Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

English editing workshop

688 views

Published on

English Editing Workshop: Making “Good” Better

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

English editing workshop

  1. 1. English Editing Workshop : Making “Good” Better 英文编辑的讲修会 : 使文章“好”上加好 November 2007 by Chad Walker ( 王可杰 ) 理文编辑总编辑
  2. 2. <ul><li>Writing in General 写作总体要求 </li></ul>The Better You Can Write English, the Better You Can Edit It 英文写的好则编的更好
  3. 3. <ul><li>Words 用词 </li></ul>Commonly Confused and Misused Words 常见易混易错单词
  4. 4. Practice Exercise! 练习 Check your knowledge of commonly confused and misused words
  5. 5. <ul><li>Articles a/an vs. the 不定冠词 a/an 与定冠词 the </li></ul><ul><li>“ a/an”: used when the noun can exist in more than one form or as more than one case: “a/an”: 用于可数或单数名词之前 </li></ul><ul><li>“ the”: used when no more than one instance exists or is likely to exist in the future : “the ”: 指目前或将来独一无二事物 </li></ul><ul><li>Experience using and reading them is the key! </li></ul><ul><li>使用与阅读最为关键 </li></ul>&quot; A new species of Escherichia was identified.“ (other species also exist) &quot; The organism responsible for the outbreak was Escherichia coli. &quot;
  6. 6. 2. affect/effect (and impact ) <ul><li>“ effect ” as a noun is the “result of some action.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ effect ” 作为 名词 时,表示 “ 行为的结果 ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ affect ” as a verb is “to influence. ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ affect ” 作为 动词 时,意思为 “ 影响 ” </li></ul><ul><li>BUT </li></ul><ul><li>“ effect ” as a verb is to “bring about a change.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ effect ” 作为 动词 时,意思为“引起变化” </li></ul><ul><li>“ affect ” as a noun is the feeling or emotion caused by somebody‘s demeanor, action, or speech. </li></ul><ul><li>“ affect ” 作为 名词 时,意思为由于某人行为举止或语言引起的感受或情绪 </li></ul><ul><li>• “ impact ” should be used only to describe “striking of one body against another” and should not be used as “ affect. ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ impact ” 只用于描述“一件事对另一件事”产生的冲击,不能作为“ affect ” 使用 </li></ul>
  7. 7. 2. affect/effect (and impact ) <ul><li>(influence the recovery in some way) </li></ul><ul><li>(produce/cause the recovery ) </li></ul><ul><li>Luckily, the medicine did not adversely affect the patient. </li></ul><ul><li>Many scientists believe that global warming is the effect of greenhouse-gas emissions. </li></ul>. “ Ingesting massive doses of ascorbic acid may affect his recovery.” “ Ingesting massive doses of ascorbic acid may effect his recovery.”
  8. 8. 3. because/as/since <ul><li>“ as ” used only in temporal, not causal, sense. “ as ” 表示时间,而不是因果关系 </li></ul><ul><li>“ because ” used to show causal action. “ because ” 表示因果关系 </li></ul><ul><li>“ since ” used to show temporal relation. “ since ” 表示时间关系 </li></ul>“ As we were completing the paper, new evidence came to light.” “ Five participants could not complete the follow up questionnaire because they had moved out of the target district.” &quot; Since we completed the study , there have been 3 additional outbreaks.&quot;
  9. 9. 4. because of/due to <ul><li>“ due to ” = adjective + preposition , adjectival phrase meaning “attributable to” or “caused by” 归因于... </li></ul><ul><li>“ because of ” = conjunction + preposition , adverbial phrase meaning “as a result of” or “owing to” 因为/由于 </li></ul><ul><li>*Tip: Use “ attributable to ” and “ as a result of ” to determine the   correct one. </li></ul>&quot;The problem was due to mechanical failure.&quot; “ The problem occurred because of mechanical failure.”
  10. 10. 5. comparable/similar (and same ) <ul><li>“ comparable” : adjective indicating an item lending itself to comparison with a similar term. 可与…相比的 , 类似的 </li></ul><ul><li>“ similar ”: adjective indicating likeness. 相似 </li></ul>“ Because the methods are different, the statistics are not comparable .” &quot;The mortality rates in Sweden and Chile are similar .&quot;
  11. 11. 5. comparable/similar (and same ) <ul><li>* Tip: “Same” is sometimes mistakenly used when “similar” is the correct word. “ Same ” means exactly the same, or “ identical ,” which is not often the case when comparing scientific results, especially when comparing the results of two different studies.  </li></ul><ul><li>“ Same” 有时会与 “ similar” 混淆。 “ Same ” 指完全一样,或 “ identical ” , 通常不用于科研结果的比较 , 特别是两项不同研究的比较 </li></ul>
  12. 12. 6. compose/comprise/constitute <ul><li>“ compose ” </li></ul><ul><li>*1) active verb meaning to form, to make up a single object, to go together. 构成,主动语态 </li></ul><ul><li>*2) passive verb meaning the same as “comprise.” 构成,被动语态 </li></ul><ul><li>“ comprise ” ( verb ) to include, contain, b e made up of. 包括,包含 </li></ul><ul><li>“ constitute ” means the same as “ compose .” </li></ul><ul><li>“ constitute ” 与 “ compose .” 意思相同 </li></ul>“ Fifty states compose the United States of America. ” “ The United States of America is composed of 50 states.” “ The United States of America comprises 50 states.”
  13. 13. 7. currently/presently/at present (and &quot; now &quot;) <ul><li>“ currently” (preferred) and “ at present ” mean “ now .” 现在 </li></ul><ul><li>“ presently ” means “ soon ”, “shortly”, “in the near future.” 不久的将来 </li></ul><ul><li>*Tip: “ Now ” is often mistakenly used in manuscripts when “ currently ” or “ at present ” is better . 最好使用 currently ” 或 “ at present ” , “ Now ” 经常被错误使用 </li></ul>“ There are currently no available studies on Han Chinese populations .” “ Presently , we will go to the Forbidden City.”
  14. 14. 8. demonstrate/exhibit/reveal/show <ul><li>“ demonstrate ” should be used only for deliberate action intended to illustrate an action or procedure. 演示 </li></ul><ul><li>“ exhibit ” is used for deliberate action to make visible. 展示 </li></ul><ul><li>* NOT used to mean passively carrying something. 不用于表示被动地体现某事物 </li></ul><ul><li>×   &quot;The patient exhibited a rash&quot; ○   &quot;The patient had a rash. ” </li></ul>“ The technician demonstrated how to operate the pH meter.” &quot;He exhibited the mineral specimens at the last congress.&quot;
  15. 15. 8. demonstrate/exhibit/reveal/show <ul><li>“ reveal ” is an action to make visible what has been hidden. It is not a synonym for “report.” 揭示/显示 </li></ul><ul><li>*Tip: Non-living things cannot “demonstrate” anything; sentences like “The data demonstrated that...” should be avoided. “demonstrate” 的主语应该是生命体,像 “ The data demonstrated that...” 这样的用法应当避免。 </li></ul>“ The X-ray revealed a tumor in the lower part of the stomach. ”
  16. 16. 9. significant vs. important/great/major/valuable <ul><li>“ significant ” should be used to mean serving as “pointing to,” especially in the statistical sense of reaching a numeric threshold. 通常用于统计学意义达到一定数值的上限或下限 </li></ul><ul><li>*Tip: Use the other words only when statistical significance is not intended. 如不单纯表示统计学意义,建议使用其它单词 </li></ul>“ The mean blood pressure was significantly lowered, with a P value of 0.05” “ The results of this research will be of great value to all nanotechnology researchers. ”
  17. 17. 10. employ/utilize vs. use <ul><li>“ use ”: adequate in most cases to mean applying or drawing on for a purpose. “ use ”: 使用广泛,表示为达到某一目的采用的方法与事物 </li></ul><ul><li>“ employ ”: can also mean to put a person to work or put an object to use. “ employ ”: 聘用某人或采用某物 </li></ul><ul><li>*Tip: There is really no reason to use “utilize” in scientific writing. 在科学写作中,实在无必要使用 “ utilize” </li></ul>“ An autorefractor was used to measure refractive error. ” “ All of the subjects had been employed at the company since 1997 or earlier. ”
  18. 18. 5. comparable/similar (and same ) <ul><li>* Tip: “Same” is sometimes mistakenly used when “similar” is the correct word. “ Same ” means exactly the same, or “ identical ,” which is not often the case when comparing scientific results, especially when comparing the results of two different studies.  </li></ul><ul><li>“ Same” 有时会与 “ similar” 混淆。 “ Same ” 指完全一样,或 “ identical ” , 通常不用于科研结果的比较 , 特别是两项不同研究的比较 </li></ul>
  19. 19. Be Concis e 简洁 B. Phrases 短语
  20. 20. Practice Exercise! 练习 ! When writing science, it’s important to be clear and use as few words as possible 科学写作:表达清晰,使用短句
  21. 21. How did you do? 你会选择哪些词? <ul><li>a majority of </li></ul><ul><li>a number of </li></ul><ul><li>at a rapid rate </li></ul><ul><li>as a consequence of </li></ul><ul><li>at this point in time </li></ul><ul><li>based on the fact that </li></ul><ul><li>completely filled </li></ul><ul><li>despite the fact that </li></ul><ul><li>due to the fact that </li></ul><ul><li>most </li></ul><ul><li>many, several, some </li></ul><ul><li>rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>because of </li></ul><ul><li>now, currently </li></ul><ul><li>because </li></ul><ul><li>filled </li></ul><ul><li>although </li></ul><ul><li>because </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>during the course of </li></ul><ul><li>fewer in number </li></ul><ul><li>for the purpose of examining </li></ul><ul><li>has the capability of </li></ul><ul><li>in all cases </li></ul><ul><li>in connection with </li></ul><ul><li>in the event that </li></ul><ul><li>in the near future </li></ul><ul><li>It has been reported by Wang </li></ul><ul><li>it is often the case that </li></ul><ul><li>during, while </li></ul><ul><li>fewer </li></ul><ul><li>to examine </li></ul><ul><li>can, is able to </li></ul><ul><li>always, invariably </li></ul><ul><li>about, concerning </li></ul><ul><li>if </li></ul><ul><li>soon </li></ul><ul><li>Wang reported </li></ul><ul><li>often </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>it is possible that the cause is </li></ul><ul><li>it is worth pointing out that </li></ul><ul><li>it would thus appear that </li></ul><ul><li>large amounts of </li></ul><ul><li>large in size </li></ul><ul><li>large numbers of </li></ul><ul><li>located in, located near </li></ul><ul><li>on the basis of </li></ul><ul><li>oval in shape, oval-shaped </li></ul><ul><li>prior to [in time] </li></ul><ul><li>the cause may be </li></ul><ul><li>note that </li></ul><ul><li>apparently </li></ul><ul><li>much </li></ul><ul><li>large </li></ul><ul><li>many </li></ul><ul><li>in, near </li></ul><ul><li>from, by, because </li></ul><ul><li>oval </li></ul><ul><li>before </li></ul>
