Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Refrigeration and air conditioning


Published on

it consists fundamental concept of refrigeration and air conditioning...also included domestic refrigerator,window & split air conditioner..

Refrigeration and air conditioning

  1. 1. Refrigeration & Air Condition Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 1 Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  2. 2. It is defined as the process of providing and maintaining a temperature well below that of surrounding atmosphere. In other words refrigeration is the process of cooling substance. Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 2
  3. 3. If the main purpose of the machine is to cool some object the machine is named as refrigerator If the main purpose of machine to heat a medium warmer than the surroundings, the machine is termed as heat pump. Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 3
  4. 4. Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 4
  5. 5.  Food Preservation .  Poultry Forms .  Development of certain Scientific Instruments .  Weaving in textile Industry .  Improvement in production in shop floor.  Medical Science , Surgery.  Customer delight in theaters & shops. Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 5
  6. 6. Refrigerants:- It is a heat carrying medium which absorbs heat from space and rejects heat to outside the refrigerator. Properties of Refrigerants •Low Boiling Point •Low Freezing Point. •High Latent Heat. •Chemically Inert & stable . •Non Flammable •Non toxic •Should not react with lubrication oil of comp. •Should not be corrosivePrepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 6
  7. 7. Important refrigerants •Refrigerant is the working fluid used in refrigerators . Commonly used refrigerants are: 1.Ammonia : used in ice plants, large cold storages, skating rings etc. 2.Carbon dioxide : used in marine refrigerators, dry ice making etc. 3.Methyl chloride: used in domestic & industrial refrigerators (now obsolate) 4.Fluorocarbons : Freon -11,12,13,22,113,114, etc. These are used in domestic & industrial applications.These chemicals damage the ozone layer and hence they are being replaced. Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 7
  8. 8. Capacity of a Refrigeration Unit : • Capacity of a refrigerating machines are expressed by their cooling capacity. • The standard unit used for expressing the capacity of refrigerating machine is ton of refrigeration. • One ton of refrigeration is defined as, “the quantity of heat abstracted (refrigerating effect) to freeze (into ice) one ton of water in a duration of 24 hours at 0o c”. Heat extracted from at oo c = latent heat of ice Latent heat of ice = 336 kJ/kg i.e., 336 kJ of heat should be extracted one kg of water at 0o C to convert it into ice. Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 8
  9. 9. One ton of refrigeration= 336x1000 kJ/24 hrs. = 336x1000 kJ/min 24x60 One ton of refrigeration = 233.333 kJ/min = 3.8889 kJ/sec For calculation purpose, One ton of refrigeration = 12600 kJ/hr = 210 kJ/min Ton of refrigeration = 3.5 kJ/s Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 9
  10. 10.  C.O.P is a measure of efficiency of a refrigeration cycle/ system. It is the measure of the effectiveness of the refrigeration system. It is the ratio of refrigerating effect (Q) to the input work required to produce the effect(w) . COP =refrigerating effect/work input = Q/W Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 10
  11. 11. Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 11 Introduction How does it work? Refrigeration and air conditioning is used to cool products or a building environment. High Temperature Reservoir Low Temperature Reservoir R Work Input Heat Absorbed Heat Rejected
  12. 12. Types of Refrigeration • Vapour Compression Refrigeration (VCR): uses mechanical energy • Vapour Absorption Refrigeration (VAR): uses thermal energy Refrigeration systems Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 12
  13. 13. Type of Refrigeration Vapour Compression Refrigeration Refrigeration cycle Condenser Evaporator High Pressure Side Low Pressure Side Compressor Expansion Device 1 2 3 4 Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 13
  14. 14. Type of Refrigeration Vapour Compression Refrigeration Refrigeration cycle Low pressure liquid refrigerant in evaporator absorbs heat and changes to a gas Condenser Evaporator High Pressure Side Low Pressure Side Compressor Expansion Device 1 2 3 4 Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 14
  15. 15. Type of Refrigeration Vapour Compression Refrigeration © UNEP 2006 Refrigeration cycle The superheated vapour enters the compressor where its pressure is raised Condenser Evaporator High Pressure Side Low Pressure Side Compressor Expansion Device 1 2 3 4 Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 15
