THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
Communicating science
Experience...
2THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
FOCUS
appreciate differentiatio...
Main topics
3THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
Background informat...
4THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
ISTITUTO SUPERIORE DI SANITÀ
Na...
Established
in 1934
5THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
Fight again...
Penicillina Factory , 1952
6
For 15 years it was the only governmental production plant
producing low-cost antibiotics
THE...
7THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
A story of Nobel Prize winners…...
8THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
ISTITUTO SUPERIORE DI SANITÀ
as...
Publications as a way to study
the language of science
9THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Be...
10THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
Publishing Unit at the Italian...
How many publications ISS today?
11
900 researchers (tot staff 2000)
about 1800 publications per year
83 82
73
65
62
58
46...
ISS as contributor and publisher
of scientific literature
 Conventional biomedical (journals) and grey literature
 ISS c...
THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
Rendiconti, now Annali
13
1938-1...
14
Grey literature
Rapporti ISTISAN
All information that
could not be
published in
conventional
journals, due to
extention...
THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
2001
1988 1996
2003 2004 2005-
1...
16
Established in 1985, they publish the
abstracts of congerence
communications and posters
organized by ISS.
Printed and ...
17
Publications addressed to schools
Since 2001
They publish updated information on health
issues of general interest for ...
18
Leaflets
General information on ISS
and its activity
THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Be...
Historical videos
19
Interviews to recover pieces of our
history through oral memories of old
or retired staff
From the gl...
20
Heritage publications
I beni storico-scientifici
dell’Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Since 2005, to safeguarde, preserve ...
21THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
100 year birthday
of Rita Levi...
22THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
Narrative medicine
Experience ...
23THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
The Flight of Pegasus is a pri...
Posters & exhibitions
for the general public
24THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19...
THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
25
It is a responsiblitity that ...
Levels of responsibility
THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
26
 Pr...
27
 represent the dynamic memory of science (started in 1660)
 rely on a consolidated know-how and editorial structure
...
28
Journals (and books)
change their shape
• Blogs
• Discussion lists
• Wikis
• Online answers
• Social networks
• Collect...
INTERNET adds complexities to the editorial process
and at the same time it makes it faster and accessible
to different st...
30
Information dissemination including both
publication and data is strictly associated with
research activity in the proc...
SPARC Workshop at EAHIL ● Rome, 10 June 2014
31
Global health has no borders
Access to health information
is critically im...
Shocking data on child mortality
to reflect on the role of health information
Each year, around 9 million children
die fro...
IMPACT OF INFORMATION
IN PUBLIC HEALTH
 Scientists (progress of science)
 Policy makers (regulations, fundings)
 Genera...
HEALTH, INFORMATION, HUMAN RIGHTS
Universal Declaration
on Human rights, 1948, Article 25.
Everyone has the right to a sta...
Right of
information
According to the International
Human Rights Law,
governments have the legal
obligation to ensure that...
36THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
Ethical responsibilities
affec...
37
Training scientists
to recognize
the most appropriate communication tool
according to targets and context
Main target o...
38
 journal articles
 technical reports
 oral communications or posters
in conferences or workshops
 abstracts and pro...
NECOBELAC project
Paola De Castro, NECOBEALC project Coordinator
Istituto Superiore di Sanità
An example of sustainable ac...
NECOBELAC project in brief
It is a European project (2009-2012)
“Science in Society” working in the field
of PUBLIC HEALTH...
NECOBELAC key points
This approach offers mutual benefits EU-LAC
and supports cultural change in production,
use and disse...
42THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
8 courses in EU and LAC
TRAINI...
8 Training for trainers (T1)
>45 Local training replications (T2)
Brazil Sao Paolo 2010
Italy Rome 2010
Colombia Bogotà 20...
Scientific publication
NECOBELAC topic maps
GL authors
and issuing
organizatio
nsshould
be aware
of the entire
information...
NECOBELAC topic maps
Open access
Librarians,
authors,
editors,
publishers
and all
stakeholder
s should
be aware
of OA
chal...
Sparc Europe workshop, EAHIL, Rome 10 June 2014
Open Access Journals
Introduction to Open Access
Open Access Repositories
Open Access Policies
NECOBELAC
model training pr...