  24. 24. C. Sentences 句子 Short is the Key 简短是关键
  25. 25. Shorter Sentences 短句 <ul><li>The trend in scientific writing is toward shorter sentences with less punctuation. </li></ul><ul><li>科技文章写作 的趋势是 : </li></ul><ul><li>句子 更简短 , 少用标点符号 </li></ul>
  26. 26. Sentence Structure ( 句子结构 ) <ul><li>In 1600 the average length of an English sentence was 40 to 60 words </li></ul><ul><li>1600 年, 一 个 英语句子平均有 40 到 60 个单词 </li></ul><ul><li>In 1900 the average length was 21 words </li></ul><ul><li>1900 年,平均有 21 个单词 </li></ul>
  27. 27. Sentence Structure <ul><li>In 1970 the average length was 17 words </li></ul><ul><li>1970 年,平均有 17 个单词 </li></ul><ul><li>Now the average length of an English sentence is 12 to 17 words </li></ul><ul><li>现在,一 个 英语句子平均有 12 到 17 个单词 </li></ul>
  28. 28. Sentence Structure <ul><li>Chinese uses long sentences </li></ul><ul><li>中文 使 用长句子 </li></ul><ul><li>English—particularly scientific English—uses very short sentences </li></ul><ul><li>英语 - 特别是科技英语 - 使用非常短的句子 </li></ul>
  29. 29. Sentence Structure <ul><li>Short sentences are the NORM </li></ul><ul><li>They don’t sound childish </li></ul><ul><li>短句是准则 </li></ul><ul><li>这样并不显得幼稚 </li></ul>
  30. 30. Exercise : Break down long sentences 练习:分解长句子 1 <ul><li>New descriptors of local environment and atomic state, the X and Y indexes, can accurately reflect electron distribution around atoms in different chemical microenvironments, therefore when these were applied to characterize a local chemical environment and atomic self-state, a satisfactory result was obtained to simulate and predict the 13 C chemical shift of 22 natural amino acids and 4 non-natural amino acids. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Exercise : Break down long sentences 练习:分解长句子 2 <ul><li>New descriptors of local environment and atomic state, the X and Y indexes, can accurately reflect electron distribution around atoms in different chemical microenvironments . W hen t hese were applied to characterize a local chemical environment and atomic self-state, a satisfactory result was obtained to simulate and predict the 13 C chemical shift of 22 natural amino acids and 4 non-natural amino acids. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Exercise : Break down long sentences 练习:分解长句子 3 <ul><li>New descriptors of local environment and atomic state, the X and Y indexes, can accurately reflect electron distribution around atoms in different chemical microenvironments . T hese were applied to characterize a local chemical environment and atomic self-state . A satisfactory result was obtained to simulate and predict the 13 C chemical shift of 22 natural amino acids and 4 non-natural amino acids. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Sentence Structure <ul><li>Even though the grammar can be similar sometimes, Chinese sentences can be very different from English sentences </li></ul><ul><li>尽管某些语法相似,但中 / 英文句式却可以完全不同 </li></ul>
  34. 34. Sentence Structure <ul><li>For example, Chinese is a head noun language; all modifiers precede the elements that they modify. </li></ul><ul><li>中文是 以 名词开头的语言 ; 所有修饰词都放在修饰的成分之前 </li></ul><ul><li>如 : 这 本我昨天在 这 儿 买 的 书 。 </li></ul>
  35. 35. Sentence Structure <ul><li>In English, some modifiers go in front of the noun </li></ul><ul><li>and some are placed after the noun. </li></ul><ul><li>在英语句子中, 有些修饰 语放 在名词前面 , 而有些则放在名词后面 </li></ul><ul><li>The book that I bought here yesterday. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Sentence Structure <ul><li>A modified soil ’s single sorption … . </li></ul><ul><li>The single sorption of a modified soil … . </li></ul>
  37. 37. Sentence Structure <ul><li>Correcting sentence structure: </li></ul><ul><li>修改句子结构 </li></ul><ul><li>If possible, d on’t translate from Chinese . </li></ul><ul><li>W rite in English from the start. </li></ul><ul><li>尽量 不要翻译中文, 而用 英文 写作 </li></ul>
  38. 38. Sentence Structure <ul><li>    An important rule: </li></ul><ul><li>   重要的规则: </li></ul>同一个 句子 ,同一 个 意思 ONE SENTENCE, ONE IDEA 同一个世界,同一个梦想
  39. 39. D. Punctuation  标点符号 Punctuation Has the Power to Completely Change the Meaning of a Sentence 标点可以完全改变句子意思
  40. 40. <ul><li>1. Commas : Be careful about commas with essential and nonessential information </li></ul><ul><li>逗号 :注意必要 和 非必要 信息 </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>A sk yourself, “Is the information essential or is it extra information that could be omitted ” ? </li></ul><ul><li>问你自己 :“此信息 必要 吗 , 或是否为多余信息 进行 省略 ” ? </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>If the information is essential , do NOT use commas. </li></ul><ul><li>如果此信息是 重要 的 , 不要 使用逗号。 </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>If the information is extra, nonessential , information, you MUST use commas. </li></ul><ul><li>如果此信息是 附加的, 不 必要的 , 必须 </li></ul><ul><li>使用逗号。 </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Correct : </li></ul><ul><li>正确 用法 </li></ul><ul><li>The equipment that we used was made by the XX Company. </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Wrong: </li></ul><ul><li>错误用法 </li></ul><ul><li>The equipment, which we used, was made by the XX Company. </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Correct : </li></ul><ul><li>正确用法 </li></ul><ul><li>The equipment, which was made in Shanghai, was very expensive. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Basic Rule for Comma Use 逗号使用的一般规则 <ul><li>Use commas + “which” for non-essential information. </li></ul><ul><li>用逗号 +“which” 表示非必要的信息 </li></ul><ul><li>○ This review, which can also be found online, covers research that started in 1999. </li></ul><ul><li>× This review that can also be found online covers research that started in 1999. </li></ul><ul><li>Use NO commas + “that” for essential information. </li></ul><ul><li>直接 使用“ that” 表示必要的信息 </li></ul><ul><li>○ Th e research that I reviewed started in 1999. </li></ul><ul><li>× Th e research , that I reviewed, started in 1999. </li></ul>
