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Genetic engineering

its about genetic engineering.

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Genetic engineering

  1. 1. Genetic Engineering Dr. Pankaj KambleDr. Pankaj Kamble
  2. 2. Contents  Introduction  Basic principle of recombinant DNA technology  Molecular tools of genetic engineering  Methods  Applications recombinant DNA technology  Gene library  Blotting techniques  RFLP  PCR
  3. 3. Introduction Genetic recombination technology consists of the breakage and joining of DNA molecules. Genetically engineered DNA prepared by transplanting or splicing genes from one species into the cells of a host organism of a different species. Such DNA becomes part of the host's genetic makeup and is replicated. Genetic engineering primarily involves the manipulation of genetic material ( DNA) to achieve the desire goal in pre determined way.
  4. 4. • Other terms – Recombinant DNA technology Gene manipulation Gene cloning Genetic modifications New genetics
  5. 5. Basic principle of recombinant DNA technology • Manipulation and alteration of genes Artificially copying a piece of DNA from one organism and joining this copy of DNA into the DNA of another organism
  6. 6. Basic principle of rDNA technology
  7. 7. Molecular tools of genetic engineering • The genetic engineer's tool kit or molecular tool namely the enzymesenzymes are most commonly used in recombinant DNA experiments are  Restriction endonucleases -DNA cutting Enzyme.  DNA Ligases- DNA joining Enzyme.
  8. 8. Restriction enzymes act as molecular scissors and cut DNA at specific sites called restriction sites Restriction endonucleases Restriction site Restriction site Restriction ezymes
  9. 9. • Named with particular reference to the bacteria from which they are isolated. Eg. EcoR‫ו‬ :Types 3 Restriction endonucleases
  10. 10. DNA ligase
  11. 11. Host cells: the factor of cloning The hosts are the living system or cell in which the carrier of recombinant DNA molecule or vector can be propagated. Prokaryotic Bacteria Escherichia coli Bacillus subtilis Streptomyces sp
  12. 12. Eukaryotic 1.Fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae Aspergillus nidulans 2.animals Insect cells Oocytes Mammalian cells Whole organisms 3.plants Protoplast Intact cell Whole plants
  13. 13. Vectors are the DNA molecule, which can carry A foreign DNA fragment to be cloned. The are self replicating in an appropriate host cell.  The most important vectors are Plasmids, Bacteriophages, cosmids. An ideal characteristics of an vector is should be small in size with single endonuclease site. But natural occurring rarely posses this characteristics. Cloning vectors
  14. 14. Plasmids
  15. 15. Bacteriophage λ (Lambda)
  16. 16. Cosmid •Cosmids are vectors posses the characteristic of both plasmid and bacteriophage. •Cosmids can be constructed by adding a fragment of phage DNA to plasmid. •A foreign DNA 40 Kb can be inserted into cosmid DNA
  17. 17. BACs: Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes •The construction BAC is based on F plasmid which is large than other plasmid used as cloning vector. •BACs can accept DNA inserts of around 300kb
  18. 18. YACs: Yeast ArtificialYACs: Yeast Artificial ChromosomesChromosomes Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YAC)Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YAC) is a synthetic DNA that can accept large fragment (particular human DNA). It is possible to clone large DNA pieces by using YAC.
  19. 19. Human Artificial Chromosomes • Synthetically produced vector DNA, possessing the characteristic of human chromosome • Size range from 1/10th to 1/5th of human chromosome
  20. 20. Methods of gene Transfer Transformation Electroporation Conjugation Transduction Microinjection Liposome-mediated gene transfer.