  16. 16. Type of Refrigeration Vapour Compression Refrigeration © UNEP 2006 Refrigeration cycle The high pressure superheated gas is cooled in several stages in the condenser Condenser Evaporator High Pressure Side Low Pressure Side Compressor Expansion Device 1 2 3 4 Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 16
  17. 17. Type of Refrigeration Vapour Compression Refrigeration Refrigeration cycle Liquid passes through expansion device, which reduces its pressure and controls the flow into the evaporator Condenser Evaporator High Pressure Side Low Pressure Side Compressor Expansion Device 1 2 3 4 Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 17
  18. 18. Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 18
  19. 19. Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 19
  20. 20. Function of main Parts •Compressor -The function of the compressor is to continuously draw the refrigerant vapour from the evaporator and compress it to a high pressure. •Condenser -Condensor is used to condense the refrigerant from vapour to liquid. •Expansion valve –The function of expansion valve is to meter the proper amount of liquid refrigerant and reduce the pressure of liquid refrigerant entering the evaporator. •Evaporator -In evaporator the lower temperature refrigerant absorbs the heat from the space to be cooled and the refrigerant gets evaporated. Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 20
  21. 21. Type of Refrigeration Vapour Absorption Refrigeration Condenser Generator Evaporator AbsorberCold Side Hot Side Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 21
  22. 22.  Air conditioning is the simultaneous control of temperature ,air humidity ,air movement and air cleanliness.  Principle:-  The device or unit which provides air conditioning is called air conditioner.  Continuous cyclic process of drawing ,cooling and recirculation of the cooled air maintains indoor space cool at required lower temperature which is required for comfort cooling. Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 22
  23. 23. Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 23 • The basic elements of air conditioning system:-- • Fans : For circulation of air • Filters : For cleaning air • Heating Elements : Heating of air(It may be electric heater , steam , hot water.) • Control System : It regulates automatically the amount of cooling or heating. • Grill : It adjust the direction of the conditioned air to the room. • Tray : It collects condensed water. • Refrigerating Plant : provide cooling . It consist of compressor/generator and asorber,eveporator,condensor,expansion device(capallary tube). Air Conditioning System
  24. 24. Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 24
  25. 25. Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 25
  26. 26. Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 26 Window Air Conditioner
  27. 27. Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 27
  28. 28.  1) Blower: This is the small blower that is fitted behind the evaporator or cooling coil inside the assembly of the window air conditioner system. The blower sucks the air from the room which first passes over the air filter and gets filtered. The air then passes over the cooling coil and gets chilled. The blower then blows this filtered and chilled air, which passes through the supply air compartment inside the window air conditioner assembly. This air is then delivered into the room from the supply air grill of the front panel.  2) Propeller fan or the condenser fan: The condenser fan is the forced draft type of propeller fan that sucks the atmospheric air and blows it over the condenser. The hot refrigerant inside the condenser gives up the heat to the atmospheric air and its temperature reduces.  3) Fan motor: The motor inside the window air conditioner assembly is located between the condenser and the evaporator coil. It has double shaft on one side of which the blower is fitted and on the other side the condenser fan is fitted. This makes the whole assembly of the blower, the condenser fan and the motor highly compact.  Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 28 Window Air Conditioner
  29. 29. Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 29 Split Air Conditioner
  30. 30.  The Split Air Conditioner divided in two parts:--  (1)First part:-Include the evaporator,filter,evaporator fan and grill. They placed inside the room.  (2)Second part:-Include Condensor ,fan,compressor.This placed out side the room.diameter tubes.therefore,small hole rquired in wall of installation of split air condition.The split air conditioning units are available in capacity range of 1 to 3 tons. Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 30
  31. 31. Prepare by:- Shivkumar Panjabi 31 Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Systems THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION 