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Challenges to the Spanish Authority


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Challenges to the Spanish Authority

  1. 1. PHISTPG Challenges to Spanish Authority
  2. 2. Treaty of Zaragoza An imaginary line was drawn from north to south at 297 ½ leagues east of Moluccas. West : Spain East : Portugal
  3. 3. Portuguese General Gonzalo Pereira in 1566 & 1568 asked Legazpi to leave.
  4. 4. Dutch Holland send several expedition to the east and was able to reached Manila 1597 – 1647: battles between the Spaniards & the Dutch
  5. 5. Early Revolts
  6. 6. Lakandula Date 1574 Place Tondo, Navotas Cause Failure of Gov. Lavezares to fulfill Legazpis’ promise to Lakandula Result Failed (enter into an agreement)
  7. 7. Tondo Date 1587 Place Tondo Cause Felling of hostility towards the colonizer Leader Magat Salamat, Agustin de Legazpi, Juan Banal & Pedro Balingit Result Failed (a spy reported to Spanish authorities about the their plan)
  8. 8. Magalat Date 1596 Place Cagayan Cause Abuses of the Tribute Collectors Result Failed ( Hired assassins killed the Magalat. )
  9. 9. Ladia Date 1 643 Place Malolos, Bulacan and Southern Luzon Cause Weariness from Spanish oppression Leader Pedro Ladia Result Failed (leader was captured)
  10. 10. Pangasinan / Malong Date 1660- 1661 Place Binalatongan, Pangasinan Cause Quarrel between Fr. Gorospe and Malong Leader Andres Malong and Pedro Gumpaos Result Failed
  11. 11. Visayan/ Sumuroy Date 1649- 1650 Place Eastern Visayas, Northern Mindanao, Zamboanga Cause Caused by Gov. Fajardo’s order to send Visayan laborers to Cavite for shipbuilding Leader Juan Ponce Sumoroy and Pedro Caamug Result Failed ( Leaders were captured and were beheaded. )
  12. 12. Pampanga Date 1585 Place Pampanga Cause Abuses of Spanish Encomienderos Result Failed ( A woman betrayed the revolt. )
  13. 13. Cagayan- Ilocos Date 1589 Place Cagayan, Ilocos Norte Cause Refusal to pay tributes, tyranny of tribute collectors Result Failed ( easily suppressed )
  14. 14. Igorot Date 1601 Place Northern Luzon Cause Desire to maintain their old religion Result Failed
  15. 15. Caraga Date 1629- 1631 Place Caraga, Northern Mindanao Cause Dissatisfaction of townspeople to Spanish rule Result Failed
  16. 16. Silang Date 1762- 1763 Place Ilocos Cause Desire to expel the Spaniards from Ilocos Leader Diego silang and Gabriela Silang Result Failed ( Diego was assasinated )
  17. 17. Hermano Pule Date 1840- 1841 Place Quezon Province Cause Being a native, Pule was denied to be admitted as a monk. He founded the religious brotherhood, Confradia De San Jose Leader Apolinario dela Cruz Result Failed
  18. 18. Causes of Filipino Early Revolts <ul><ul><li>Desire to regain the lost freedom of their ancestors ( Political ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious intolerance of Spanish authorities ( Religious ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abuses of the Spaniards ( Personal ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The hated tribute and oppressive forced labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of ancestral lands </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Why all these revolts failed? Absence of national leader Lukewarm spirit of nationalism among Filipinos Inadequate training and preparation for warfare
  20. 20. Resistance in the interior and Mountainous parts Fierce resistance of by “people of the mountains” (taong bundok) Process: expensive & frustrating for the Spaniards but also dangerous.
  21. 21. Moro Wars in the South Longest & bloodiest attempt by the Spaniards to colonize the Southern Islands of Mindanao It remained unconquered & unconverted until the end of Spanish rule.
  22. 22. Chinese Presence Chinese is most constant & steady visitors of the country Sangleys: “traders who came and went”
  23. 23. Chinese Presence “ Parian ” Chinese word palien meaning union or federation
  24. 24. Chinese Presence All sorts of taxes were imposed on Chinese Abuses & oppression of the Chinese
  25. 25. Chinese Presence Chinese rebel in 1603 Tondo and Quiapo It was easily suppressed Eng Kang (leader) was beheaded
  26. 26. Chinese Presence Chinese had controlled the source of livelihood and daily needs of both Spaniards and Filipino
  27. 27. PHISTPG Changes & Improvement
  28. 28. Changes in Filipino Names <ul><li>Pre colonial: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no surname </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>names was taken from physical appearance or natural event </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Si” is not part of the name </li></ul>
  29. 29. Changes in Filipino Names <ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish names </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>names of saints </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Govenor General Narciso Claveria (1849) </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed the change of Filipino names </li></ul>
  30. 30. Intermarriage Generally is not allowed between a native & a spaniard
  31. 31. Changes in clothes
  32. 32. Geographical Identity
  33. 33. Spanish Language Adoption of several Spanish language
  34. 34. Material and Social Advancement <ul><li>Rise of Banks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obras Pias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– earliest banks in the Philippines which gave loan to merchants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rodriguez Bank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– the first Filipino bank established in Manila by Francisco Rodriguez </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Banco Español- Filipino </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– first government bank in the Philippines founded by Antonio de Urbiztondo </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Material and Social Advancement Communication & Transportation Introduction and Inauguration of 1 st monthly mail service (1854) & 1 st telegraph (1873)
  36. 36. Material and Social Advancement First railroad (1891): Manila-Dagupan Railway
  37. 37. Religious and Educational Progress Franciscans 1577 Jesuits 1587 Dominicans 1587 Apostolic Missionaries
  38. 38. First Schools in the Philippines Parochial Schools: the first school founded by the missionaries in the 16th century
  39. 39. First Schools in the Philippines <ul><li>Colleges for Boys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded by the Jesuits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– Colegio de San Ignacio (1589) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Colegio de San Idelfonso (1595) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Colegio de San Jose (1601) </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. First Schools in the Philippines <ul><li>Colleges for Boys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded by Dominicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– Colegio de Santissimo Rosario (Santo Tomas) (1611) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1620) </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. First Schools in the Philippines <ul><li>Colleges for Girls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colegio de Santa Potenciana (1594) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colegio de Santa Isabel </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Printing Press UST history Xylography : Woodblock printing Typography : Movable type