involved
 The material should make learning easier
 the material should create joy and interest in the learners.
 The material should be attractive, colourful, and durable where
applicable.
Below is a checklist for evaluation of materials.
a. Checklist for evaluation and selection of listening and speaking
materials
(adapted from Alan Cunningsworth (1995) Choosing Your Coursebook,
Oxford, Heinemann)
TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills
in the Primary ESL classroom
lgp/wsl/kj 2012
 Aims and approaches
□ Do the aims of the materials correspond closely with the aims of your
lesson objectives and with the needs of the learners
□ Is the material suited to the learning / teaching situation?
 Design and organisation
□ How is the content organised? ( e.g. According to structures, functions,
topics, skills, etc)? Is the organisation right for learners and you?
□ How is the content sequenced? ( e.g. On the basis of complexity,
learnability, usefulness, etc)?
□ What type of text is it? (expository, narrative, descriptive, discursive,
etc)
□ Is the layout clear? (printed materials)
 Language Content
□ Does the material cover the grammar item you intend to teach?
□ Is the vocabulary level suitable to your students’ ability?
□ If you are focussing on pronunciation, does the material include
individual sounds/ word stress/ sentence stress/ intonation?
□ Are style and appropriacy dealt with? If so, is language style matched
to social situation?
 Skills and recorded materials
□ Does the material cover the particular micro skill for listening
comprehension /oral communication you intend to teach?
□ Is listening material well-recorded?
□ Is listening material authentic / non-authentic?
□ Does the dialogue have many speakers?
□ Is the speech clear?
□ Is the accent familiar to the students?
□ Is there any visual support material?
 Topic
□ Is the topic of the listening material in the scope of the syllabus?
□ Is the topic familiar? (Culture)
□ Will the topic help expand students’ awareness and enrich their
experience?
TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills
in the Primary ESL classroom
lgp/wsl/kj 2012
 Teacher’s guide
□ Are typescripts provided?
□ Is there adequate guidance as to how to conduct the activity?
□ Is there any justification on the basic premises and principles
underlying the material?
Teachers have the choice of selecting authentic or non-authentic materials for
their lessons. Authentic materials are produced in response to real life
communicative needs rather than an imitation of real life communicative
needs. On the other hand non-authentic materials are materials that are
specially produced for pedagogical purposes. However, it is recomended that
teachers should expose authentic materials to the pupils as they will
encounter these materials in the real world.
Examples of materials that can be used for teaching Listening and Speaking
skills
b. Printed materials
 books
 story books
 newspaper articles
 brochures / pamphlets
 notices
 announcements
 calendars
 internet articles
 blogs
c. Printed authentic materials
 fairy Tales
 songs
 news
 announcements
 excerpts from TV shows/ Movies
 movie Trailers
 conversation – face-to-face, telephone
 weather report
 Nursery rhymes
 Documentaries
 Advertisements
TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills
in the Primary ESL classroom
lgp/wsl/kj 2012
Discussion
1. Select five different materials to be used for a target group. Based on the
above checklist, discuss the suitability of the materials for the target
students. Present your answer in class.
2. Discuss the relevance of using authentic materials in the classroom with
specific examples.
PRINCIPLES OF MATERIALS ADAPTATION
Learning is an individual process of gathering and understanding
knowledge and learners have different preferences and requirements
for learning. This diversity commonly requires a supply of learning
material that fits to the learners’ needs.
Teachers have the textbook as a source of materials but not all the
materials match the particular group of pupils they are teaching.
Therefore, the textbook should be regarded as a resource for creativity
and inspiration. No book will suit all the students in terms of their
learning styles, motivations, interests and levels of English that is why
teachers need to adapt materials for the lessons.