  21. 21. Transformation
  22. 22. Electroporation • Application of high voltage electrical field to cells
  23. 23. Liposome mediated gene transfer
  24. 24. Direct transfer • Microinjection • Particle bombardment
  25. 25. Applications of Recombinant DNA Technology 1)Large-scale production of human proteins by genetically engineered bacteria. •Recombinant human insulin •Recombinant human growth hormone •Recombinant blood clotting factors (VIII, IX, tPA) •Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine, HPV vaccine •Cytokines and growth factors (IF, IL) •Monoclonal antibodies •Recombinant enzymes •Recombinant HIV protein for ELISA testing •Albumin, fibrinolytic and thrombolytic agents
  26. 26. Applications of Recombinant DNA Technology 2) Gene therapy for genetic diseases 3) Food production 4) Plant: genetically modified corn
  27. 27. Gene library • A DNA library is a collection of cloned restriction fragments of the DNA of an organism • 2 types 1. Genomic library 2. cDNA library
  28. 28. Genomic DNA libraries • Collection of DNA fragments from a particular species. • Constructed by isolating the entire DNA from a cell which is cut into fragments and cloned in suitable vector.
  29. 29. Gene library for humans • Each human chromosome, containing approximately 100000 kb can be cut into about 25000 DNA fragments of average size of 4 kb. • As we have 23 different chromosomes, there are total of 575000 fragments of 4 kb formed.
  30. 30. cDNA library • cDNA libraries contain those DNA sequences that appear as mRNA molecules, and these differ from one cell type to another. • This mRNA can be used as a template to make a complementary dsDNA (cDNA) molecule using the enzyme reverse transcriptase.
  31. 31. BLOTTING TECHNIQUES • Blots are techniques for transferring DNA , RNA and proteins onto a carrier so they can be separated, and often follows the use of a gel electrophoresis. • The Southern blot is used for transferring DNA, the Northern blot for RNA and the western blot for PROTEIN.
  32. 32. Southern blotting • Named after scientist Edward Southern who developed it in 1975 • Other names are laboratory jargons which are now accepted eg. Northern and western blotting
  33. 33. Southern blotting
  34. 34. Southern blotting
  35. 35. Southern blotting
  36. 36. Northern Blotting
  37. 37. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP)
  38. 38. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLPs) • A polymorphism is a clinically harmless DNA variation that does not affect the phenotype. • At the molecular level, polymorphism is a variation in nucleotide sequence from one individual to another. • Polymorphisms often occur in the intervening sequences that do not code for proteins (Introns).
  39. 39. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLPs) • RFLP is a genetic variant that can be examined by cleaving the DNA into fragments with a restriction enzyme. • The length of the restriction fragments is altered if the genetic variant alters the DNA so as to create or abolish a site of restriction endonuclease cleavage (a restriction site). • RFLP can be used to detect human genetic variations.
  40. 40. Polymorphism vs Mutation • A polymorphism is a clinically harmless DNA variation that does not affect the phenotype. • In contrast, mutation refers to an infrequent, but potentially harmful, genome variation that is associated with a specific human disease. • Polymorphism: sequence variation at a given locus in more than 1% of population.
  41. 41. R3R2R1 R1 R3 DNA1 DNA2 Restriction endonuclease Restriction endonuclease 4 fragments 3fragments Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP)
  42. 42. DNA variations resulting in RFLP Single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP) • About 90% of human genome variation comes in the form of SNP. • Variations that involve just one base • Substitution of one nucleotide at a restriction site can render the site unrecognizable by a particular restriction endonuclease. • A new restriction site can also be created.
  43. 43. DNA variations resulting in RFLP Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) • Short sequences (10-100 bp) of DNA at scattered locations in the genome, repeated in tandem (one after another). • The number of these repeat units varies from person to person, but is unique for any given individual and, therefore, serves as a molecular fingerprint.
  44. 44. APPLICATIONS 1.Diagnosis of genetic defects 2.Study of genetic individuality 3.Detection of changes in DNA sequences 4.Linkage studies
  45. 45. Direct diagnosis of sickle cell disease using RFLP
  46. 46. Polymerase Chain ReactionPolymerase Chain Reaction
  47. 47. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) PCR is an in vitro technique for the amplification of a region of DNA. Cell free amplification technique. Developed by Kary Mullis in the 1980s
  48. 48. Principle Double stranded DNA of interest is denatured to separate strands. Each strand is then allowed to hybridize with a primer. The primer template duplex is used for synthesis. This three steps:Denaturation,anneling and extension repeated again and again to generate multiple forms of target DNA. The primer extension product synthesized in 1 cycle serve as template for next cycle.