  48. 48. 2. Hyphens, en dash, em dash : Try not to overuse because they can slow down the reader 连字符,一字线,破折号 尽量少用
  49. 49. Hyphens and Dashes <ul><li>Hyphen (-): Connector rather than in indicator of interruption or omission. 连接 </li></ul><ul><li>well-being, advanced-level </li></ul><ul><li>En dash (–): Means “through.” 范围 </li></ul><ul><li>August 28–29; pp. 2–5. </li></ul><ul><li>Em dash (—): Separator to create a strong break in a sentence, like parentheses. 断开 </li></ul><ul><li>These two cities—that is, Beijing and </li></ul><ul><li>Shanghai—are developing rapidly. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Practice Exercise 练习 <ul><li>1. The introduction is written on pages 3□6. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The CUJS conference will be held November 24 □ November 30 in Beijing, China. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Mr. Wang had tried asking, begging, and even demanding cooperation from his staff□all of whom were busy with other things□before he gave up and wrote the report himself. </li></ul><ul><li>4. No one□not even his professor□thought that his article would be published in Nature. </li></ul><ul><li>5. This is a well□known problem in organic chemistry. </li></ul>
  51. 51. 3. Colons, Semicolons 冒号和分号 <ul><li>Colon : for listing and defining, and indicates a stronger pause than a semicolon. </li></ul><ul><li>冒号: 用于列举,定义,比分号停顿强 </li></ul><ul><li>The presentation covered three topics: grammar, punctuation, and format. </li></ul><ul><li>Semicolon : for joining two related complete sentences (shows closer relationship than “.”). </li></ul><ul><li>分号: 用于连接两个相关句子,比句号更具关联性 </li></ul><ul><li>The patient had no prior history of disease; however, he presented with many common symptoms. </li></ul>
  52. 52. 4. Asian Symbols 亚洲字符 : 全角字符 <ul><li>All Asian , full-space fonts should be changed to Western , half-space fonts for accurate display on other computers and for proper printing. </li></ul><ul><li>全角 字符亚洲字符应 转换为西文(半角)字符 ,以便准确显示和打印 </li></ul><ul><li>The biggest offenders: </li></ul><ul><li>用错最多的符号 </li></ul><ul><li>、 , ; : ( ) × % < > ℃ </li></ul>
  53. 53. Practice Exercise 练习
  54. 54. Spelling 拼写 <ul><li>Good online dictionaries to help with spelling: </li></ul><ul><li>帮助拼写检查的 在线词典 </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.thefreedictionary.com / </li></ul><ul><li>American Heritage Dictionary, 4 th Ed. http:// yahooligans.yahoo.com /reference/dictionary/ </li></ul>
  55. 55. Spellcheckers 拼写检查工具 <ul><li>but remember that it won’t catch mistakes like from/form , trial/trail … </li></ul><ul><li>但是拼写检查工具不能查出像 from/form, trial/trail 之类的 拼写错误 … </li></ul>
  56. 56. Stylebooks 写作与编辑手册 <ul><li>Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 7th edition </li></ul><ul><li>American Medical Association Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors, 9 th edition </li></ul><ul><li>The Chicago Manual of Style, 15 th edition </li></ul><ul><li>The ACS Style Guide: A Manual for Authors and Editors , 3rd edition </li></ul>
  57. 57. Grammar Books 语法 参考 书 <ul><li>The Gregg Reference Manual </li></ul><ul><li>The Little, Brown Handbook </li></ul>
  58. 58. Dictionaries 词典 <ul><li>The American Heritage Dictionary </li></ul><ul><li>Longman Dictionary of American English </li></ul><ul><li>Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary </li></ul><ul><li>Oxford ESL Dictionary </li></ul>
  59. 59. Online Resources 在线资源 <ul><li>理文编辑的写作助手 : http://liwenbianji.cn/zhushou.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/grammar/index.html#punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>http://stipo.larc.nasa.gov/sp7084/sp7084cont.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.iolani.honolulu.hi.us/Keables/KeablesGuide/PartFour/UnnecessaryCommas.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http:// englishplus.com/grammar/punccont.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http:// yahooligans.yahoo.com /reference/dictionary/ </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.thefreedictionary.com / </li></ul><ul><li>http:// english plus.com/grammar/mistcont.htm </li></ul>
  60. 60. II. Journal Specific Topics 关于期刊 Practical Activities for Journal Editors and Publishers 期刊编辑与出版商的实际操作
  61. 61. A. Instructions for Authors 投稿指南 <ul><li>Should be:   应当易查,易懂,全面 </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to find </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to understand </li></ul><ul><li>Thorough </li></ul><ul><li>*Tip: It is also good to complement them with sample articles or pre-made format files for authors to use as reference. </li></ul><ul><li>最好附 样本文章 或已经 排好版的文档 供作者参考 </li></ul>
