Migrants at seaSicily and Lampedusa migration flows
What is a migration flow? 1The migration flow is a movement of people frompoor countries to rich western countries, to findbetter living conditions.
What is a migration flow? 2For migrants routes in the Mediterrenean sea aremeant those routes of migrants who in the earlynineties crossed the ‘’Mare Nostrum” from Africa,Asia, the Middle East towards Europe.
When did the most recent flows start in Sicily?The flows and the landing on Lampedusa island startedmostly in 2000, but during and after the Arab-Spring,the flows of migrants have been doubled. Italy 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Sicily 18.350 12.169 25.705 27.715 34.540 44.000
Migrants Figures in 2011On 28 June before the Italian Parliament’s SchengenCommittee, officials from the Italian Coast Guardreported that at least 44,000 migrants have reachedItaly by boat so far in 2011.
Which continent do the migrants come from? Most of the migrants come from Sub-Saharan Africa,Ghana, Senegal, Niger, Nigeria, however after the ArabSpring refugees have escaped from Libya, Tunisia andEgypt. This new scenario of migration flows has changed sofar because the border controls, both in Tunisia andLybia, have been decreased.
Official reports 1 During the period of 2000-2005, an estimated440,000 people per year emigrated from Africa, a totalnumber of 17 million migrants within Africa wasestimated for 2005. During the 2000s, North Africa had been receivinglarge numbers of Sub-Saharan African migrants "intransit", predominantly from West Africa, who plan toenter Europe.
Official reports 2 An annual 22,000 illegal migrants took the route fromeither Tunisia or Libya to Lampedusa in 2000 to 2005period. This figure has deceased in 2006, but it has increasedgreatly as a result of the 2011 Tunisian revolution andthe 2011 Libyan civil war.
Which event has caused a remarkable increaseof the migrant flows to Sicily and Lampedusa? The event that has caused an increase of migrantsflows to Sicily and Lampedusa is the uprising in Egypt,Tunisia and the civil war in Libya in 2011. Comparing to 2010 apart from the Tunisians andEgyptians most of African nationalities have beenincreased of a percentage of 1000%, according to theInternational Political Observatory.
Why do they choose Lampedusa? 1Because the island of Lampedusa constitutes Italy’sfarthest southern border, being geographicallymore distant from Sicily than from Tunisia, about167km from Ras Kaboudia.
Why do they choose Lampedusa? 2Its geographic location makes it the first port ofentry for irregular migrations flows reaching Europefrom the North African coasts.
Means of transport usedOld Fishing Boat Dinghy Zodiac type
Journey 1 Migration Routes and Migration MethodsThe trans-Saharan journey is generally made in severalstages, and might take anywhere between one monthand several years. On their way, migrants often settletemporarily in towns located on migration hubs to workand save enough money for their onward journeys,usually in large trucks or pick-ups.
Journey 2 The minority who travel by air aside, the majority ofmigrants instead enter the Maghreb overland fromAgadez in Niger despite the existence of multiple,alternative routes. Agadez is located on a historical crossroads of traderoutes that now extend deep into West and CentralAfrica. From Agadez, migration routes bifurcate to theSebha oasis in Libya and to Tamanrasset in southernAlgeria.
Journey 3From southern Libya, migrants move to Tripoli andother coastal cities or to Tunisia; from the coast,migrants travel by boat to either Malta or the Italianislands of Lampedusa, Pantelleria, and Sicily.
How much does a journey cost? In most cases these migrants are victims of "unscrupulous traffickers" and"merciless" criminal-run smuggling networks, however the majority migrate ontheir own initiative. Often, smugglers are not part of international organizedcrime but tend to be former nomads and immigrants who operate relativelysmall networks. These smugglers generally cooperate with local corrupt police,border officials, and intermediaries who connect them to employers in Europe. In the process of crossing the Sahara to North Africa, migrants spendhundreds of dollars on bribes, smugglers, transportation, and daily necessities. It is estimated that a boat crossing from Lybia to Italy costs from 1,000Euro to 1,200. The ground route through Sahara desert from 1,700 Euro to3,400; Air/Ground/Sea from Asia to Europe from 5,000 to 10,000 Euro.
Differences betweeen an irregular immigrant and a refugee An irregular immigrant is a person who doesn’t have a residence permit,passport, documents and visa and generally migrates voluntary to improve hisown living conditions or to be renuited with his family. A refugee or asylum seeker is a person who is forced to migrate because ofarmed conflicts, civil unrest, personal persecution or human rights violations inhis own country.
Where are the migrants taken when they arrive at the safe port of Lampedusa?• First Aid on the pier.• The migrants are then taken to the reception centre.• They are given assistance, they are fed and, in most cases they receive socio-medical assistance and are distributed clothing, linen and hygiene kits.• Identification of the so called vulnerable people: pregnant women, children, minors and the sick.• Prompt assistance and transfer of vulnerable migrants to other more specialized centres in Sicily.
Identification phase Measures required by law• Asylum seekers must have access to the international protection procedures and must be transferred to dedicated reception centres.• Voluntary migrants are generally iussed a rejection order and are transferred to specific centres.• Minor, vitctims of trafficking, women in distress are placed in adequately equipped centres.
Migrants job collocation• A large number of migrants die in shipwrecks.• The migrants without pemission are rejected back to their original countries , those who skip police controls end up in the black job market : “illegal car park custodian”, cleaners, windscreen washer, hawkers, or are recruited by criminal organizations: prostitution , drug smugglers etc…• The migrants with permission are employed as unskilled or semi-skilled workers in the agriculture, factories (in the north of Italy), domestic works or they run their own business: shops, restaurants, stalls in markets…