Examples of diversity in NECOBELAC
local training initiatives
>50 training courses
in EU and LA
(8 courses for trainers)
Topic maps as
innovative training tools
> 200 institutions
in a...
Quito, Ecuador,
Noviembre 2011
Abstract book
Italian/Spanish
Collaboration within NECOBELAC project network (still ongoing...
Ongoing projects
developed thanks to the existing networks and experience
• Research HIV/AIDS
• Training
clinical aspects,...
Training and dissemination
material in two languages
52THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Ber...
53
Why communication skills are important
to reach CASA project objectives
Paola De Castro
S. A .C. A .
Basic training pro...
54
Improve the quality of care of patients with HIV
and related co-infections in Tigray
CASA PROJECT OBJECTIVE
HOW?
commun...
55
National Institute of Health
Istituto Superiore di Sanità
TEACHING & LEARNING are strictly connected
ITALY
Mekelle Univ...
56
57
Target groups of the training in communication
Physicians/
Researchers/
working in university
and hospitals
Health
work...
58
LESSONS
on scientific communication
Target groups
Health workers
Community
based
organizations
Physicians,
researchers,...
Editorial standards and guidelines
have a direct impact
on the language of science
59THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Pr...
“Vancouver style”, a reference tool
for publication in medical journals
60THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and ...
61
And
The IMRAD structure
Introduction
Background information
State specific purpose of the study
Limit references
Do not...
EQUATOR, a portal of guidelines for good
reporting of health sciences research
62THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practi...
Seminario Internacional Salud Ocupacional y ambiental - Quito, 22-24 Febrero 2014
Incluyen ejemplos
prácticos, incluso de
...
64THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS
65THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
In brief:
- have a good content to communicate
- be aware of rules and apply them
- have a strong motivation to do so
The ...
67
REVISION:
different levels of responsibility
• read instructions to authors
• read again after some time (one-two days)...
Other collaborative projects
fostering translation and dissemination of
scientific contents to different targets
 researc...
69THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
European Association
of Health...
E-BUG, a game
to empower students on
prudent use of antibiotics
(microbiology)
Seminario Internacional Salud Ocupacional y...
71THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
The heart of the ECDL Project
...
Bioresource Research
Impact Factor
Example of a positive
collaboration between
scientists and journal editors
to establish...
Vision
Greater gender balance in science and publishing practices for enhanced quality,
diversity and transparency, for sc...
Baseline: International Gender Survey
EASE GPC mission: To advance
sex/gender reporting and
gender balance in editorial
ma...
So what next?
 Expert Consultation (May 2014)
 Public Consultation (Split – June 2014)
 Revision of the Common Standard...
Join EASE and participate in
13th EASE Conference,
Strasbourg, 16-19 June 2016
“Scientific integrity: editors on the front...
77THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
Standardised Language
Certific...
78THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
Health Tom Tom Workshop
Organi...
79Health Tom Tom Workshop • ECIL • Istanbul, October 22-25, 2013
Definition provided by WHO, 1999
HEALTH LITERACY represen...
80THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
MEDITERRANEAN EDITORS
AND TRAN...
Thank you
Paola De Castro
paola.decastro@iss.it
Questions?
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De castro cerlis. Communicating science: rules, formats and best practices. Experience from a research institute for public health.

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Progress is science is based on the exploitation of existing knowledge and the sharing of new information. Communication is therefore an essential part of research work and is now widely recognised as a responsibility that scientists must undertake with the same commitment and professionalism as all the other research activities. Scientific communication is complex mainly because researchers need to communicate in different ways, for different aims, to different targets, from peers, to administrators, patients, policy makers, general public, the media, etc., and they seldom receive a formal education to do so. Scientists therefore use many registers and obey to different traditions; they must be able to talk to peers using technical language, to present effective and appealing communications in scientific conferences, to write abstracts, or texts to be published in the Conference proceedings; to write technical reports or produce other types of grey literature; to participate in online scientific conversations; and, last but not least, to submit an article to prestigious journals, still representing the most qualified and internationally recognized research record. At the same time, scientists should be able to communicate to the lay people, and translate technical language in simple words and messages that can be easily understood. There are editorial rules, guidelines and standards, and ethical considerations which apply to all documents as well as specific rules, traditions and best practices in each discipline.