  49. 49. TEACHNIQUE OF PCR  Target DNA (100-35,000 bp IN LENGTH).  Two primers(these are typically short, single stranded oligonucleotides which are complementary to the outer regions of known sequence.  Buffer(tris buffer ,KCl & MgCl2)  4 Deoxyribonucleotide(dATP, dCTP, dGTP, dTTP)  A DNA polymerase that can withstand the temperature upto 95o C.
  50. 50. PCR tubes are manufactured from polypropylene. Ultra thin wall design for efficient heat transfer. Compatible with standard 96-well heat blocks. Autoclavable. DNase and RNase free.
  51. 51. PCR ProtocolPCR Protocol •Mix DNA, primers, dNTPs, Taq, buffer, Mg2+ •Program thermocycler for times and temps –denaturation –annealing –Extension •20-40 cycles It helps to keep the enzymes such as Taq Polymerase in their optimal confirmation.
  52. 52. Mix DNA, primers, dNTPs, Taq, buffer, Mg2 Eppendorf’s tube
  53. 53. Laboratory apparatus used to amplify segments of DNA via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process. Thermal cycler PCR consists of a series of 20-40 repeated temperature changes, called cycles, with each cycle commonly consisting of 2-3 discrete temperature steps. PCR consists of a series of 20-40 repeated temperature changes, called cycles, with each cycle commonly consisting of 2-3 discrete temperature steps.
  54. 54. •: Denaturation at 94°C which lasts for 1 min Annealing at 54°C which lasts for 1 min extension at 72°C which lasts for 2 min
  55. 55. 1 cycle = 2 copies
  56. 56. 2 cycle = 4 copies
  57. 57. 3 cycle = 8 copies
  58. 58. 4 cycle = 16 copies
  59. 59. 5 cycle = 32 copies
  60. 60. 6 cycle = 64 copies
  61. 61. 7 cycle = 128 copies
  62. 62. 8 cycle = 256 copies
  64. 64. Applications of PCR 1. Diagnosis: Bacterial and viral diseases eg., TB, Hepatitis C, CMV, HIV 2. Medicolegal cases: DNA amplification from hair follicles and blood sample followed by RFLP 3. Diagnosis of genetic disorders: SCD, thalassemia, cystic fibrosis 4. Prenatal diagnosis of inherited disorders
  65. 65. Applications of PCR contd… 5. Cancer detection: i. To monitor residual abnormal cells present in treated patients. ii. Identification of mutation in oncosuppressor genes eg., p53 6. Fossil studies: to study evolution by comparing the sequences in the extinct and living organisms
  67. 67. DNA FINGERPRINTING • Technique employed by forensic scientists to assist in identification of individuals by their respective DNA profiles. • DNA of every individual is unique; chemical structure being same in everyone, difference lies in order of base pairs • Developed by Prof. Alec Jeffreys.
  68. 68. • This method uses repetitive DNA sequences that are highly variable called variable no. of tandem repeats (VNTRs). • VNTR loci are very similar in closely related humans like parent and child and identical in monozygotic twins but they are so variable that unrelated individuals are extremely unlikely to have the same VNTRs. DNA FINGERPRINTING Contd…
  69. 69. APPLICATIONS •Paternity-maternity disputes – father identification cases, confirming legal nationality, and instances of adoption. •Criminal identification cases - genetic evidences left at crime spot can be compared with the VNTR pattern of crime suspect. •Personal identification – children separated from parents during floods, tsunami etc. may be united with their parents with the help of DNA fingerprinting. •Creating population data banks – one of the best way to keep identification record of a person.
  70. 70. THANK YOU