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Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process

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Introduction to scientific publishing and open access models

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Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process

  1. 1. NECOBELAC Training Module Critical introduction to SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS AND THE EDITORIAL PROCESS Paola De Castro Istituto Superiore di Sanità 1 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  2. 2. Objective of the module REFLECT ON 1. 2. “Sea change” in knowledge dissemination 3. 2 Knowledge and responsibilities to communicate results of scientific reseach Rules and best practice for publication in scientific journals P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  3. 3. Knowledge today… learning education communication representation mental stimula environment 1. 2. 3. COMPLEXITY COMPLEXITY It can assume different meanings (contest) It is not only information (which exists regardless of its use) It requires a user able to link available knowledge to his/her personal experience Today information is available (or potentially available) for all, provided that you have proper skills and technical devices to use it and adquire knowlege 3 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  4. 4. INTERNET PROVIDES TOOLS BUT you should know • where to find • how to recognize quality • how to use these tools A cultural change is still required which should not only be associated to the development and availability of new technologies BUT to the capacity to use resources provided by such technologies 4 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  5. 5. Online resources DOAJ DOAJ OpenAIRE OpenAIRE OA OA WIKI WIKI OA OA Directory Directory 5 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012 OASIS OASIS
  6. 6. Knowledge as a SOCIAL VALUE Learning is not a private enterprise Privatization of knowledge generates damage particularly in the case of research financed with public funds, and even more in the health sector J. Willinsky. The Properties of Locke’s Common-wealth of Learning. Policy Futures in Education Volume 4 Number 4 2006 Knowledge dissemination becomes a CIVIL COMMITMENT Scientists must play an active role in the public debate on health issues K. Carr, Liberating the voices of science, The Australian, January 16, 2008.  Senator Carr is Australia - Minister for Innovation, Industry, Science and Research. (http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,23057489-25192,00.html) 6 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  7. 7. Responsibility of science communication For all people working in Research and Development Information transfer is an ESSENTIAL part of their work It is a responsiblitity that must be recognised and undertaken with the same commitment and professionality as for all the other science-related activities 7 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  8. 8. TO WHOM and HOW to communicate? WHOM? HOW? 8 Peer General public Policy makers Patients Clients Etc. Etc. Oral Written Non verbal Identify the most appropriate way of communicating according to target P. De Castro - NECOBELACyour • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012 T1 Course
  9. 9. WHERE does responsibility lay? • • • • • • Scientists Institutions where they work Editors (reviewers, technical editors, etc.) Publishers Librarians, information specialists, web-masters Etc. They all contribute to create (quality) information, BUT they have different interests in the publishing enterprise 9 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  10. 10. VALUE OF SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS For the target (readers) WRITE A USEFUL ARTICLE to contribute to the progress of science CONSIDER Which needs shall I meet? Are there other publications on the same topic? Are they up-dated? Are they useful? Are they easily available? Are they free on the Internet? 10 • • • • • P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012 Why write an article? Where to publish it? With whom? How much time? Which budget? In some cases, national journals or books may be more appropriate
  11. 11. VALUE OF SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS For the author (writer) PUBLISH IN QUALITY JOURNALS to obtain the highest evaluation (grants, career advancement) HOW TO SELECT THE JOURNAL? WHAT TO CONSIDER? • • • • • • • Indexed journals (IF) Journals where important authors publish High reject rate journals Journals which I read for updating • • • 11 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012 Where is the journal indexed Editorial committee Editorial organization (policy) (peer review, time) Online availability Copyright issues …
  12. 12. AUTHORSHIP & INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY 1953 Watson e Crick published an article on DNA which is very famous and well known all over the world … and what about Rosalind Franklin? Watson J D, Crick FHC. Molecular structure of nucleic acids: a structure for deoxyribose nucleid acid. Nature 1953; 171: 737-738.c 12 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  13. 13. How does knowledge transmission change through the centuries? The big revolutions Orality Writing Oral memory within a community Fist graffiti Hieroglyphs Alphabeth 35.000 years ago 3.200 BC 1.000 BC Symbols = concepts syllables Printing Internet 13 China 1050, Gutenberg 1450 Internet 1974 – 1990 Web – Google 1995 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  14. 14. The Bible, 1456 First book printed in Magonza by Gutenberg The Comedy by Dante Alighieri, 1491 180 copies 36 x 29 cm Print diffusion Millions of copies printed in few years Texts have already a defined structure (commentaries by Cristoforo Landino) Page numbering and italic 14 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012 were introduced by Aldo Manunzio in 1501
  15. 15. SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS rise in the 17th century in the academies Before, philosophers communicated through philosophical dissertations and letters Journal des Scavans Philosophical Transactions First journal, published in Paris 1665 Royal Society of London, 1666 OBJECTIVE Present the most relevant European scientific papers OBJECTIVES Inform the Royal Society members and other readers about scientific discoveries Establish principles scientific priority and peer review 15 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  16. 16. Scientific journals develop since the 18 th century still today they represent the preferred channel to disseminate scientific research results WHO IS THE PUBLISHER? • Scientific societies • Universities • Governmental agencies • Scientific institutions • Profesional associations In the centuries, science becomes more specialized The publishing enterprise develops Journal “shape” keeps unchanged until the Internet revolution 16 • Sequential reading • Texts and illustrations • Text structure • Paratextual elements The book shape has an influence on the way of thinking P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  17. 17. Scientific journals Chronological development and figures 1660 1700 Internet revolution Rise (academies) Development (100) 1850 1900 1950 1990 Development (1000) Sectorial specialization ( 10 000) Further specialization (100 000) Exponencial development (300 000) 2000 2003 2004 2005 17 Gutemberg revolution Open Access Berlin Declaration Permission crisis Development of OA policies … P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012 2012 ?