Materials adaptation should be based on the results of materials
evaluation. It is importartant to note that different materials have
different potential areas for adaptation. The following are some common
deficiencies of existing ELT materials:
 fail (unable) to fulfil the goals and objectives specified by
national or local syllabuses or curricula
 fail to fulfil the goals and objectives of schools where the
materials are used
 cannot be finished in the time available
 require facilities or equipment or other supporting materials
that are not available
 not engaging the learners’ personality
 detrimental to the learners’ culture
 not cater for the learners’ interests
TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills
in the Primary ESL classroom
lgp/wsl/kj 2012
The following are principles of materials adaptation:
 Make dialogues communicative
 Make learning activities relevant and purposeful
 Meet the learners’ needs, both external and psychological
 Use models of real, authentic language
Very often, adaptation involves supplementation, that is, teachers add
materials from other resources to the textbook they are using. It is believed
that authentic materials are better than non-authentic materials for
supplementation. So teachers who make a point of collecting authentic
materials find it much easier to adapt textbooks. This is especially true in
ELT contexts where authentic English materials are not always readily to
hand.
a. Factors to bear in mind when adaptating materials:
 Teachers should not adapt materials too casually, e.g. based on his or her
own preferences or tastes;
 Materials deleted or added should not go beyond a reasonable proportion,
otherwise consider alternative materials.
 Teachers should not adapt materials only to cater for the needs of exams
or tests.
b. Level of materials adaptation
Textbook adaptation can be done at three levels:
 Macro adaptation
This is ideally done before the language programme begins. After
comparing what is covered in a textbook and what is required by the
syllabus or examination, the teacher may find that certain areas or even
whole units of the book can be omitted, and certain contents need to be
supplemented. Macro adaptation is very important because it helps to avoid
waste of time and energy of the teacher and the students as well. It also
helps the teacher to see in advance what he or she needs to supplement so
that he or she can keep an eye on materials that could be used.
Ad

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Ppg module tsl3105 topic 3 selection & adaptation

  • 1. TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills in the Primary ESL classroom lgp/wsl/kj 2012 TOPIC 3 SELECTION AND ADAPTATION OF MATERIALS AND ACTIVITIES 3.0 SYNOPSIS This topic aims to enhance learner’s knowledge of selection and adaptation of materials to teach listening and speaking skills. It focuses on the principles of selection and adaptation. It also provides the criteria for evaluation of materials. Finally, some activities on devising listening and speaking tasks based on selected learning outcomes for practice. 3.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of Topic 3, you will be able to:  A. demonstrate an understanding of the principles of selection and adaptation of materials  B. select, create and evaluate materials for developing listening and speaking skills  C. devise listening and speaking tasks based on selected learning outcomes A & B. 3.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS Selection and Adaptation of Materials Principles of selection and adaption of materials Criteria for evaluation of materials Devising and listening and speaking tasks based on selected learning outcomes
  • 2. TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills in the Primary ESL classroom lgp/wsl/kj 2012 3.3 CONTENT CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION OF MATERIALS Language teachers have a wide choice of materials to be used in the language classroom. The textbook is one of the materials. Textbook writers produce the materials to meet the needs of the intended users, however, they are subject to adaptation when they are actually used in the classroom. This is because the textbooks are not written for any particular class and only the teacher teaching the class will be able to tell whether the materials are suitable for the target group of students or not. In most ELT cases, teachers have to adapt the materials they are using if they want their teaching to be more effective and more interesting. Before a material is used in the classroom, teachers need to evaluate the suitability of the material so that there is no mismatch between what is needed and what is provided by checking the criteria for material selection. Criteria for material selection  The material must match the goals and objectives of the syllabus or language programme.  The material should be consistent with the teaching-learning situation / approach.  The authenticity of the material.  the material must suit the target audience –level /ability, needs, interest, time  The material should be reasonably priced if cost is involved  The material should make learning easier  the material should create joy and interest in the learners.  The material should be attractive, colourful, and durable where applicable. Below is a checklist for evaluation of materials. a. Checklist for evaluation and selection of listening and speaking materials (adapted from Alan Cunningsworth (1995) Choosing Your Coursebook, Oxford, Heinemann)
  • 3. TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills in the Primary ESL classroom lgp/wsl/kj 2012  Aims and approaches □ Do the aims of the materials correspond closely with the aims of your lesson objectives and with the needs of the learners □ Is the material suited to the learning / teaching situation?  Design and organisation □ How is the content organised? ( e.g. According to structures, functions, topics, skills, etc)? Is the organisation right for learners and you? □ How is the content sequenced? ( e.g. On the basis of complexity, learnability, usefulness, etc)? □ What type of text is it? (expository, narrative, descriptive, discursive, etc) □ Is the layout clear? (printed materials)  Language Content □ Does the material cover the grammar item you intend to teach? □ Is the vocabulary level suitable to your students’ ability? □ If you are focussing on pronunciation, does the material include individual sounds/ word stress/ sentence stress/ intonation? □ Are style and appropriacy dealt with? If so, is language style matched to social situation?  Skills and recorded materials □ Does the material cover the particular micro skill for listening comprehension /oral communication you intend to teach? □ Is listening material well-recorded? □ Is listening material authentic / non-authentic? □ Does the dialogue have many speakers? □ Is the speech clear? □ Is the accent familiar to the students? □ Is there any visual support material?  Topic □ Is the topic of the listening material in the scope of the syllabus? □ Is the topic familiar? (Culture) □ Will the topic help expand students’ awareness and enrich their experience?
