Production of Aloe Vera Prepared By: Pankaj Prabhakar
Objective <ul><li>To run an unit producing Aloe Vera </li></ul>
Sub-objectives <ul><li>To use unfertile land and earn an economic return. </li></ul>
Introduction Aloe Vera is an important and traditional medicinal plant belonging to the family Liliaceae. Aloe Vera is known by several names like Ghrit Kumari, Kunvar pathu and Indian Aloe and is widely cultivated because of its wide adaptability and use as a medicinal plant especially in dry areas. It’s origin place in African Continent. The flowers are produced on a spike up to 90 cm tall, each flower pendulous with a yellow tubular corolla.
Contd… Nearly there are about 150 species in Aloe. Among this species, there is only one variety that has a legendary medical reputation dating back thousands of years, it is the Aloe Vera. Aloe is supposed to be derived from the Arabic “alloeh” meaning “bitter” because of bitter liquid found in the leaves.
Uses Its primary use is in cosmetic industry for preparation of shampoo, face creams, shaving creams and moisturizing agents. It has also diverse use as vegetable and pickle. The leaves possess many medicinal properties and are used to treat fever, enlarged liver, and spleen and other glands. skin diseases. Gonorrhea, constipation, menstrual suppressions, piles, jaundice, rheumatic diseases and also for the treatment of burns and bruises.
Biochemistry The Aloe Vera plant contains at least six antiseptic agents: lupeol, salicylic acid, urea nitrogen, cinnamic acid, phenol, and sulphur. It contains over 200 ingredients, and seems to affect thousands of biomedical actions in the body.
Factor’s in Production CLIMATE : Aloe is grown in warm tropical areas and cannot survive freezing temperatures. It can be seen growing good in warm humid or dry climate. However, it is intolerant to extreme cool conditions. The plant flourishes well on dry sandy soils at localities with lower annual rainfall of 50 to 300mm. It needs protection against frost and low winter temperature.
Soil : Factor’s in Production It is grown successfully in marginal to sub marginal soils having low fertility. The plants have tendency to tolerate high soil pH with high sodium and potassium salts. However, its growth is faster under medium fertile heavier soils such as black cotton soils of Central India. Aloe Vera can be cultivated on any soil for ‘dry land management’, sandy loamy soil is the best suited for it.
Factor’s in Production Planting Time : Suckers should be planted in July-August to get better field survival and subsequent growth. However, under irrigated conditions, planting can be done round the year except in winter months (November-February).
Process in Production Land Preparation : The root system of Aloe Vera does not penetrate below 20-30 cm, therefore the soil should not be disturbed too deep. Depending upon soil type and agro-climatic conditions, 1-2 ploughing followed by leveling are recommended. The field should be divided into suitable plot sizes (10-15 m x 3 m) considering the slope and available source of irrigation.
Spacing and plant population Normally a spacing of 40cm x 45cm or 60cm x 30cm is followed. This accommodates about 55000 plants per hectare. Process in Production Planting Material : The planting material recommended for commercial cultivation are suckers. Nearly three to four months old suckers having 4-5 leaves and about 20-25 cm in length be used as planting material.
Process in Production Manures and fertilizers : In general, the crop responds well to the application of manure (FYM or Compost). About 10 to 15 tones FYM per ha may be applied at the time of soil preparation and also in the subsequent years. If sufficient quantity of wood ash is available, it can be applied in the pits at the time of planting as it helps in establishment of plants and their subsequent growth.
Process in Production Irrigation : To get good crop, irrigation at different critical stages of growth are required as follows : 1. First irrigation just after planting of suckers. 2. Give 2-3 irrigations subsequently till the plants get established, 4-6 irrigations per year may be enough for its proper growth. 3. Depending upon the availability of water, give light irrigation after each picking of leaves.
Process in Production Inter-Culture Operations: The field should be kept free from weeds throughout the growing period. Two to three hand weeding per year to promote growth and suckering. Remove regularly diseased plants and dried flower stakes.
Cultivation Process The ground is to be carefully prepared to keep free from weeds and the soil is ideally kept ideally slightly acidic. The soil should be supplied supplement in the form of ammonium nitrate every year. The plants are set spaced out by 31 inches in rows and between the rows. At that rate, about 55,000 plants are set per hectare. An 8 - 12 inch aloe pop would take about 18 - 24 months to fully mature.
Cultivation Process The plants, in a year's time, would bear flowers that are bright yellow in color. The leaves are 1 to 2 feet long and are cut without causing damage to the plant, so that it lasts for several years. The crop can be harvested 4 times a year. At the rate of 3 leaves cut from each plant, about 12 leaves are the harvest per plant per year. On an average, the yield per hectare annually is about “55” tones.
Cultivation Process The leaves cut off close to the plant are placed immediately, with the cut end downwards, in a V-shaped wooden trough of about 4 feet long and 12 to 18 inches deep.
Technical parameters Varieties : IC111271, IC111269, AL-1, etc. Spacing : 45cm x 40cm , 60cm x 30cm Plant population: 55000 / ha FYM : 15 t/ha Fertilizers : 50 : 50 : 50 kg/ha of N : P : K
Financial parameters : Rs. Planting material (per sucker) 00.50 Wage rate (man per day) 120.00 FYM (per tone) 300.00 Fertilizers per kg N 10.50 P2O5 19.00 K2O 7.50 Sale prices of leaves / t 2000.00 Sale prices of flowers / t 5000.00 Sale prices of seeds / t 50000.00 Sale prices of roots / t 1000.00 Maintenance cost : Year 3 - 5 21350 (per year)
COST OF DEVELOPMENT OF ALOE VERA (10 Hectares) 1,12,500 1,12,500 3,87,500 Sub Total - I 12,000 12,000 12,000 Plant protection chemicals 5 12,000 12,000 12,000 Irrigation 4 18,500 18,500 18,500 Fertilizers 3 45,000 45,000 45,000 FYM 2 2,75,000 Planting materials 1 3 onwards 25,000 2 25,000 1 25,000 Land (10 Hectare) (At lease for 99 years) MATERIALS Year (Figs. in Rs.) Item Sr. No.
COST OF DEVELOPMENT OF ALOE VERA (10 Hectare) Year Item Sr. No. 3,64,500 3,04,500 6,69,500 GRAND TOTAL 2,52,000 1,92,000 2,82,000 Sub Total - II 60,000 30,000 - Packing, loading etc. 8 90,000 60,000 - Harvesting 7 60,000 60,000 60,000 Inter culture 6 18,000 18,000 18,000 Irrigation 5 12,000 12,000 12,000 Spraying of plant protection chemicals 4 12,000 12,000 12,000 Application of manures and fertilizers 3 - - 90,000 Preparation of ridges and furrows and planting 2 - - 90,000 Land preparation 1 3 onwards 2 1 LABOUR
Contd.. There is no more expense on transportation. The companies which purchase Aloe Vera they afford expense for transportation.
Bank loan <ul><li>If we want to take a loan for producing Aloe Vera then Bank loan may be considered as 85% of the cost at rate of interest as 12% p.a. </li></ul>
Output <ul><li>From 2 nd year yield may be as 50 - 55 tones of thick fleshy leaves from one hectare plantation. Suckers from about 55-60% of the plants could be sold out annually. </li></ul><ul><li>After 2 nd year 2.75 tones of flowers could be sold out annually from one hectare plantation. In the 5 th (last) year 550kg of seeds could be sold instead of flowers and roots could be sold. </li></ul>