  62. 62. B. Structure of Scientific Article s 科学文章结构 <ul><li>The IMRAD format was developed to present data in the clearest possible way. </li></ul><ul><li>IMRAD 格式能够最明了地展现文章 </li></ul><ul><li>I ntroduction 前言 </li></ul><ul><li>M ethods and Materials 方法和材料 </li></ul><ul><li>R esults 结果 </li></ul><ul><li>A nd </li></ul><ul><li>D iscussion 讨论 </li></ul><ul><li>*Tip: If the required article or journal structure is different, this needs to be made clear to the authors . </li></ul><ul><li>如果文章或期刊结构与要求不同,应向作者说明 </li></ul>
  63. 63. IMRAD Structure IMRAD 结构 <ul><li>The INTRODUCTION answers the question, What problem was studied? </li></ul><ul><li>前言 : 阐述了文章所研究的问题 </li></ul><ul><li>The METHODS section answers the question, How was the problem studied? </li></ul><ul><li>方法: 这些问题是如何研究的 </li></ul><ul><li>The RESULTS section answers the question, What were the findings? </li></ul><ul><li>结果: 研究发现了什么 </li></ul><ul><li>The DISCUSSION section answers the question, What do the findings mean ? </li></ul><ul><li>讨论: 研究发现的意义是什么 </li></ul>
  64. 64. C. Importance of Abstracts 摘要的重要性 <ul><li>• Let reader decide whether to read further </li></ul><ul><li>让 读者决定是否继续阅读 </li></ul><ul><li>I s the 1st part to be read , therefore it sets up positive or negative expectations for the remainder of the work </li></ul><ul><li>摘要是文章的 第一部分 ,关系着读者对全文的 印象好坏 </li></ul><ul><li>Should encourage readers who decide the topic is relevant to read further </li></ul><ul><li>应当吸引读者 继续阅读正文 </li></ul><ul><li>I f poorly written, discourages reader from r eading further </li></ul><ul><li>写的差的摘要会导致读者停止继续阅读 </li></ul><ul><li>S hould be aimed at both readers who will read the </li></ul><ul><li>abstract only and those that will read the complete paper . </li></ul><ul><li>摘要应当既能吸引 单纯的摘要读者 ,又能吸引 阅读全文的读者 </li></ul>
  65. 65. Tips for W riting an A bstract 摘要写作技巧 <ul><li>Be clear and brief and try to avoid abbreviations . </li></ul><ul><li>简明扼要 , 避免使用缩写 </li></ul><ul><li>Describe methods and results in the past tense . </li></ul><ul><li>方法 与 结果 部分使用 过去时 </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss conclusions in the present tense ; avoid perfect tenses. </li></ul><ul><li>讨论 部分使用 现在时 ;避免使用完成时 </li></ul><ul><li>State document contents in present tense .  </li></ul><ul><li>文献内容 使用 现在时 </li></ul><ul><li>The use of I and we is preferable in many journals to the third person and the passive. </li></ul><ul><li>使用 第一人称 ,而不使用第三人称和被动语态 </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use synonyms e.g. if you use “housing” in one sentence, do not change it to “casing” in another. The reader may think you are discussing two different things. </li></ul><ul><li>不要使用同义词 ,否则读者会认为你在指两个不同的事物 </li></ul><ul><li>The abstract should be understandable when read separately from the paper (i.e., stand-alone ) </li></ul><ul><li>即使在没有阅读全文的情况下,摘要也可以作为一个 独立的部分 为读者所 读懂 </li></ul>
  66. 66. The “ Code ” of Writing Scientific Abstracts 科技文章摘要写作“ 代码 ” <ul><li>T hink of each sentence as representing one of the following “ codes ” based on its function: 根据功能,每个句子分别代表以下 “代码” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B = B ackground information 背景信息 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P = Principal activity/ p urpose/scope/aims of study 主要活动 / 目的 / 范围 / 研究目标 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M = Information about m ethodology 方法 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F = Main f indings/results 重要发现 / 结果 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C = Main implications/ c onclusions of the work 重要意义 / 研究结论 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S = S uggestions/recommendations 提示 / 建议 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapted from Weissburg and Buker (1994) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Tip: B, P, M, F, C hina S cience! </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. Exercise: Evaluating Ab stracts: Biology <ul><li>Stimulus-induced oscillations in plant cell cytosolic free calcium. Ca 2+ is implicated as a second messenger in the response of stomata to a range of stimuli. However, the mechanism by which stimulus-induced increases in guard cell cytosolic free Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] are transduced into different physiological responses remains to be explained. Oscillations in [Ca 2+ ] may provide one way in which this can occur. We used photometric and imaging techniques to examine this hypothesis in guard cells of Commelina communis . External Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] e ), which causes an increase in [Ca 2+ ], was used as a closing stimulus. The total increase in [Ca 2+ ] was directly related to the concentration of [Ca 2+ ] e , both of which correlated closely with the degree of stomatal closure. Increases were oscillatory in nature, with the pattern of the oscillations being dependent on the concentration of [Ca 2+ ] e . At 0.1 mM, [Ca 2+ ] e induced symmetrical oscillations. In contrast, 1.0 mM [Ca 2+ ] e induced asymmetric oscillations. Oscillations were stimulus-dependent and modulated by changing [Ca 2+ ] e . Experiments using Ca 2+ channel blockers and Mn 2+ -quenching studies suggested a role for Ca 2+ influx during the oscillatory behavior without excluding the possible involvement of Ca 2+ release from intracellular stores. These data suggest a mechanism for encoding the information required to distinguish between a number of different Ca 2+ -mobilizing stimuli in guard cells, using stimulus-specific patterns of oscillations in [Ca 2+ ]. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Analysis of Abstract - Biology <ul><li>Stimulus-induced oscillations in plant cell cytosolic free calcium. Ca 2+ is implicated as a second messenger in the response of stomata to a range of stimuli. [ B1-well focused intro to research topic] However, the mechanism by which stimulus-induced increases in guard cell cytosolic free Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] are transduced into different physiological responses remains to be explained. [B2-gap in understanding] Oscillations in [Ca 2+ ] may provide one way in which this can occur. [B3 - hypothesis] We used photometric and imaging techniques to examine this hypothesis in guard cells of Commelina communis . [ P, M1 - NB active rather passive]. External Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] e ), which causes an increase in [Ca 2+ ], was used as a closing stimulus. [M2] The total increase in [Ca 2+ ] was directly related to the concentration of [Ca 2+ ] e , both of which correlated closely with the degree of stomatal closure. [ F 1] Increases were oscillatory in nature, with the pattern of the oscillations being dependent on the concentration of [Ca 2+ ] e . [ F 2] At 0.1 mM, [Ca 2+ ] e induced symmetrical oscillations. In contrast, 1.0 mM [Ca 2+ ] e induced asymmetric oscillations. [F3] Oscillations were stimulus-dependent and modulated by changing [Ca 2+ ] e .[F4] Experiments using Ca 2+ channel blockers and Mn 2+ -quenching studies suggested a role for Ca 2+ influx during the oscillatory behavior without excluding the possible involvement of Ca 2+ release from intracellular stores. [C1] These data suggest a mechanism for encoding the information required to distinguish between a number of different Ca 2+ -mobilizing stimuli in guard cells, using stimulus-specific patterns of oscillations in [Ca 2+ ]. [C , S- broader/possible focus for further research] </li></ul>
  69. 69. Case Studies: Problems Specific to International Authors 案例研究:国际作者面临的特殊问题 <ul><li>In addition to properly formatting their abstracts, international authors must also pay attention to the proper use of English writing conventions and grammar . </li></ul><ul><li>除了摘要的格式正确外,还要注意 正确使用英文写作习惯和语法 </li></ul><ul><li>Next we look at some actual case studies taken from edited abstracts. </li></ul><ul><li>案例研究 </li></ul>
  70. 70. Edited Abstract Sample 1 编辑后的摘要 - 例 1
  71. 71. Abstract 1 Common Error Example 常见错误 <ul><li>“… complex adsorbed at the hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE)…” </li></ul><ul><li>-> “… complex adsorbed to a hanging </li></ul><ul><li>mercury drop electrode (HMDE)…” </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLANATION: first mention </li></ul><ul><li>首次提到 </li></ul>
  72. 72. Abstract 1 Common Error Example 常见错误 <ul><li>“… linearly with the increment of the concentrations…” </li></ul><ul><li>-> “… linearly with increasing concentrations…” </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLANATION: not concise </li></ul><ul><li>不简练 </li></ul>
  73. 73. Abstract 1 Common Error Example 常见错误 <ul><li>“… not in … such as L-dopa, epinephrine ... pyrogallic acid (PA), and gallic acid (GA).” </li></ul><ul><li>-> “… not in … such as L-dopa, epinephrine ... pyrogallic acid (PA), or gallic acid (GA).” </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLANATION: in a list, negative = “or”, positive = “and” </li></ul><ul><li>在列举时,否定的用 “ or” ,肯定的用 “ and” </li></ul>
  74. 74. Edited Abstract Sample 2 编辑后的摘要 - 例 2
  75. 75. Abstract 2 Common Error Example 常见错误 <ul><li>“… investigation of three trimeric aluminum (III)-water species: …” </li></ul><ul><li>-> “… investigat e the three trimeric aluminum (III)-water species: …” </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLANATION: limited/exact number = “the”; unlimited = not necessary </li></ul><ul><li>说明:可数名词之前需要用 “ the” ;不可数名词不一定必需 </li></ul>
  76. 76. Abstract 2 Common Error Example 常见错误 <ul><li>“… properties of triangular Al 3 structure are…” </li></ul><ul><li>-> “… the properties of the triangular Al 3 structure are…” </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLANATION: 1) with “X of X”, “the” is required in most cases. 2) “the” is used with things already mentioned in the text (Al 3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>说明: 1 、使用“ X of X ” 形式, “ the” 多数情况下是必须的 </li></ul><ul><li>2 、 “ the” 用于指文中已经提及的事情,比如 Al 3 </li></ul>
  77. 77. Abstract 2 Common Error Example 常见错误 <ul><li>“… according to “Core-link” model or “Cage-like” Keggin-Al 13 model.” </li></ul><ul><li>-> “… according to the “Core-link” model or the “Cage-like” Keggin-Al 13 model.” </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLANATION: use “the” in front of the names of unique models/methods, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>说明:在特定的方程式、方法等的名称之前用 “ the” </li></ul>