  • 4. TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills in the Primary ESL classroom lgp/wsl/kj 2012  Teacher’s guide □ Are typescripts provided? □ Is there adequate guidance as to how to conduct the activity? □ Is there any justification on the basic premises and principles underlying the material? Teachers have the choice of selecting authentic or non-authentic materials for their lessons. Authentic materials are produced in response to real life communicative needs rather than an imitation of real life communicative needs. On the other hand non-authentic materials are materials that are specially produced for pedagogical purposes. However, it is recomended that teachers should expose authentic materials to the pupils as they will encounter these materials in the real world. Examples of materials that can be used for teaching Listening and Speaking skills b. Printed materials  books  story books  newspaper articles  brochures / pamphlets  notices  announcements  calendars  internet articles  blogs c. Printed authentic materials  fairy Tales  songs  news  announcements  excerpts from TV shows/ Movies  movie Trailers  conversation – face-to-face, telephone  weather report  Nursery rhymes  Documentaries  Advertisements
  • 5. TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills in the Primary ESL classroom lgp/wsl/kj 2012 Discussion 1. Select five different materials to be used for a target group. Based on the above checklist, discuss the suitability of the materials for the target students. Present your answer in class. 2. Discuss the relevance of using authentic materials in the classroom with specific examples. PRINCIPLES OF MATERIALS ADAPTATION Learning is an individual process of gathering and understanding knowledge and learners have different preferences and requirements for learning. This diversity commonly requires a supply of learning material that fits to the learners’ needs. Teachers have the textbook as a source of materials but not all the materials match the particular group of pupils they are teaching. Therefore, the textbook should be regarded as a resource for creativity and inspiration. No book will suit all the students in terms of their learning styles, motivations, interests and levels of English that is why teachers need to adapt materials for the lessons. Materials adaptation should be based on the results of materials evaluation. It is importartant to note that different materials have different potential areas for adaptation. The following are some common deficiencies of existing ELT materials:  fail (unable) to fulfil the goals and objectives specified by national or local syllabuses or curricula  fail to fulfil the goals and objectives of schools where the materials are used  cannot be finished in the time available  require facilities or equipment or other supporting materials that are not available  not engaging the learners’ personality  detrimental to the learners’ culture  not cater for the learners’ interests
  • 6. TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills in the Primary ESL classroom lgp/wsl/kj 2012 The following are principles of materials adaptation:  Make dialogues communicative  Make learning activities relevant and purposeful  Meet the learners’ needs, both external and psychological  Use models of real, authentic language Very often, adaptation involves supplementation, that is, teachers add materials from other resources to the textbook they are using. It is believed that authentic materials are better than non-authentic materials for supplementation. So teachers who make a point of collecting authentic materials find it much easier to adapt textbooks. This is especially true in ELT contexts where authentic English materials are not always readily to hand. a. Factors to bear in mind when adaptating materials:  Teachers should not adapt materials too casually, e.g. based on his or her own preferences or tastes;  Materials deleted or added should not go beyond a reasonable proportion, otherwise consider alternative materials.  Teachers should not adapt materials only to cater for the needs of exams or tests. b. Level of materials adaptation Textbook adaptation can be done at three levels:  Macro adaptation This is ideally done before the language programme begins. After comparing what is covered in a textbook and what is required by the syllabus or examination, the teacher may find that certain areas or even whole units of the book can be omitted, and certain contents need to be supplemented. Macro adaptation is very important because it helps to avoid waste of time and energy of the teacher and the students as well. It also helps the teacher to see in advance what he or she needs to supplement so that he or she can keep an eye on materials that could be used.
