VERY ATTRACTIVE PRESENTATION CONTAINING THE FOLLOWING SLIDES: Agriculture, Crops, , Agricultural practices, Irrigation, Water logging, Weeding, Storage, Mixed Cultivation and Crop Rotation, NItrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Cycle, Animal Husbandary and many more
Agriculture• Growing plants and receiving animals for food , clothing, and other useful products is called agriculture.
Crops• Plants of same kind grown on a large scale for food, clothing, etc., are called crops.
KHARIF CROPS 1) They are generally planted in June and harvested inRICE October. Rice, maize, COTTON cotton and ground nuts are examples of kharif crops.MAIZE GROUNDNUT
RABI CROPS • They are generally planted in November and harvested in April. Wheat, barley ,pea and PEAWHEAT gram are examples of rabi crops. BARLEY GRAM
Agricultural practices1)Soil preparationa)Ploughingb)Levelingc)Applying fertilizers2)Selection and sowing of seeds3)Irrigation (watering of crops)4)Weeding and crop protection5)Harvesting and storage
Selecting good-quality, healthy seeds is thenext important of crop production. In India, agovernment body calledThe National Seeds Corporation (NSC) isinvolved in the production of good-qualityagricultural seed.NSC has also helped in setting up seed-testinglaboratories in different parts of the country.
Sowing is the process of placing seeds inthe soil. Sowing may be done manuallyor with the help of an implement calledseed drill.
This process involves directly sprinkling seeds ino thesoil. Seeds sown in this manner are distributedunevenly, Also, this method may not ensure that allseeds are sown at the correct depth.
A seed drill ca be pulled acrossthe field using bullocks or atractor. Seeds sown using a seeddrill are distributed evenly andPlaced at the correct depth in thesoil.
IRRIGATON- It refers to artificialApplication of water to the soilfor assisting the growth of crops.Methods of irrigation may beconsidered under two broadcategories : traditional andmodern.
TRADITIONAL METHODS Canal irrigation , furrow irrigation , chain pump , moat [ pulley system ] , dhekli , rahat [water wheel] are some of the traditional methods of irrigation these method are cheaper , but often lead to wastage of water.
MODERN METHODS Sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation are examples of modern methods of irrigation. These methods help in saving water eg. - sprinkler system and drip irrigation.
WATERLOGGING Care must be taken not to water the field excessively. Excess water on the field may cause a condition waterlogging. Decreasing the amount of air available to the roots and Leading to an increase in the salt content of the soil.
WEEDING Sometimes , desirable plants called weeds grow along with the crop. Amaranthus [chaulai] wild oat ,grass are examples of weeds. The process of removing weeds is called wedding. Weeding may be done manually or by using chemicals called weedicides.
Harvested grains need to be storedbefore they made available forconsumption .To prevent their spoilage ,it is necessary to insure that both thegrains and the storage area are free ofmoisture .
The storage area should be keptclean and dry .Pesticides should besprayed beforehand to keep awaypests. Periodic inspection of thestorage area is necessary to insurethe safety of grains
Carrying out the basicagricultural practicessystematically can substantiallyincrease crop yield . Techniquessuch as mixed cultivation andcrop rotation can increase cropyield further.
In mixed cultivation ,two or more differenttypes of crops are sown in a particular fieldat the same time .For example :- Aleguminous plant such as pea can be sownin the same field , along with a cereal suchas wheat.
Manual weedingWeeds may be uprooted by hand or removed with the help ofimplements such as harrow, trowel, or hoemanual weeding has the following disadvantages.•it is time – consuming and may even land to accidental removalof desired crops.•the implements used (such as trowel, harrow, and hoe) aremade of iron and need regular maintenance to prevent rusting.
Using weedicidesA weedicide is a chemical that is used to destroy weeds.Weedicides destroy the weeds without affecting the crop.Dalapon, metachlor, and siziazine are examples ofweedicides.
Animals such as rate and insects also damage crops. Such animals are calledpests. Pests can be destroyed by using chemicals called pesticides.Weedicides and pesticides have the following disadvantages.• accidental contact with these chemicals may adversely affect the health offarmers.•Traces of these poisonous chemical may remain in crops themselves,which can be very harmful to human life. It is therefore, very important towash grains vegetables, etc., thoroughly before consumption.
HarvestingThe process of cutting and gathering of called harvesting.
Threshing a machine manually combine harvester can be used for bothharvesting and threshing winnowing, which involves the separation ofthe grain from chaff (seed covering and tiny pieces of leaves or stem),can be done manually, or using a `winnowing machine
Crop RotationChanging crop sequences to create anunstable and inhospitable environmentfor weed establishment and survival –resource availabilityallelopathic effectssoil disturbance X timesoil fertilitymechanical damage