  78. 78. Edited Abstract Sample 3 编辑后的摘要 - 例 3
  79. 79. Abstract 3 Common Error Example 常见错误 <ul><li>“ To cope with the situations with time- and space-dependent…” </li></ul><ul><li>-> “ To manage situations with time- and space-dependent…” </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLANATION: use clear and concise language </li></ul><ul><li>要使用清晰简练的语言 </li></ul>
  80. 80. Abstract 3 Common Error Example 常见错误 <ul><li>“ This approach not only can introduce unsteady and non-uniform body forces into momentum equations, but be able to add…” </li></ul><ul><li>-> “ This approach can not only introduce unsteady and non-uniform body forces into momentum equations, but is also able to add…” </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLANATION: Proper grammar: “not only…, but also” </li></ul><ul><li>正确的语法形式是: “ not only …, but also …” </li></ul>
  81. 81. Abstract 3 Common Error Example 常见错误 <ul><li>“… can be guaranteed in incompressible limit.” </li></ul><ul><li>-> “… can be guaranteed in incompressible limit s .” </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLANATION: articles and nouns must match : “in XX limit s ” or “in (a) XX limit” </li></ul><ul><li>冠词和名词必须搭配使用 </li></ul>
  82. 82. Edited Abstract Sample 4 编辑后的摘要 - 例 4
  83. 83. Abstract 4 Common Error Example 常见错误 <ul><li>“… were not influenced obviously .” </li></ul><ul><li>-> “… were not obviously influenced.” </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLANATION: placing adverbs directly before what they modify is usually clearer for the reader. </li></ul><ul><li>将副词直接放在所修饰的词语 之前 通常会使读者更清楚。 </li></ul>
  84. 84. Abstract 4 Common Error Example 常见错误 <ul><li>“ deteriorated sludge settlability after…” AND </li></ul><ul><li>“ aggravation of sludge settleability under…” </li></ul><ul><li>-> “ deteriorated sludge settlability after…” AND </li></ul><ul><li>“ aggravation of sludge settlability under…” </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLANATION: When words can be spelled 2 ways, choose one and be consistent. </li></ul><ul><li>如果单词有两种拼写方式,选择其中一种并且保持一致。 </li></ul>
  85. 85. Abstract 4 Common Error Example 常见错误 <ul><li>“ So TCP is a better uncoupler for sludge reduction…” </li></ul><ul><li>-> “ Accordingly, TCP is a better uncoupler for sludge reduction…” </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLANATION: Use language appropriate for formal science writing. Instead of “so,” use “accordingly,” “thus” etc. </li></ul><ul><li>科学写作中应使用适当的正式语言,在这里不使用“ so”, 而使用“ accordingly” “thus” 等词语。 </li></ul>
  86. 86. Edited Abstract Sample 5 编辑后的摘要 - 例 5
  87. 87. Abstract 5 Common Error Example 常见错误 <ul><li>“ As one of popular used geophysical tools, the …” </li></ul><ul><li>-> ““ As one of the most common ly used geophysical tools, the …” </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLANATION: “one of …” requires “the” (“one of the …”); before a verb (“used”), an adverb must be used. </li></ul><ul><li>“ one of …” 后面需要加 “ the” ;在动词之前,如 “ used” ,一定要用副词。 </li></ul>
  88. 88. Abstract 5 Common Error Example 常见错误 <ul><li>“… imaging section by the parameter of the secondary differential.” </li></ul><ul><li>-> “… imaging section using the parameter of the secondary differential.” </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLANATION: use “using” to show what was used to do something. Also avoid using “by using” (the extra word is unnecessary) </li></ul><ul><li>使用 “ using” 以表明某物用来做某事。还要避免使用 “ by using” ,额外的词是多余的 </li></ul>
  89. 89. Abstract 5 Common Error Example 常见错误 <ul><li>“… has more ability to find the most available resolution…” </li></ul><ul><li>-> “… can be used to obtain the optimal resolution…” </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLANATION: use proper, scientific verbs and word choice </li></ul><ul><li>使用正确的、科学的动词,词语选择要适合于科学表达 </li></ul>
  90. 90. Edited Abstract Sample 6 编辑后的摘要 - 例 6
  91. 91. Abstract 6 Common Error Example 常见错误 <ul><li>“… tests were carried out …oxidized sample exceeds 2200 C with a …composites were -0.23mg/s…” </li></ul><ul><li>-> “… tests were carried out…oxidized sample exceeded 2200 C with a …composites were -0.23mg/s…” </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLANATION: Matching verb tense </li></ul><ul><li>动词时态应一致 </li></ul>
  92. 92. Abstract 6 Common Error Example 常见错误 <ul><li>“ No macro-crack and spallation were detected after oxidation…” </li></ul><ul><li>-> “ No macro-crack s or spallation were detected after oxidation…” </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLANATION: When used in a negative sense, lists of things are linked by “ or ”, not “and.” </li></ul><ul><li>否定句中所列举事物要使用 “ or ” ,而不是“ and” </li></ul>
  93. 93. Abstract 6 Common Error Example 常见错误 <ul><li>“… scanning electron microscopy Energy Dispersive Spectrometry and X-ray diffraction, and the oxidation…” </li></ul><ul><li>-> “ Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) , and the oxidation…” </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLANATION: Common abbreviations can be introduced in the Abstract, and should be if appearing more than once. </li></ul><ul><li>在摘要中应介绍常用缩写词,尤其是在多次出现的情况下 </li></ul>
  94. 94. D. The Editing Process 编辑过程 <ul><li>Good editing starts with good writing . </li></ul><ul><li>  出色 的编辑来源于 优秀的 写作 </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the author to write the paper in English and not to translate. </li></ul><ul><li>  要求作者 用英语撰写文稿 ,不要翻译 </li></ul><ul><li>Remind the author to write the paper in short sentences . </li></ul><ul><li>  提醒作者以 短句 撰写文稿 </li></ul>
  95. 95. The Editing Process <ul><li>Check for each category of grammatical mistake separately . </li></ul><ul><li>  按照类别一一检查语法错误 </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the punctuation . </li></ul><ul><li>  检查 标点符号 </li></ul><ul><li>Check for spelling mistakes. (use Word to help you!) </li></ul><ul><li>  检查 拼写错误 ,可以利用 Word 中的拼写检查功能 </li></ul>
  96. 96. The Editing Process <ul><li>Do a separate reading to check for use of articles (a/an and the) and nouns (singular/plural; count/noncount). </li></ul><ul><li>  分别检查 冠词 和 名词 的 使用 </li></ul>
  97. 97. The Editing Process <ul><li>Read the paper again for sentence structure . </li></ul><ul><li>  重新阅读文稿检查 句子结构 </li></ul><ul><li>Check the sentence length . Are any of the sentences too long? </li></ul><ul><li>  检查 句子 长度 ,是否有过长的句子 </li></ul>
  98. 98. The Editing Process <ul><li>Constantly check dictionaries , style guides , and grammar books while you edit. </li></ul><ul><li>  编辑时要不断查阅 字典 、 写作指南 和 语法参考书 </li></ul><ul><li>Check that all numbers , formulas , figures , and tables are correct. </li></ul><ul><li>  核对 所有 数字 、 公式 , 图片 与 表格 是否正确 </li></ul><ul><li>Check the references . </li></ul><ul><li>  核对 参考 文献 </li></ul><ul><li>理文编辑的写作助手 : http://liwenbianji.cn/zhushou.htm </li></ul>
  99. 99. The Editing Process <ul><li>Why clear English is important: </li></ul><ul><li>为什么 清晰的 英 文表达 很重要 </li></ul><ul><li>“ If the manuscript is so poorly written that the meaning and significance of the work are obscured, I will reject it without completing the technical review. ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ 如果原稿写的很差 , 意思和意义表达模糊 , 我会在进行技术审阅之前就退稿。 ” </li></ul><ul><li>Ray A. Dickie, Ford Research Laboratory </li></ul>
  100. 100. III. Using Computers and the Internet 利用电脑和互联网 The Internet has Completely Changed the Way We Edit and Publish Science 互联网彻底改变了科学编辑与出版模式
  101. 101. A. Computers <ul><li>Microsoft Word has great editing functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Word 的编辑功能十分强大 </li></ul><ul><li>Track Changes Function “ 修订”功能 </li></ul><ul><li>Comment Function “ 批注”功能 </li></ul><ul><li>Find Function (to check for consistency) </li></ul><ul><li>“ 查找”功能,检查一致性 </li></ul><ul><li>Word Count Function (to check sentence length) </li></ul><ul><li>“ 字数统计”功能,用于检查句子长度 </li></ul><ul><li>Spell Check Function (but has limitations) </li></ul><ul><li>“ 拼写检查”功能,虽然有一定的局限性 </li></ul><ul><li>D ictionar y (customizable : See) </li></ul><ul><li> “ 词典”功能,可以进行自定义,参见理文编辑网站 </li></ul><ul><li>Split Screen Function (to compare two sections of text) </li></ul><ul><li>“ 分屏显示”功能,用于比较文章的不同部分 </li></ul>
  102. 102. Track Changes Function 修订 Can be accessed from top Menu Bar or Icon (if showing)
  103. 104. Accept/Reject your Changes 接受 / 拒绝修订
  104. 105. Microsoft Word Dictionary 微软 Word 词典功能 <ul><li>Microsoft Word has a “Custom Dictionary” function that is very useful for authors and editors. </li></ul><ul><li>微软 Word 的“自定义词典”功能能够给作者和编辑人员带来很大帮助。 </li></ul>
  105. 106. B. The Internet <ul><li>1. Search Engines: 搜索引擎 </li></ul><ul><li>Google : for general Internet searches 一般性搜索 </li></ul><ul><li>Google Scholar : for searching published research ( http://scholar.google.com ) 搜索已发表的科学文章 </li></ul><ul><li>*Tip: If you use quotation marks (“) before a phrase when searching, only results with that exact phrase will be searched . </li></ul><ul><li>如在搜索的内容中使用了 引号 ,只能搜索到与引号内的内容完全匹配的结果 </li></ul>
  106. 107. 2. Instructions for Authors 投稿须知 <ul><li>Online resources for Author Instructions : </li></ul><ul><li>网上查询 投稿须知 </li></ul><ul><li>Elsevier Authors Home: </li></ul><ul><li>爱思唯尔作者主页 http:// www.elsevier.com/wps/find/authorshome.authors </li></ul><ul><li>2. Mulford Library of the Medical University of Ohio : 俄亥俄医科大学 Mulford 图书馆 http :// mulford.meduohio.edu/instr / </li></ul>
  107. 108. THANK YOU! 谢谢!
  108. 109. <ul><li>理文编辑(中国) 北京市东城区灯市口大街 33 号国中商业大厦 818 室 </li></ul>理文编辑 ( 中国 ) 理文编辑为希望向英文期刊投稿的作者提供科技英语语言编辑服务。我们会使您的文稿符合国际标准,确保它们清晰、易懂、标准地道,并且符合期刊的要求。我们的编辑都是英语母语人士,大多数具有各自领域的博士学位,均为研究者和科技论文作者,十分了解科学写作和出版程序。我们的编辑不是被隐去姓名的所谓的“各自领域的专家”,他们的资料都清楚地公布在我们的网站上。作者和理文编辑之间的沟通联络都以汉语进行。付款通过中国的银行系统以人民币进行,个人支付和单位支付均可。 我们可以对期刊的论文摘要编辑给与一定折扣;此外,所有向贵刊投稿的作者在使用理文编辑服务时也将获得一定的优惠折扣。同时,欢迎期刊编辑向我们投稿以尝试我们的服务,我们将免费为该稿件进行编辑。 常用联系方式 : [email_address] 期刊编辑或院系负责人联系方式 : [email_address] ( 王可杰 ) [email_address] ( 本杰明 ) 北京市东城区灯市口大街 33 号 国中商业大厦 818 室 邮编 : 100005
  109. 110. Credits /Resources <ul><li>理文编辑写作助手 http:// liwenbianji.cn/zhushou.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract Tips 摘要小帖士 http:// users.tkk.fi/~dpihko/cyberSAC/abtips.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract Writing 摘要写作 http://lilt.ilstu.edu/ewpeter/GEO361/Scientific%20Abstracts.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Writing 2 Robert Blake SLDC 科学写作 http://www.lancs.ac.uk/depts/celt/sldc/sciencewriting.htm </li></ul>

×