  • 7. TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills in the Primary ESL classroom lgp/wsl/kj 2012  Adapting a unit This could be reordering the activities, combining activities, omitting activities, rewriting or supplementing exercise material, et cetera. Unit adaptation improves classroom teaching and helps the teacher to better fulfil the aims of a unit.  Adaptation of specific activities Occasionally an activity is regarded as valuable, but it is not well-designed or it is not feasible in a particular class. If the teacher does not want to give up the activity, he or she needs to adapt it. c. Specific adaptation Materials adaptation can be carried out using the following techniques:  Omission: the teacher leaves out things deemed inappropriate, offensive, unproductive, et cetera, for the particular group.  Addition: where there seems to be inadequate coverage, teachers may decide to add to textbooks, either in the form of texts or exercise materiall.  Reduction: where the teacher shortens an activity to give it less weight or emphasis.  Extension: where an activity is lengthened in order to give it an additional dimension. (for example, a vocabulary activity is extended to draw attention to some syntactic patterning.)  Rewriting/modification: teacher may occasionally decide to rewrite material, especially exercise material, to make it more appropriate, more “communicative”, more demanding, more accessible to their students, et cetera.  Replacement: text or exercise material which is considered inadequate, for whatever reason, may be replaced by more suitable material. This is often culled from other resource materials.  Re-ordering: teachers may decide that the order in which the textbooks are presented is not suitable for their students. They can then decide to plot a different course through the textbooks from the one the writer has laid down.  Branching: teachers may decide to add options to the existing activity or to suggest alternative pathways through the activities. (for example, an experiential route or an analytical route.)
  • 8. TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills in the Primary ESL classroom lgp/wsl/kj 2012 Task 1 Select 4 different types of authentic materials for teaching listening and speaking skills. Based on the learning outcomes or content standard, adapt the materials using the techniques of adaptation to suit your target students. Present your work in the class. DEVISE LISTENING AND SPEAKING TASKS BASED ON SELECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES Materials selected can be exploited for many purposes. One of it is to devise listening and speaking tasks for language teaching. Tasks designed must match the learning outcomes in the syllabus. An example of listening and speaking tasks is as follow: Target group: Year 4 Learning Outcome: 1.4 Listen to and follow simple instructions and directions accurately. Specifications: 1.4.2 Listen to and follow simple instructions Material : Recording of a person giving instructions how to make a traditional kite. (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z2QLdTiOU3c&feature=related) Tapescript How to make a traditional kite (Time 3 minutes) Hi welcome . We’re going to make a traditional kite. This is the kind of kite you are probably used to see the old fashion kite. It’s diamond shape and here’s the materials you need to do this kite. You’ll need two pieces of stick wood one 33 inches one 36 inches Quater inch better have some some flexibility to it so it doesn’t crack. Some strings not just for flying the kite but for building the kite. A couple of little tools- some sicssors; a little cutting tool you can use a little pocket knife if you don’t have something like that some masking tape some pieces of cloths, cut like this into strips, a plastic bag or newspapers and this will be the actual body of the kite. I’m going to use plastic bag but you can use newspaper too. I’ll show you how to build this kite. The first thing you need to do is take these pieces of wood. I don’t know if you can see this... but I’ve cut a notch, I put two wraps of masking tape around both ends of this and then i’ve cut a little notch in there if you can see that... a little notch cut in there you’re going to need and the masking tape is really good put the masking tape all the way to the end this is
