Introduction to Brain Computer Interface

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Introduction to brain computer interface

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  • 1)Signal-acquisition module -Records data from the brain,Does some low level filtering,Passes the data on to be interpreted
    2) Signal-processing module-Receives data from the acquisition module,Detects whether a particular feature or a potential is present in the data

  • Visual cortex- for vision
    Temporal lobe for Audition
    Prefrontal lobe for behaviour,mannerism in public
    Frontal Lobe is for Motor cortex
    Paerital Lobe is for Sensory Cortex
  • Motor for actuators
    Senory cortex for sensing
  • Volume conduction, a term used in bioelectromagnetism, can be defined as the transmission of electric or magnetic fields from an electric primary current source through biological tissue towards measurement sensors.
  • An event-related potential (ERP) is the measured brain response that is the direct result of a specific sensory, cognitive, or motor event.
  • Introduction to Brain Computer Interface

    1. 1. Introduction to Brain Computer Interface
    2. 2. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. Brain Computer Interface • Communication using Thoughts of Brain (EEG) without using any Muscle control, Especially for Severely Paralyzed people
    3. 3. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. BCI defined • A BCI generally consists of three main components: 1. A Signal-acquisition module (Electrode,Filtering and Amplifier) 2. A Signal-processing module(ASIC ,DSP) 3. A Control module ( Microcontroller &Driver)
    4. 4. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. BCI Defined (Continued) BCI Types: – Invasive – Involves attaching electrodes directly to the brain tissue – The patient’s brain gradually adapts its signals to be sent through the electrodes – Non-invasive Involves putting electrodes on the scalp of the patient, and taking readings
    5. 5. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. Three BCI Subtypes • Active BCI: “An active BCI is a BCI which derives its outputs from brain activity which is directly consciously controlled by the user, independently from external events, for controlling an application.” • Reactive BCI: “A reactive BCI is a BCI which derives its outputs from brain activity arising in reaction to external stimulation, which is indirectly modulated by the user for controlling an application.” • Passive BCI: “A passive BCI is a BCI which derives its outputs from arbitrary brain activity without the purpose of voluntary control, for enriching a human-computer interaction with implicit information.”
    6. 6. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. Introduction to EEG • Electroencephalography (EEG) is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp. EEG measures voltage fluctuations resulting from ionic current flows within the neurons of the brain • German physiologist and psychiatrist Hans Berger (1873–1941) recorded the first human EEG in 1924
    7. 7. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. Anatomy
    8. 8. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd.
    9. 9. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. Functional Mapping
    10. 10. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. Volume Conduction
    11. 11. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. Why is BCI Hard
    12. 12. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. Why is BCI Hard? • Signal-to-noise ratio is very challenging, so sensitive measures are hard to obtain • –Relevant brain activity is small compared to interfering artifacts and compared to brain background activity • Specific measures are even harder to obtain (with coarse-grained sensing) • Large collections of neurons are involved in many different activities, not just one • Underlying phenomena are also highly diverse and rich and derived measures are still poorly understood – not always clear what to look for
    13. 13. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. Reason for Variability
    14. 14. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. Consequences • Sophisticated signal processing is required • BCI systems must be calibrated before they can be used • Calibration should entail as much information as available, e.g., example data, prior knowledge, large databases
    15. 15. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. Underlying Neural Process • Largest contributors to the EEG are the pyramidal cells • Radially oriented in the cortex (orthogonal to the surface) • Electromagnetic fields of co-aligned and co-activated neurons add up • EEG, MEG and ECoG can only detect large-scale neural dynamics , For example, 50.000 neurons firing in near- synchrony
    16. 16. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. When would 50,000 neurons fire near-synchronously? • –An external event triggers a cascade of related neural processes (e.g., in perception) • –An internal event triggers a cascade of related neural processes (e.g., sudden “aha!”) • –Neural populations enter a synchronized steady- state firing pattern (e.g., idle oscillations) • Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) and Oscillatory Processes are the two major BCI-detectable EEG
    17. 17. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. Signal Detectability • Root cause might not be directly observable (e.g., dopaminergic system, deep brain structures, few neurons) • Electromagnetic fields can cancel each other out
    18. 18. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. Electrode Placement
    19. 19. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. Types of Electrodes
    20. 20. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. EEG Sensor Designs
    21. 21. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. EEG Sensor Designs
    22. 22. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. EEG Sensor Designs
    23. 23. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. Electrode Position
    24. 24. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. 10-10 Electrode System
    25. 25. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. Signal Range
    26. 26. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. Comparison of EEG Bands
    27. 27. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. Available Tools • Opensig • BCI2000 • EEGLAB • Open VIBE • BCILAB
    28. 28. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. Communication and Control for the Severely disabled
    29. 29. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. Neurospeller
    30. 30. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. Operator Monitoring
    31. 31. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. Operator Monitoring
    32. 32. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. Forensics-LIE Detection
    33. 33. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. Entertainment
    34. 34. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. Health
    35. 35. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. NeuroMarketing • Impact of Advt ,movies is measured by a sample of audiences Before the release of an Advt or Movie
    36. 36. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. Neuroscience
    37. 37. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. Mindwave Mobile vs Mindwave BRAIN SENSOR EAR CLIP BATTERY TGAM MODULE
    38. 38. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. HEADSET PLACEMENT
    39. 39. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. FEATURES • Single Sensor on FP1 • Can detect multiple mental states simultaneously • Reference electrode on Ear clip to remove ambient noises • IP involves noise cancellation and signal amplification • Provides EMG feature for Eye Blink detection
    40. 40. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. SPECIFICATIONS • Bluetooth ™ Wireless communication • Passive Dry Sensor EEG • Single AAA battery • 10 Hours Run Time eSense Brainwave Patterns: • Attention • Meditation • Eye Blink • Frequency Bands: 0.5 to 50Hz
    41. 41. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. THINKGEAR •TGAM MODULE offers e-Sense technology •Outputs Attention, Meditation and Physical eye blinks from raw EEG data •2.79cm x 1.52cm x 0.25cm, weighs 130mg •Communicates through UART interface at baudrate 1200, 9600 or 57600
    42. 42. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. SUPPORTED PLATFORMS
    43. 43. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. MINDBOT SPECIFICATIONS: • Micro Controller : 8051 • ZIGBEE MODULE-Frequency : 2.3 Ghz • Attention level < 65 ------ STOP • Attention level > 65 ------ START • Baud rates available at 1200, 9600 ,57600 or 115200
    44. 44. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. MINDBOT BLUETOOTH UART UART ZIGBEE MODULE SENSES ATTENTION LEVEL BLUETOOTH RFCOMM SERIAL PORT ZIGBEE MODULE 8051 CONTROLLER WHEEL CONTROL BOT uses ‘SERIAL’ function TX COMMAND HEADSET RX COMMAND CONTROLS MOTOR BASED ON COMMAND
    45. 45. Technology beyond the Dreams™ Copyright © 2006 Pantech Solutions Pvt Ltd. For more details – www.pantechsolutions.net – http://www.slideshare.net/pantechsolutions – http://www.scribd.com/pantechsolutions – http://www.youtube.com/pantechsolutions

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