Based on the experience of production and management of the scientific literature of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (National Health Institute in Italy), about 1800 articles per year (including its own international science journal, a national bulletin and different series of technical reports), the current researchers’ attitudes and best practices in scientific communication will be outlined.
Considerations from the training experience in scientific writing and open access publishing addressed to researchers in a wide geographical area (Europe, Latin America and Africa) will contribute to provide an outlook of the basic skills that need to be developed for effective scientific communication.

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De castro cerlis. Communicating science: rules, formats and best practices. Experience from a research institute for public health.

  1. 1. THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 Communicating science Experience from a research institute for public health Paola De Castro Director of the Pubishing Unit Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy European Association of Science Editors (EASE ) 1
  2. 2. 2THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 FOCUS appreciate differentiation strive for academic excellence provide insights for practice AIM: inspire “evidence based” collaboration The added value of a multidisciplinary approach to open science addressing innovation in a global dimension
  3. 3. Main topics 3THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 Background information Publications as a way to study the language of science Responsibilities in communicating science Training scientists in scientific communication Editorial standards and guidelines Some ISS collaborative projects fostering the translation and dissemination of scientific contents to different targets
  4. 4. 4THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 ISTITUTO SUPERIORE DI SANITÀ National Institute of Health in Italy Mission: Research for public health Research, advice, control, training, documentation in PUBLIC HEALTH diseases, environment, drugs, food safety, health technologies, life styles, epidemiology
  5. 5. Established in 1934 5THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 Fight against malaria DDT on Pontina swamp, 1946
  6. 6. Penicillina Factory , 1952 6 For 15 years it was the only governmental production plant producing low-cost antibiotics THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
  7. 7. 7THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 A story of Nobel Prize winners… D. Bovet E.B. Chain E. Fermi R. Levi-Montalcini
  8. 8. 8THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 ISTITUTO SUPERIORE DI SANITÀ as an editor of scientific publications Editorial work has a fundamental role in a research institute and allows to study and shape the language of science The ISS official journal started in 1938, since 2000 is online as all ISS publications
  9. 9. Publications as a way to study the language of science 9THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 Hints from experience at the Publishing Unit of the National Institute of Health in Italy Different ways of translating scientific contents
  10. 10. 10THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 Publishing Unit at the Italian NIH Activities Publications Digital archive Research projects Cooperation Training Exhibitions
  11. 11. How many publications ISS today? 11 900 researchers (tot staff 2000) about 1800 publications per year 83 82 73 65 62 58 46 14 10 7 5 4 3 3 2 1 54 145 53 46 103 31 32 8 21 23 2 1 6 3 44 10 106 67 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 MIPI CNE BCN FARM AMPP TES SPVSA EOMM CRIVIB CSC CNMR CNAIDS CNT SBGSA CNS SIDBAE URE Non Indicizzate Indicizzate Non Indicizzate Indicizzate 30% ISS series Annual report ISS 2013 60% in English THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
  12. 12. ISS as contributor and publisher of scientific literature  Conventional biomedical (journals) and grey literature  ISS conventional journals and grey production 12THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 The Publishing Unit has a privileged position to Observe trends in scientific language (OA, publication metrics) Play a “Regulatory role” in setting rules through “instructions to authors” and control on the editorial process Become aware of information needs at different levels from the inside
  13. 13. THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 Rendiconti, now Annali 13 1938-1941 1941-1965 1965-2005 2006, 2011, IF 13 2013- 2014 Indexed in ISI, MEDLINE, EMBASE/Excerpta Medica, CHEMABS, PASCAL, SciELO Peer reviewed science journal in English
  14. 14. 14 Grey literature Rapporti ISTISAN All information that could not be published in conventional journals, due to extention and detail. Since 1977 they publish research activity, data, proceedings, technical specifications Now, divided in 5 research areas THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
  15. 15. THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 2001 1988 1996 2003 2004 2005- 1990 Notiziario dell’ISS 15 Monthly bulletin on current research, includes the National Epidemiological Bulletin Started in 1987, online since 1996
  16. 16. 16 Established in 1985, they publish the abstracts of congerence communications and posters organized by ISS. Printed and online available befroe the Conference THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 Grey literature ISTISAN Congressi
  17. 17. 17 Publications addressed to schools Since 2001 They publish updated information on health issues of general interest for schools THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
  18. 18. 18 Leaflets General information on ISS and its activity THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
  19. 19. Historical videos 19 Interviews to recover pieces of our history through oral memories of old or retired staff From the glass blower, to the carpenter, to reserchers who worked in environmental disasters, to those who worked with the Nobel laureates... Transcripts are available THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
  20. 20. 20 Heritage publications I beni storico-scientifici dell’Istituto Superiore di Sanità Since 2005, to safeguarde, preserve and study the ISS heritage in different stages of its development From the history of the Laboratory of Therapeutical chemistry (Directed by Prof. Daniel Bovet (1947-1964), to the description of scientific instruments, the history of electronic microscopy (1942- 1992), the laboratory of malariology, the collection of rare books, proceedings of historical conferences, history of curare, the role of oral memories... THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
  21. 21. 21THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 100 year birthday of Rita Levi Montalcini (April 2009) Original interviews as a gift for a special birthday Publications produced for special events
  22. 22. 22THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 Narrative medicine Experience in Narrative Medicine and Rare Diseases (CNRM) Narrative medicine (medical humanities) is a medical approach that recognizes the value of people’s narrative in clinical practice, research and education
  23. 23. 23THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 The Flight of Pegasus is a prize started in 2008 by National Centre of Rare Diseases at ISS. It is addressed to patients, their families and friends, no age limit, to • Provide space for expression and visibility for people with rare diseases, through artistic and literary channels (stories, drawings, paintings, pictures) • Raise awareness for rare diseases, not only with a view to suffering, but also to human dignity to promote active citizenship. Why Pegasus? Pegasus is the winged horse, symbol of wisdom, representing the strength to hover off the ground and make a journey into the unknown. The journey that many rare disease patients and their families make every day.
  24. 24. Posters & exhibitions for the general public 24THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 Science Pic Nic Warsaw, May 2014 Games to involve the general public on the importance of corrert life styles Diet, Physical excercise, Etc.
  25. 25. THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 25 It is a responsiblitity that must be recognised and undertaken with the same commitment and professionality as for all the other science-related activities Responsibility of science communication For all people working in Research and Development Information transfer is an ESSENTIAL part of their work
  26. 26. Levels of responsibility THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 26  Progress is always based on previous work  Peers need to be informed  Patients need to be informed  All stakeholders (policy makers, general public) need to be informed and become aware of the value of scientific research  Health is a common good  We live in a “global” world  Health information should be available for all (OA)
  27. 27. 27  represent the dynamic memory of science (started in 1660)  rely on a consolidated know-how and editorial structure  guarantee quality control, dissemination, indexing and impact evaluation of published articles. Despite the changes introduced by the Internet in communication, scientific journals still represent the most widely recognized means for communicating research results of among peers. Role of scientific journals Scientific journals: THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
  28. 28. 28 Journals (and books) change their shape • Blogs • Discussion lists • Wikis • Online answers • Social networks • Collective conversations All this deeply affects scientific communication New ways are developed TODAY INTERNET allows new ways of communication THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
  29. 29. INTERNET adds complexities to the editorial process and at the same time it makes it faster and accessible to different stakeholders Ronald La Port. BMJ 1995, 2002 Death or metamorphosis of scientific journals? Searching new balance among different interests 29
  30. 30. 30 Information dissemination including both publication and data is strictly associated with research activity in the process of creating knowledge on the basis of existing knowledge. OPEN ACCESS Researchers and health operators must assume such responsibility as part of their commitment (social implication) Open access to research information and data is therefore a moral imperative and is recognised as such by many research performing and funding institutions (NIH, Wellcom trust, European Commission (H2020), ERC, OCSE, etc.)