  • 9. TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills in the Primary ESL classroom lgp/wsl/kj 2012 really good this’ll prevent the wood from splitting and you don’t have to use clear wood you can use round owl but nice and thin reasonably flexible, thin for the weight and flexible so that it can so that it wont crack or break in the wind . Ok I’m starting to assemble the kite here. Let me show you a couple of things. 10 inches.... this is the 36 inch-long piece that is going to be your upbreak. 10 inches from one end this is where you attach your 33 in piece like this. What I did is I put it at the centre of this piece try to keep it as centre as possible. Put a couple of masking tape then I wrap a bunch of string around it nice and tight then I put a little more tape to make sure the string is locked. Then I just wrap a piece of string all the way around the kite like this and I start it at the bottom and I end it at the bottom here because erm you’re going to use a little bit of tape to tie it up to wrap it up it’ll make the bottom a little just a bit heavier it’s not much but it makes a difference. Ah! After you do that put some tape over the all four of the corners so that it holds the string in place you don’t want that string to somehow pop out a little notch. And when you’re doing it make sure make sure when you’re assembling the two boards two sticks together make sure that you line it up so that the notches are the right way.. this way and if you accidentally put the notches the other way you’ll not going to be able to put the string in and you’ll have to make two notches and you’re take it apart so get all the notches lined up the right way before you assemble the centre piece here. So that looks pretty good, it’s pretty tight make it so pretty tight and make it so tight so that it bows a little bit so this piece bows a little bit so i’m going to put the actual plastic bag on there I’ll show you how you do that. I’ll be right back. Lay your kite down... lay your kite down on top of of your plastic or the newspaper then cut all the way round it get it nice and flat and cut all the way around it may be leaving an inch here well may be an inch extra coz you’re going to fold this up and tape it down so cut all the way around that and you’ll be ready to attach the kite and I’ll show you how to do that. Ok I’ve cut my plastic. All you have to do is fold this over the string and line a tape on it like this. Start on one side to the top and when you’re doing this other side and you can pull it taut. Tape it both sides so it’s reasonably tight. so I’m going ahead and I’d do that It’s almost done. Listening Task 1: First listening -listen and list the items required to make the kite. Listening Task 2: Second listening :Listen and label sequence the steps in making a kite. (Teacher prepares the task sheet with the steps in a jumbled order) / Listen again and make the kite in pairs/ groups.(Teacher prepares the materials for each group) (The recording can be re-played and freeze for teaching purposes until students finished making the kite.)
  • 10. TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills in the Primary ESL classroom lgp/wsl/kj 2012 Listening and speaking Task 3: Group discussion for decorating and designing the kite followed by presentation of discussion. / One student listens to the group’s instruction and decorate the kite. Example 2: Target group: Year 5 Learning Outcome: 2.2 Ask questions politely to obtain information and clarification. 2.3 Give relevant information politely in response to enquiries made. Specifications: 2.2.2 Ask other forms of questions to seek information 2.3.3 Talk about things heard, seen or read. Material: Identical pictures of Cinderella for Spot the Difference activity Student A Student B Listening and speaking task: Students work in pairs labelled A and B. Each gets a corresponding picture as in above. Student A and B are not allowed to see each other’s picture from the story book, Cinderalla. Both students have to ask questions above one another’s picture to get the differences and similiarities.
  • 11. TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills in the Primary ESL classroom lgp/wsl/kj 2012 Example: Student A: Cinderella is holding a broom in her left hand. Is she holding a broom in your picture? Student B: Yes she is holding a broom in her left hand. The mouse at her feet is jumping up and down ..... Task 2: Select 3 types of materials for teaching listening and speaking skills to three different target level. Devise two listening and speaking tasks for each material based on selected learning outcomes. Present your work in class. Further reading: Cunningsworth, A. (1995) Choosing Your Coursebook, Oxford: Heinemann. Harmer, J. (2007) The Practice of English Language Teaching: England :Pearson Education. Grant, N. (1987) Making the Most of Your Textbook. Essex: Longman. Sinnan M. (2010) Materials in TEFL: A Discussion of What Lies Behind Them and Implications Humanising Language Teaching Year 12: Issue 4. http://www.hltmag.co.uk/aug10/sart04.htm