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4.4(2)adverb clauses


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4.4(2)adverb clauses

  2. 2. <ul><li>Compound sentence by subordination </li></ul><ul><li>Adverb clauses </li></ul><ul><li>A subordinate clause is a clause that supports </li></ul><ul><li>ideas stated in the main clause. </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinate clauses are also dependent on main </li></ul><ul><li>clauses and would be otherwise incomprehensible </li></ul><ul><li>without them &quot; Adverb clauses are subordinate or </li></ul><ul><li>dependent clauses that express different meanings. </li></ul><ul><li>(time, place, cause, effect, condition, opposition,etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>They are introduced by subordinators. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Compound sentence by subordination </li></ul><ul><li>Adverb clauses </li></ul><ul><li>An adverb clause can not stand by itself , &quot;When </li></ul><ul><li>he was in New York.&quot; is not a complete sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>It needs to be completed by an independent </li></ul><ul><li>clause. </li></ul><ul><li>He went to the Guggenheim museum when he was in New York. </li></ul><ul><li>Punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>When an adverb clause begins the sentence, use a </li></ul><ul><li>comma to separate the two clauses. </li></ul><ul><li>As soon as he arrives , we will have some lunch. </li></ul><ul><li>When the adverb clause finishes the sentence there is no </li></ul><ul><li>need for a comma. </li></ul><ul><li>He gave me a call when he arrived in town . </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Adverb Clauses indicating Time </li></ul><ul><li>Time clauses are used to indicate the time that </li></ul><ul><li>an event in the main clause takes place. </li></ul><ul><li>These clauses use the subordinators: when, </li></ul><ul><li>before, after, while, as, until, till, since, as soon </li></ul><ul><li>as, whenever. </li></ul><ul><li>When she called , he had already eaten lunch. </li></ul><ul><li>We will finish before they arrive . </li></ul><ul><li>She ate after I (had) left . </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Adverb Clauses indicating Time. </li></ul><ul><li>As / While I was finishing my homework , she began cooking. </li></ul><ul><li>I'll wait till / until you finish. </li></ul><ul><li>He will let us know as soon as he decides . </li></ul><ul><li>We take a hike whenever / every time he visits . </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Place Clauses </li></ul><ul><li>Place clauses define the location of the </li></ul><ul><li>object of the main clause. </li></ul><ul><li>Place conjunctions include: where and in which.. </li></ul><ul><li>I will never forget Seattle where I spent so many wonderful summers. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Adverb Clauses Expressing Cause, Effect and </li></ul><ul><li>Result. </li></ul><ul><li>These clauses are usually preceded by because, </li></ul><ul><li>since, as long as, as, inasmuch as, due to the </li></ul><ul><li>fact that, that </li></ul><ul><li>I'm studying hard because I want to pass my exam . </li></ul><ul><li>Since he loves music so much , he decided to go to a conservatory. </li></ul><ul><li>As long as you have the time , why don't you come for dinner? </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Adverb Clauses Expressing Cause, Effect and Result . </li></ul><ul><li>As the test is difficult , you had better get some sleep. </li></ul><ul><li>Inasmuch as the students had successfully completed their exams , their parents rewarded their efforts by giving them a trip to Paris. </li></ul><ul><li>We will be staying for an extra week due to the fact that we have not yet finished </li></ul><ul><li>He worked so hard that he won the recognition of his boss . </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Using Adverb Clauses to Show Opposition or Concession </li></ul><ul><li>These type of clauses show an unexpected or non </li></ul><ul><li>self-evident result based on the dependent clause. </li></ul><ul><li>The subordinators mostly used to show opposition </li></ul><ul><li>Are: although, even though, though, whereas, while </li></ul><ul><li>Even though it was expensive , he bought the car. </li></ul><ul><li>Though he loves doughnuts , he has given them up for his diet. </li></ul><ul><li>Although the course was difficult , he passed with the highest marks. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Using Adverb Clauses to Show Opposition or Concession. </li></ul><ul><li>Whereas you have lots of time to do your homework , I have very little time indeed. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary is rich, while I am poor </li></ul><ul><li>Even though there are many advantages to </li></ul><ul><li>working the night shift , people who do so </li></ul><ul><li>generally feel that the disadvantages greatly </li></ul><ul><li>outweigh any financial advantages that might be </li></ul><ul><li>gained. