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# introduction of hydrology

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### introduction of hydrology

1. 1. HydrologyIt deals with thedepletion andreplenishment of ourwater resources.
2. 2. 1. CYCLE COMPONENT CONCEPTSStandard Concepts (Physical)  Precipitation  Evaporation/Evapotranspitation  Surface Water  Groundwater 2
3. 3. Basic CyclePrecipitation Evaporation Evaporation Evaporation (ET) Ocean Infiltration runoff Aquifer Precipitation Evaporation/ET Surface Water Groundwater 3
4. 4. Basic Cycle 5
5. 5. Rain Transpiration Evapo-transpiration Irrigation Evaporation RunoffRoot Zone Water StorageBelow Root DrainageZone
6. 6. Groundwater begins as INFILTRATION Precipitation falls and infiltrates into the subsurface soil and rock.•Can remain in shallow soil layer•Might seep into a stream bank•May infiltrate deeper, recharging an aquifer•May travel long distances•May stay in storage as ground water
7. 7. EVAPORATION
8. 8. DURING EVAPORATION  Water turns from a liquid to a gas.  Water moves from rivers and lakes into the atmosphere in the form of water vapor.  Water vapor forms clouds.
9. 9. SOLID TO A LIQUID
10. 10. LIQUID TO A GAS
11. 11. METHODS FOR MEASUREMENT OFEVAPORATION Pan measurement method, Using Empirical formulae, Storage equation method, and Energy budget method.
12. 12. PAN METHOD Class A Pan Standard at advanced weather stations Can be used to estimate open water evaporation
13. 13. USE OF EMPIIRICAL FORMULAE: (a) Meyer’s formula: E=km(es - ea)(1 + v9/16) (b) Rohwer’s formula: E= 0.771(1.465 - 0.000732pa) (0.44+0.0733 v0.6) (es – ea)
14. 14. PRECIPITATION Single strongest variable driving hydrologic processes Formed by water vapor in the atmosphere As air cools its ability to ‘hold’ water decreases and some turns to liquid or ice (snow)
15. 15. Causes of Precipitation
16. 16. TRANSPIRATION
17. 17. Evapotranspiration (ET) is the term used todescribe the amount of water which is effectivelylost from the earth surface to the atmosphere bysoil surface evaporation and plant transpiration.ET is mainly:-an important component of the water cycle-necessary for calculation of the soil waterbalance, -input variable in crop yield models or studyof ecosystem or study of regional climate, among others.
18. 18. Hill slope Hydrology Runoff Processes: Horton overland flow Subsurface stormflow,Water Flow Return flow Groundwater flow
19. 19. Macropore flow,Tennessee Valley,California
20. 20. THANK YOU - Pankti Jethi(HJD Institute of Technical Education And Reserch)