Fire safety and fire extinguishers

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Fire safety and fire extinguishers

  1. 1. Types of fire The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) classifies fires into five general categories.1)Class A fires are ordinary materials like burning paper, lumber, cardboard, plastics etc.2)Class B fires involve flammable or combustible liquids such as gasoline, kerosene, and common organic solvents used in the laboratory.3)Class C fires involve energized electrical equipment, such as appliances, switches, panel boxes, power tools, hot plates and stirrers.
  2. 2. 4)Class D fires involve combustible metals, such as magnesium, titanium. These materials burn at high temperatures and will react violently with water, air, and/or other chemicals.5)Class K fires are kitchen fires. This class was added to the NFPA portable extinguishers Standard 10 in 1998.
  3. 3. Types of fire extinguisher
  4. 4.  1) water extinguisher :- are suitable for class A (paper, wood etc.) 2) Dry chemical extinguishers are useful for either class ABC or class BC fires. There are two kinds of dry chemical extinguishers:I)Type BC fire extinguishers contain sodium or potassium bicarbonate.II)Type ABC fire extinguishers contain ammonium phosphate.
  5. 5.  3) CO2 (carbon dioxide) extinguishers are for class B and C fires.
  6. 6.  4)Metal/Sand Extinguishers are for flammable metals (class D fires) and work by simply smothering the fire.
  7. 7. European emission standards
  8. 8.  European emission standards define the acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles sold in EU member states. The stages are typically referred to as Euro 1, Euro 2, Euro 3, Euro 4 and Euro 5 fuels for Light Duty Vehicle standards. The corresponding series of standards for Heavy Duty Vehicles use Roman, rather than Indian numerals (Euro I, Euro II, etc.)
  9. 9. Types of euro and their application:- Euro 1 (1993): For passenger cars and light trucks . Euro 2 (1996) for passenger cars and For motorcycle Euro 3 (2000) for any vehicle. Euro 4 (2005) for any vehicle Euro 5 (2008/9) and Euro 6 (2014) for light passenger and commercial vehicles .

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