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Plc presentation

  2. 2. Control Systems Types Programmable Logic Controllers Distributed Control System PC- Based Controls
  3. 3. Programmable Logic ControllersPLC Sequential logic solver PID Calculations. Advanced Subroutines BIT Operations. Data Transfer. Text Handling.
  4. 4. Programmable Logic ControllersApplications : Machine controls, Packaging, Palletizing, Material handling, similar Sequential task as well as Process controlAdvantages of PLC : They are fast and designed for the rugged industrial environment. They are attractive on Cost-Per-Point Basis. These Devices are less Proprietary ( E.g.. Using Open Bus Interface.) These Systems are upgraded to add more Intelligence and Capabilities with dedicated PID and Ethernet Modules.Disadvantages of PLC : PLC were Designed for Relay Logic Ladder and have Difficulty with some Smart Devices. To maximize PLC performance and Flexibility, a number of Optional Modules must be added
  5. 5. Programmable Logic ControllersPLC Types Nano (Small) Micro (Medium) LargeBasic criteria for PLC Types Memory Capacity I/O Range Packaging and Cost per Point
  6. 6. Programmable Logic ControllersComponents Central Processing Unit (CPU) Input Output Modules Power Supply Bus system
  7. 7. Programmable Logic ControllersCentral Processing Unit It is a micro-controller based circuitary. The CPU consists of following blocks : Arithmatic Logic Unit (ALU), Program memory Process image memory (Internal memory of CPU) Internal timers and counters Flags CPU performs the task necessary to fulfill the PLC funtions. These tasks include Scanning, I/O bus traffic control, Program execution, Peripheral and External device communication, special functions or data handling execution and self diagnistics.
  8. 8. Programmable Logic ControllersInput module These modules act as interface between real-time status of process variable and the CPU. Analog input module : Typical input to these modules is 4-20 mA, 0-10 V Ex : Pressure, Flow, Level Tx, RTD (Ohm), Thermocouple (mV) Digital input module : Typical input to these modules is 24 V DC, 115 V AC, 230 V AC Ex. : Switches, Pushbuttons, Relays, pump valve on off status
  9. 9. Programmable Logic ControllersOutput module These modules act as link between the CPU and the output devices in the field. Analog output module : Typical output from these modules is 4-20 mA, 0-10 V Ex : Control Valve, Speed, Vibration Digital output module : Typical output from these modules is 24 V DC, 115 V AC, 230 V AC Ex. : Solenoid Valves, lamps, Actuators, dampers, Pump valve on off control
  10. 10. Programmable Logic ControllersPower Supply The power supply gives the voltage required for electronics module (I/O Logic signals, CPU, memory unit and peripheral devices) of the PLC from the line supply. The power supply provides isolation necessary to protect the solid state devices from most high voltage line spikes. As I/O is expanded, some PLC may require additional power supplies in order to maintain proper power levels.
  11. 11. Programmable Logic ControllersBus System It is path for the transmission of the signal . Bus system is responsible for the signal exchange between processor and I/O modules The bus system comprise of several single line ie wires / tracks
  12. 12. PLC Cycle Sense the Input Process the Logic Give Output Programmable controller Inputs Outputs Machine or Process
  13. 13. PLC Signal Flow Input Module Processor Memory Output Modules Input Data Output Image Table Image Table I:0/6 O:0/7 I:0/6 O:0/7 I:1/4 O:1/5Input Devices Output Devices Ladder Program I:0/6 O:0/7 I:1/4 O:1/5 I:1/4 O:1/5 Programming Terminal
  14. 14. PLC Architecture Evolutionx Mid - 1970s : Discrete Machine Control Programming Terminal Connection is Point to Point PLC Programming Language : Connection is Point to Point - Relay ladder logic - Flexibility in altering Control system operation I/O
  15. 15. PLC Architecture Evolutionx Early - to - Mid 1980 : Discrete and Process Control MS - DOS Reasonable Computer Running PLC Programming Software PLC Programming Language : - Ladder Program - PID - Data Storage I/O
  16. 16. PLC Architecture Evolutionx Late 1980’s to early 1990’s : Discrete and Process Control Windows PC running PLC Programming Software Connection in networked allowing Multiple PLC PLC PLC PLC became a part of the developing enterprise resource I/O system
  17. 17. PLC Architecture Evolution Today : Distributed I/O ModulesPLC Distributed I/O scanner Data Communication Bus Distributed I/O modules
  18. 18. PLC Architecture Evolution Today : Hot Redundant System TAPSSPLITTERS Remote I/O Network FIBER OPTIC LINK Remote I/O
  19. 19. PLC Architecture Evolution Today : Ethernet Technology in PLCsWorkstation Workstation Workstation Workstation Switched Hub Controller Controller Controller Controller
  20. 20. PLC Architecture Evolution Today : Wireless communication PLC Wireless ModemRemotePlatform Wireless Modem PLC HMI PC Display
  21. 21. PLC Systems of various vendorsSiemens S5 -110U, 115U, 135U S7 - 200, 300, 400Allen Bradley Micrologix 1000, 1200, 1500 SLC 5/01, 5/02, 5/03 PLC 5/10, 5/25 and 5/40Modicon Nano Micro Premium Quantum
  22. 22. Configuration of PLC : Modicon Built in display for I/O Programming Terminal PC Connection (in-rack, AS-i) and Diag8 Analog Inputs 1Analog Output I/O ModulesUp/Down FastCounterUp Counter TSX37-22 Unitelway Port for connection PCMCIA communications port of up to 5 Slaves PCMCIA memory expansion port
  23. 23. Configuration of PLC : Siemens CPU I/O ModulesExternal PowerSupply
  24. 24. Configuration of PLC : Allen Bradley CPU I/O ModulesPower Supply
  25. 25. Configuration of PLC : GE FANUC I/O Modules Back planeCPU
  26. 26. PLC Programming Standards The open, manufacturer-independent programming standard for automation is IEC 61131-3. You can thus choose what configuration interface you wish to use when writing your application : Ladder Diagram Instruction List Function Block Diagram Sequential Function Chart Structured Text
  27. 27. PLC DCS Selection Criteria Cost of hardware, software, Integration Engineering, Design, Installation, Start-up and Commissioning, Validation documentation and Execution, Training, Spare parts, Maintenance, System service contract and system life cycle. Reliability, Flexibility, Scalability and Validatability. Ease of Database configuration, Graphics development, Interlocks and Batch processing. Integration of High-level Application. Control Philosophy for Centralized versus Remote Operator Console or both. Compliance with an Industry batch standard such as ISA SP88 and new Communication Protocol.