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Adverb Clauses of Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>The Adverb Clause of Purpose may indicate the purpose </li></ul><ul><li>which the verb may address. </li></ul><ul><li>Such an Adverb Clause of Purpose will begin with: so </li></ul><ul><li>that, in order that, in order to, lest (negative) etc. </li></ul><ul><li>I will give you a map so that you can find the way to your relative’s house. </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep well lest you will not write your exam very well. </li></ul><ul><li>He was invited to the function in order to show him how wonderfully this function has been organized . </li></ul><ul><li>He drew the sword so that he could defend himself. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Adverb clauses of manner </li></ul><ul><li>These clauses are always introduced by the subordinator </li></ul><ul><li>as: </li></ul><ul><li>Do as I tell you . </li></ul><ul><li>It all ended as I expected . </li></ul><ul><li>Adverb clauses of comparison are introduced by than </li></ul><ul><li>or as: </li></ul><ul><li>He is older than he looks . </li></ul><ul><li>It is later than I thought . </li></ul><ul><li>He is as stupid as he is lazy . </li></ul><ul><li>Not many know the truth better than you ( know ). </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Using Adverb Clauses to Express Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>These type of clauses are often called &quot;if clauses&quot; in </li></ul><ul><li>English grammar books and follow conditional </li></ul><ul><li>sentence patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>Again the punctuation in these sentences follows the </li></ul><ul><li>rule of all subordinate adverbial clauses: When an </li></ul><ul><li>adverb clause begins the sentence, use a comma to </li></ul><ul><li>separate the two clauses. </li></ul><ul><li>If he comes, we will have some lunch. . </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Using Adverb Clauses to Express Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>When the adverb clause finishes the sentence, </li></ul><ul><li>there is no need for a comma </li></ul><ul><li>He would have invited me if he had known . </li></ul><ul><li>These clauses are mostly introduced by IF but they </li></ul><ul><li>may also be introduced by even if, whether (or not) </li></ul><ul><li>unless, in case (that), in the event (that), only if, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Conditional sentences are of Two Types: </li></ul><ul><li>Open </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothetical </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Using Adverb Clauses to Express Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>OPEN CONDITIONAL sentences are those that </li></ul><ul><li>express a realizable, probable supposition. They </li></ul><ul><li>use the Indicative Mood. </li></ul><ul><li>If we win, we'll go to Kelly's to celebrate! </li></ul><ul><li>Even if she saves a lot, she won't be able to afford that house. </li></ul><ul><li>They won't be able to come whether or not they have enough money. </li></ul><ul><li>We won't go unless he arrives soon. </li></ul><ul><li>Only if you do well on your exams, we will give </li></ul><ul><li>you your bicycle. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Using Adverb Clauses to Express Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>HYPOTHETICAL CONDITIONAL sentences are those </li></ul><ul><li>that express a supposition that is not realizable or </li></ul><ul><li>probable, only a product of the imagination. </li></ul><ul><li>Peter (the best man) just called that he has just passed </li></ul><ul><li>Carrillo Puerto in the bus and the wedding ceremony is </li></ul><ul><li>due to begin in ten minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>If he were to arrive on time, the wedding ceremony would begin as planned. (future) </li></ul><ul><li>If he should send the ring, we would all be very happy (future) </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Using Adverb Clauses to Express Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>If I were you, I would stay home all summer. </li></ul><ul><li>She would pass the exam if she learned all the 500 pages by heart in two hours. </li></ul><ul><li>If he had studied every week for two or three hours, he wouldn’t have failed Grammar. But he didn’t study a bit so he failed. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Form of the conditional sentences Open conditionals Indicative Mood Conditional subordinate adverbial clause (IF clause) Main clause Present If he sees you Future he will greet you Present: If he sees you Imperative: don’t greet him. Past: If he came Past: then he saw you. Pres Perfect If he has been in Pres Perfect: he must have seen the Coliseum
  19. 19. Hypothetical conditionals. Subjunctive Mood Conditional subordinate adverbial clause (IF clause) Main clause Future: Should / Were to + Infinitive If he should see you If he were to see you Would + Infinitive he would greet you Present: V-ed If he came If I were you Would + Infinitive he would greet you I would not do it. Past: have + participle / have + been + Ved If you had studied If he had been studying Would + have + participle You would have passed He would have gotten the first prize