Digital Signal Processor


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Basics of Digital Signal Processor.

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Digital Signal Processor

  1. 1. Digital Signal Processor M & I Name:-Parakram Chavda 3-10-2012
  2. 2. Digital Signal Processor M & I Name:-Parakram Chavda 3-10-2012
  3. 3. Digital Signal Processor M & I 3-10-2012  A large number of mathematical operations must be performed quickly and repeatedly on a set of data by DSP.  Signals are constantly converted from analog to digital, manipulated digitally, and then converted back to analog form. Higher power consumption and size of a DSP implementation may make it unsuitable for small- size applications.
  4. 4. Digital Signal Processor M & I 3-10-2012 In addition to performing mathematical calculations very rapidly, DSPs must also have a predictable execution time.
  5. 5. Digital Signal Processor M & I 3-10-2012 1. Digital signals do not corrupted by noise , minimam electromagnetic interference etc. 2. Digital signals typically use less bandwidth .So , that you can fill more information into the same space. 3. Digital can be encrypted so that only the intended receiver can decode it .(like secure telephone system etc.) 5. It is more secure and less costly. 6. It is easier to translate human audio and video signals and other messages into machine language.
  6. 6. Digital Signal Processor M & I 3-10-2012 6. Enables transmission of signals over a long distance. 7. Digital signal processing techniques are more advanced and this technique is also use for Digital TV Transmission .
  7. 7. Digital Signal Processor M & I 3-10-2012 • Before few years it is seen that general purpose computers are capable of performing two major tasks. (1) Data Manipulation, and (2) Mathematical Calculations • All the microprocessors are capable of doing these tasks but it is difficult to make a device which can perform both the functions optimally(under a particular set of circumstances.).
  8. 8. Digital Signal Processor M & I 3-10-2012
  9. 9. Digital Signal Processor M & I 3-10-2012 Microprocessors are built for a general purpose functions, and normally run large blocks of software, such as operating systems like Windows or UNIX. Although today's microprocessors, including the Intel family, are extremely fast or faster than some DSPs they are still not often called upon to perform real-time computation or signal processing.
  10. 10. Digital Signal Processor M & I 3-10-2012 Usually, their high processing power is directed more at handling many tasks at once, and controlling huge amounts of memory and data, and controlling a wide variety of computer peripherals (disk drive, modem etc).  However, microprocessors such as Intel are well known for their size, cost, and power consumption to achieve their muscular performance. Using EXCEL spreadsheet software can assist in manipulating the data and making graphs quickly.
  11. 11. Digital Signal Processor M & I 3-10-2012  whereas DSPs are more designed for a specific purpose, a smaller range of functions at lightning speed, yet less costly and requiring much less space (size) and power consumption to achieve their purpose. In computer systems, DSPs may be employed as attached processors, assisting microprocessor. DSP is use for Image Processing, Biomedical Signal Analysis(ex. X-rays), Telecommunications Products (ex. Bluetooth).
  12. 12. Digital Signal Processor M & I 3-10-2012 DSP applications were implemented using bit-slice processors(Bit slicing is a method of combining processor modules to multiply the word length). These bit slice architectures would sometimes include a peripheral multiplier chip which included an accumulator, providing the multiply–accumulate (MAC) function. multiply–accumulate operation is a common step that computes the product of two numbers and adds that product to an accumulator.
  13. 13. Digital Signal Processor M & I 3-10-2012 In a bit-sliced processor, each module contains an ALU(arithmetic-logic unit) usually capable of handling a 4-bit field. By combining two or more identical modules, it is possible to build a processor that can handle any multiple of this value, such as 8 bits, 12 bits, 16 bits, 20 bits, and so on. Each module is called a slice. The control lines for all the slices are connected effectively in parallel to share the processing "work" equally.
  14. 14. Digital Signal Processor M & I 3-10-2012 1978 Texas Instruments produced the first Speak & Spell, TMS5100 the industry's first digital signal processor. In 1978, Intel released the 2920 as an "analog signal processor". It had an on-chip ADC/DAC with an internal signal processor, but it didn't have a hardware multiplier and was not successful in the market. In 1980 the first stand-alone, complete DSPs – the NEC µPD7720and AT&T DSP1.
  15. 15. Digital Signal Processor M & I 3-10-2012 The NEC µPD7720 runs at 4 MHz frequency with 128-word data RAM, 512-word(used BCD rather than plain binary, typically having a word size of 10 or 12 decimal digits) data ROM, and 512-word program memory, which has VLIW like instruction format; enabling all of ALU operation, address register increment/decrement operation, and move operation in one cycle. The Altamira DX-1 was another early DSP, utilizing quad integer pipelineswith branch prediction(part of a processor that determines whether a conditional(false if first instruction is false from two instruction) branch (jump) in the instruction flow of a program is likely to be taken or not).
  16. 16. Digital Signal Processor M & I 3-10-2012 Another DSP produced by Texas Instruments(TI), the TMS32010 presented in 1983 success. It was based on the Harvard architecture. It already had a special instruction set, with instructions like load-and- accumulate or multiply-and-accumulate. It could work on 16-bit numbers and needed 390 ns for a multiply–add operation. TI is now the market leader in general-purpose DSPs.
  17. 17. Digital Signal Processor M & I 3-10-2012 About five years later, the second generation of DSPs began to spread. They had hardware to accelerate tight loops(Such a loop which heavily uses I/O or processing resources, failing to sufficient share them with other programs running in the operating system). Some of them operated on 24-bit variables and a typical model only required about 21 ns for a MAC. Members of this generation were for example the AT&T DSP16A or the Motorola DSP56001.
  18. 18. Digital Signal Processor M & I 3-10-2012 The main improvement in the third generation was the appearance of application-specific units and instructions in the data path, or sometimes as coprocessors. These units allowed direct hardware acceleration of very specific but complex mathematical problems, like the Fourier- transform or matrix operations. Some chips, like the Motorola MC68356, even included more than one processor core to work in parallel. Other DSPs from 1995 are the TI TMS320C541 or the TMS 320C80. The fourth generation is best characterized by the changes in the instruction set and the instruction encoding/decoding. SIMD extensions were added, VLIW and the superscalar architecture appeared. As always, the clock-speeds have increased, a 3 ns MAC now became possible.
  19. 19. Digital Signal Processor M & I 3-10-2012 Digital Signal Processor M & I 3-10-2012 They are found in cellular phones, computer devices, fax/modems , disk drives, radio , printers, MP3 players, high-definition television(HDTV), digital cameras, and so on.
  20. 20. Digital Signal Processor M & I 3-10-2012 Stratix EP1S25 DSP
  21. 21. Digital Signal Processor M & I 3-10-2012 •An AIC23 stereo codec(provides ADC AND DAC functions.) • 16 Mbytes of synchronous DRAM • 512 Kbytes of non-volatile Flash memory (256 Kbytes usable in default configuration) • 4 user accessible LEDs and DIP switches •Standard expansion connectors for daughter card use • JTAG emulation through on-board JTAG(Joint Test Action Group ) emulator with USB host interface or external emulator • Single voltage power supply (+5V)