  18. 18. TODAY INTERNET allows new ways of communication Journals (and books) change their shape New ways are developed • Blogs • • • • • Discussion lists Wikis Online answers Social networks Collective conversations All this deeply affects scientific communication 18 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  19. 19. The article of the future 5 minute video by Elsevier It shows the advantages of enriched articles Supplementary information interactive content It provides true immersion in the contest of the subject matter Data are linked to databases providing the most updated information It proves a positive correlation between data sharing, citations and impact 19
  20. 20. OPEN SCIENCE “UNJOURNAL” Proposal for an “UNJOURNAL” Active participation of the research community Two months for open peer review, and then the articles gets scores and citations 20 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  21. 21. INTERNET CHANGES ECONOMIC MODELS AND ALLOWS NEW METRICS Publishers are looking for new opportunities Journal prices grow exponentially Authors become aware of the new opportunities provided by ICT and start negotiate their rights (self archiving is now recognised by most publishers) Online free full text is generally required and also the availability of research data is desired New evaluation metrics are introduced as alternative to IF, e.g. H index (individual research output) OA journals utilizing free software are developed PS PIC MA mes TO BELAC s and sche NECO le e mo d u u e s includ se iss e or all th f There is confusion on the roles of the actors of the editorial process and some contraddictions 21 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  22. 22. SCIENTISTS IN THE WORLD (UNESCO, Science reports) 1800 1850 1900 1950 2007 Increased investment in research 1000 10 000 100 000 1 000 000 7 000 000 specialization increased scientific output Development in technologies indexing systems circulation/citations metrics 22 NUMBER OF PUBLICATIONS now doubles every two years P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  23. 23. SCIENTISTS IN THE WORLD TODAY 7,200.000 UNESCO, Science report 2010 United States European Union China 21.0 % 20.0 % 19.7 % Japon Russia 11.0 % 7.0 % 75% researchers in the world work in the above countries representing only 35% of the world population 23 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012 India 2.0 % Latin America 3.5% Africa 2.2%
  24. 24. Publications in the world (2008=986.099) UNESCO, Science report 2010 – Based on ISI data United States European Union China 28% 37% 10% USA and EU are still the world leaders as for the absolute number of scientific publications. Yet, their percentage share of publications decreased much more then any other country in the last 6 years. On the other hand, China doubled its publications (10%) Japon Russia 8% 7% Considering the size of Asian population it is envisaged that it will become the leader continent as for publication output in the coming years Latin America 4.9% Africa 2.2% due primarily to Brasil with 25% increase in the last 6 years Data refer to 2008, now the situation is rapidly changing 24 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  25. 25. Citation increase in OA journals Open access citation average. A. Swan 25 http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/18516/2/Citation_advantage_paper.pdf P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  26. 26. OPEN ACCESS: a new paradigm of communication Basic concepts from the Berlin Declaration (2003) Our mission of disseminating knowledge is only half complete if the information is not made widely and readily available to society. New possibilities of knowledge dissemination not only through the classical form but also and increasingly through the open access paradigm via the Internet have to be supported. We define open access as a comprehensive source of human knowledge and cultural heritage that has been approved by the scientific community. In order to realize the vision of a global and accessible representation of knowledge, the future Web has to be sustainable, interactive, and transparent. Content and software tools must be openly accessible and compatible. 26 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  27. 27. Open Access: aprire la gabbia … it requires the active commitment of each and every individual producer of scientific knowledge and holder of cultural heritage. Open access contributions include original scientific research results, raw data and metadata, source materials, digital representations of pictorial and graphical materials and scholarly multimedia material. 27 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  28. 28. Open Journal Systems Free software for online journal management About 11,500 journals 28 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  29. 29. Development of OA policies ISS OA policy was signed in 2007 ISS represented the first health research institute in Italy having an OA policy 29 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  30. 30. Internet revolution adds complexity to the publishing process Death of metamorphis of scientific journals? We are now in search of a new balance… Ronald La Port. BMJ 1995, 2002 30 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  31. 31. The European Commission supports OA Besides OA specific projects, the EU requires that all articles resulting from EU funded projects be deposited and preserved in digital archives (Special clause 39 on OA, 7FP) 31 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  32. 32. OA is a philosophy and not an archive OA routes 7646 OA 7646 OA OA journals (gold) Digital archives (green) CREATE AWARENESS among all stakeholders 32 2000 listings 2000 listings P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  33. 33. HOW MANY journals today? ISSN all disciplines (aprox.1.500.000 ) 900.000 current (15% online) 25.000 PEER REVIEWED 15-20% OA DOAJ: ISI WEB OF SCIENCE 7600 (800 health) 30% have publicaton fees 9000 “HIGH IMPACT” SCI 6500 SSCI 1800 AHCI 1140 MEDLARS (biomedicine) 5000 journals (21 million articles, some with links to full-text) 33 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  34. 34. Scientific Electronic Library Online SciELO a model for cooperative electronic publishing in LA Born in 1998 in Brasil, now it includes 940 Journals for all disciplines 294 Health sciences 98 Biological sciences ISI formula for IF Quality criteria NECOBELAC - SciELO Workshop in Rome, 21 June 2012 34
  35. 35. RESEARCHERS’ ATTITUDE ON OA Survey of the Project SOAP (Study on OA Publishing, 2009-2010 ) ONLINE SURVEY 40.000 scientists 90% declare that OA is a benefit MAIN OBSTACLES 5.000 scientists Financial barriers OA (39%) No quality OA journals (30%) NEED TO CREATE AWARENESS ON OA MODELS 35 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  36. 36. BIOMED CENTRAL OA publisher for biomedicine Today 320 peer reviewed journals, most with IF Author keeps copyright Articles have high visibility (indexed in PubMed) Preservation is guaranteed PAGES CHARGES 36 BMC Medicine (IF 5.75)  P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  37. 37. PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE www.plos.org OPEN LETTER Free circulation of research results In October 2000 Free access to publicly funded research results 7 6 4 2 Journals Currents Blog Network Hubs Publication fee 1350 $ per article 37 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  38. 38. THE HYBRID MODEL AUTHOR PAYS to have his article OA Peer review is the same in OA and non OA articles SPRINGER OPEN CHOICE (Euros 2000) 38 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  39. 39. NEW MODELS ARE TESTED Articles are published online after revision : “ahead of publication” but public debate was allowed even before the review process Atmospheric chemistry and physics discussions 39 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  40. 40. Nature Precedings A persistent and citable archive of preliminary results Voting is intended to be an informal way of showing support for a researcher's work Nature journals will consider manuscripts that have already been circulated as preprints, but some other publishers will not 40 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  41. 41. EDITORIAL PROCESS. Basic elements The editorial process is a communication process: an agreement among sender and and receiver having the objective of transmitting knowledge CHANNELL Code Sender MESSAGE Feedback 41 Receiver noise
  42. 42. Actors of the EDITORIAL PROCESS authors editors publishers readers • Referees • Technical editors • Translators • Graphic designers • Photographers • Printers • Web masters • Librarians • Information specialists Be aware of the role of each actor in the process to be able to understand and comply with their requirements 42 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  43. 43. RESPONSIBILITIES To be pointed out in T2 courses AUTHORS •Develop useful contents •Select the appropriate document type •Read instructions to authors •Provide all information required by editors •Do not cheat Etc. EDITORS •Organize and validate information •Garantee publication integrity •Create useful journals •Write instructions for authors •Specify steps of the editorial process Etc. 43 REFEREES •Guarantee quality of published papers •Declare conflicts of interest •Comply with schedules •Respect privacy and confidentiality Etc.
  44. 44. SCIENTIFIC EDITING inside an editorial office Receiving manuscripts First evaluation by editor in chief Peer review (reviewers/authors, reviewers, editor) Editor in chief (acceptance/modification/ rejection) Scientific editing – graphics (correction of drafts) Receiving proofs Article final copy Complete issue (including all articles) oda T 44 ll th ya is is line on Blueprint Online dissemination Print
  45. 45. WRITING A JOURNAL ARTICLE a challange between tradition and innovation WARNING! BE AWARE OF EDITORIAL RULES AND BEST PRACTICES 1. 2. 3. evaluate scientific content and target be familiar with technical requirements be familiar with the publication ethics FORMATS OF SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES 45 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
  46. 46. SUMMARY of the main points Publication of scientific output is part of the research process and plays a basic role for science development Scientific communication has a direct influence of science policies which, in turn, have a direct impact on public health and population well-being Thanks to Internet, wide dissemination of scientific information (incluging data) is possible, economic models are changing, new metrics are possible Progress is reached through a mix of REALISM and IDEALISM: consider tradition and test new models NECOBELAC can contribute to develop scientific communication through new collaborations between Europe and Latin America 46 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012

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