  31. 31. SPARC Workshop at EAHIL ● Rome, 10 June 2014 31 Global health has no borders Access to health information is critically important for all human beings, it often makes the difference between like and death, and as such is an important component of human rights
  32. 32. Shocking data on child mortality to reflect on the role of health information Each year, around 9 million children die from preventable and treatable illnesses Health knowledge can often mean the difference between life and death The handbook produced by UNICEF, WHO, UNESCO provides vital messages and information for mothers, fathers, other family members and caregivers and communities Example
  33. 33. IMPACT OF INFORMATION IN PUBLIC HEALTH  Scientists (progress of science)  Policy makers (regulations, fundings)  General public (behavioural change) Social value of knowledge, Scientific communication as a civil commitment Scientists, in their role of knowledge gatekeepers, should play an active role in public discussions on science Trust in scientists role • Spread knowledge • Face challanges
  34. 34. HEALTH, INFORMATION, HUMAN RIGHTS Universal Declaration on Human rights, 1948, Article 25. Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family Definition of Health World Health Organization, 1948 Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity Access to information Is an essential component of human rights Today people still die for lack of information Open Access= equality in health
  35. 35. Right of information According to the International Human Rights Law, governments have the legal obligation to ensure that all citizens and health operators have access to the appropriate health information they need to protect their health and the health of the other people NY Law School, 2012
  36. 36. 36THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 Ethical responsibilities affecting all the actors of the editorial process (authors, editors, reviewers, editorial staff) and beyond - Authorship - Integrity (falsification) - Copyright (plagiarism) - Privacy and confidentiality - Conflicts of interest (bias) - Freedom of information Committee on Publication Ethics
  37. 37. 37 Training scientists to recognize the most appropriate communication tool according to targets and context Main target of IS training activities: health personnel in Italy and other countries in Europe, Latin America, Africa THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
  38. 38. 38  journal articles  technical reports  oral communications or posters in conferences or workshops  abstracts and proceedings  social media  etc. researchers, medical & technical staff patients, families, policy makers, community health workers, media, etc.  oral communications  leaflets, bookmarks, posters  audiovisuals  workshops, informal meetings  e-health communication  social media  etc. PEERS LAY PEOPLE share research results, progress in research, contribute to debate change behaviour, improve life style, access to therapy, increase retention type objective target Different targets, objectives & types of scientific communication THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
  39. 39. NECOBELAC project Paola De Castro, NECOBEALC project Coordinator Istituto Superiore di Sanità An example of sustainable activities to promote scientific writing and OA publishing in a wide geographical area
  40. 40. NECOBELAC project in brief It is a European project (2009-2012) “Science in Society” working in the field of PUBLIC HEALTH  improve scientific writing  promote open access publishing models  foster technical and scientific cooperation between Europe and Latin America www.necobelac.eu Network of Collaboration Between Europe & Latin American-Caribbean countries It aims to: All actors taking part in scientific communication processTARGET Sparc Europe workshop, EAHIL, Rome 10 June 2014
  41. 41. NECOBELAC key points This approach offers mutual benefits EU-LAC and supports cultural change in production, use and dissemination of health information BI-DIRECTIONAL APPROACH sharing experiences and initiatives between Europe & Latin America within a common strategy MAIN ACTIONS 1. Two level training activity 2. Innovative training tools 3. Networking & cooperation activity interrelated
  42. 42. 42THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 8 courses in EU and LAC TRAINING REPLICATION TRAINING COURSES FOR TRAINERS T1 T2 TWO-LEVEL TRAINING ACTIVITY (assisted and supported by project partners)
  43. 43. 8 Training for trainers (T1) >45 Local training replications (T2) Brazil Sao Paolo 2010 Italy Rome 2010 Colombia Bogotà 2010 Spain Madrid 2011 Argentina Buenos Aires 2011 Portugal Braga 2011 Mexico Guadalajara 2011 Ireland Dublin 2012 15 countries in the network 4 Europe + 11 Latin America >200 institutions Figures from NECOBELAC training Lessons learnt: listen, be flexible, provide support and teaching material Sparc Europe workshop, EAHIL, Rome 10 June 2014
  44. 44. Scientific publication NECOBELAC topic maps GL authors and issuing organizatio nsshould be aware of the entire information life cycle Sparc Europe workshop, EAHIL, Rome 10 June 2014
  45. 45. NECOBELAC topic maps Open access Librarians, authors, editors, publishers and all stakeholder s should be aware of OA challanges and opportuniti es Sparc Europe workshop, EAHIL, Rome 10 June 2014
  46. 46. Sparc Europe workshop, EAHIL, Rome 10 June 2014
  47. 47. Open Access Journals Introduction to Open Access Open Access Repositories Open Access Policies NECOBELAC model training program OPEN ACCESS OA publishing models represents the greatest challenge for health information dissemination Sparc Europe workshop, EAHIL, Rome 10 June 2014
  48. 48. Examples of diversity in NECOBELAC local training initiatives
  49. 49. >50 training courses in EU and LA (8 courses for trainers) Topic maps as innovative training tools > 200 institutions in a network Final results of the NECOBELAC project 12/26 Training in scientific writing and open access publishing: the NECOBELAC project experience in Europe and Latin America.
  50. 50. Quito, Ecuador, Noviembre 2011 Abstract book Italian/Spanish Collaboration within NECOBELAC project network (still ongoing): linking public health & information communication Montevideo Uruguay, March 2012 Examples of OA training and research for public health, including Italy (ISS, IILA), Colombia (ISP), Ecuador (UTE), Uruguay Italia, Argentina, 2010 Italia, UK, Cuba, 2011 Rare diseases Paediatric pharmacology AMBIENTE Y SALUD ISEE - International Society of Environmental Epidemiology, 2011 Quito Ecuador, March2014 Bogotà Colombia, February 2014
  51. 51. Ongoing projects developed thanks to the existing networks and experience • Research HIV/AIDS • Training clinical aspects, statistics and communication Asbestos project • Research on asbestos • Dissemination of information on asbestos and related diseases (Latin America) CASA Project Cohort of African People Starting Antiretroviral therapy in Ethiopia
  52. 52. Training and dissemination material in two languages 52THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 Enhancing scientific research results through the publication of open access journal articles. A suggested training program. Scientific contents Environmetal and Occupational health Mortality data, Health risks + Communication issues Scientific writing 13/31 Contribution to training and prevention of asbestos related diseases. In English and Spanish
  53. 53. 53 Why communication skills are important to reach CASA project objectives Paola De Castro S. A .C. A . Basic training program in scientific communication Head of the Publishing Unit Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome (Italy) Mekelle University, 26 May 2014
  54. 54. 54 Improve the quality of care of patients with HIV and related co-infections in Tigray CASA PROJECT OBJECTIVE HOW? communication, scientific writing, information searching, evaluation, organization of workshops, strategic planning, presentations in meetings, etc. Evidence based!!! Research and training statistics clinical aspects communication
  55. 55. 55 National Institute of Health Istituto Superiore di Sanità TEACHING & LEARNING are strictly connected ITALY Mekelle University, Tigray Health Bureau, health facilities ETHIOPIA different backgrounds share knowledge to improve quality of care of HIV infected patients S. A .C. A .
  56. 56. 56
  57. 57. 57 Target groups of the training in communication Physicians/ Researchers/ working in university and hospitals Health workers nurses, health officers, physicians, case managers Community based organizations community health workers, women associations, patient associations, etc. 1 2 3 Different types of translation From one language to another language From one culture to another culture Form scientific/technical language to common language
  58. 58. 58 LESSONS on scientific communication Target groups Health workers Community based organizations Physicians, researchers, case managers 1. Communication skills: easy when you know how x x x 2. The basic structure of a journal article x x 3. Citing the work of others x 4. Communication through social media x x 5. How to select the right journal to publish your article x x 6. Basic scientific knowledge on HIV/AIDS x x 7. Why networking is necessary . The train-the- trainer approach x x x 8. Strategic planning for community health workers: SMART objectives x x 9. Building your own strategy to work with HIV/AIDS patients & families x 10. Searching online medical information (basic) x x x 11. Information sources on HIV/AIDS (for health operators) x x 12. Information sources on HIV/AIDS (for patients and the general public) x x
  59. 59. Editorial standards and guidelines have a direct impact on the language of science 59THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 Authors must comply with instructions for authors and refer to strict editorial guidelines to get published Instructions from over 6000 biomedical journals First step before starting to write the article and last step before submission!
  60. 60. “Vancouver style”, a reference tool for publication in medical journals 60THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 Recommendations for the conduct, reporting, editing and publication of scholarly work in medical journals. Started in 1978 to standardize citations, now is a common standard containing ethical and technical considerations
  61. 61. 61 And The IMRAD structure Introduction Background information State specific purpose of the study Limit references Do not include data or conclusions Material and methods Describe (patients, animals, etc.) Define material and equipment Illustrate procedures Compare with other methods Results Show results in logical order Point out only relevant data Discussion and conclusions Stress only new aspects Do not repeat what was written in the methods Avoid conclusions which are not associated to reliable data THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
  62. 62. EQUATOR, a portal of guidelines for good reporting of health sciences research 62THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
  63. 63. Seminario Internacional Salud Ocupacional y ambiental - Quito, 22-24 Febrero 2014 Incluyen ejemplos prácticos, incluso de errores frecuentes en la traducción
  64. 64. 64THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
  65. 65. MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS 65THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
  66. 66. In brief: - have a good content to communicate - be aware of rules and apply them - have a strong motivation to do so The language of science Concise, simple, clear Imagination is more important than knowledge Einstein teaches Texts should be complete in each part “ ” 66
  67. 67. 67 REVISION: different levels of responsibility • read instructions to authors • read again after some time (one-two days) • use check lists A paper may be rejected by the editor, IF… • it is not compliant with journal scope & formats • it has poor English Minor revisions Major revisions Revision improves quality & provides a learning opportunity Authors! Take it seriously! Be prepared to answer all points raised by reviewers 4. TECHNICAL EDITING after acceptance Journal editorial staff 1. AUTHORS’ REVISION before submission 2. INITIAL EDITORIAL REVIEW after submission (before peer review) 3. PEER REVIEW after submission THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014
  68. 68. Other collaborative projects fostering translation and dissemination of scientific contents to different targets  research projects  science games  Pilot ECDL Health 68
  69. 69. 69THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 European Association of Health Information and Libraries
  70. 70. E-BUG, a game to empower students on prudent use of antibiotics (microbiology) Seminario Internacional Salud Ocupacional y ambiental - Quito, 22-24 Febrero 2014 Create, translate and adapt scientific contents in different contexts
  71. 71. 71THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 The heart of the ECDL Project is a Syllabus summarising the basic competences health professionals should have to get the diploma ECDL HealthDoc Pilot ECDL HealthDoc 1 Sources of health information 2 Access to full-text information 3 Web information quality 4 Research evaluation 5 EBM documentation 6 Scientific writing 7 Health information for citizens and patients 8 Web 2.0
  72. 72. Bioresource Research Impact Factor Example of a positive collaboration between scientists and journal editors to establish a standardised citation of bioresources in order to be properly evaluated. 7 2 BRIF
  73. 73. Vision Greater gender balance in science and publishing practices for enhanced quality, diversity and transparency, for science to remain at the forefront of innovation. Mission: To advance sex/gender reporting and gender balance in editorial management on a global level, and across disciplines. EASE Gender Policy Committee towards a common standard for gender policies in scientific reporting
  74. 74. Baseline: International Gender Survey EASE GPC mission: To advance sex/gender reporting and gender balance in editorial management on a global level, and across disciplines
  75. 75. So what next?  Expert Consultation (May 2014)  Public Consultation (Split – June 2014)  Revision of the Common Standards  Publications and dissemination  Advocate for its endorsement and implementation  Monitoring
  76. 76. Join EASE and participate in 13th EASE Conference, Strasbourg, 16-19 June 2016 “Scientific integrity: editors on the front line” Herve Maisonneuve, past-president of EASE and local French organizer. You are welcome to send proposals 76THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 http://www.ease.org.uk/
  77. 77. 77THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 Standardised Language Certificate for Medical Purposes (sTANDEM)
  78. 78. 78THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 Health Tom Tom Workshop Organized by Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Italy and Hacettepe University, Turkey ECIL - Instanbul 2013 better use information, improve communication share knowledge develop life skills to improve well-being Show the benefits of a multisectorial approach Researchers & librarians working together to improve health information literacy
  79. 79. 79Health Tom Tom Workshop • ECIL • Istanbul, October 22-25, 2013 Definition provided by WHO, 1999 HEALTH LITERACY represents the cognitive and social skills which determine the motivation and ability of individuals to: Information literacy & public health HEALTH LITERACY (information & communication) AS A MEANS FOR HEALTH PROMOTION By improving people’s access to health information and their capacity to use it effectively, health literacy is critical to empowerment. information • gain access to • understand • use in ways which promote and maintain good health
  80. 80. 80THE LANGUAGE OF MEDICINE: Science, Practice and Academia. Univ. Bergamo, 19-21 June, 2014 MEDITERRANEAN EDITORS AND TRANSLATORS translators editors, revisors and proofreaders project managers authors’ editors oral and writing coaches language teachers interpreters scientific and technical writers writing instructors researchers
  81. 81. Thank you Paola De Castro paola.decastro@iss.it Questions?

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