How Do Coping Strategies Correlate With Job Satisfaction Revised


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Pilot study - Coping strategy relationship to overall job satisfaction.

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  • I am interested in Organizational psychology and am conducting simple studies to parse out elements that effect us at work.
  • Individuals spend about a third of their lives at work . . .
  • Everyone experiences stressful events on a daily basis . . .
  • The way a person chooses to deal with those events seems to be related to personality style and how we perceive the event.
  • In this study, I wanted to know if there was an association between how an individual tends to cope with a situation and their overall sense of job satisfaction.
  • To explore this idea I used two measures. The first is the COPE survey. It is a multidimensional inventory. I used two clusters of subscales labeled in the study as adaptive and questionable coping strategies.
  • The adaptive category included Active coping, planning, Suppression of competing activities, restraint, seeking social support, positive reframing, and acceptance.
  • The questionable cluster for the purpose of this study included Denial, behavioral and mental disengagement, focus on & venting of emotions, and alcohol-drug disengagement
  • The job satisfaction scale was developed as a cross-occupational measure of overall job satisfaction. It surveys issues such as supervisor-employee relationships, satisfaction with compensation, and the type of work one does.
  • Hypothesis #1 - Participants who scored higher on “theoretically . . . adaptive coping strategies” will also score higher on job satisfaction scores. The first hypothesis in this study was that those who score higher on “adaptive” coping strategies would also score higher on overall job satisfaction.
  • The second hypothesis is that those who employed what were deemed to be questionable strategies would score lower on job satisfaction.
  • The participants in this study were 25 undergraduate students here at Seattle University comprised of 70% women and 30% men with an average age of 22.1 years of age.
  • Now we will look more closely at the measures.
  • The COPE survey includes a total of thirteen scales. Some are based on strategies aimed at solving the problem and others are aimed at dealing with emotion generated by the stressor. As I mentioned earlier, I used clusters of these scales labeled adaptive and questionable.
  • The COPE is measured on a 4-point scale with 1 being “I usually don’t do this at all” and 4 being “I usually do this a lot”.
  • The job satisfaction measure does not show effect for gender or occupation, but does tend to show differences in older employees. The assumption is that people that have worked longer have found a job that suits them or they are in higher positions of authority.
  • The scores of the ten items are totaled to indicate an overall score of satisfaction.
  • The surveys for this study were part of a packet distributed to students in two classes.
  • The results of the correlation for “adaptive” coping strategies were not significant enough to support my hypothesis. However, the effect size, albeit small, seems to indicate that there is a relationship.
  • And, the results did not support the second hypothesis. There was no significance and no effect.
  • Even though our sample was small, there was an small effect indicating a relationship between adaptive coping and job satisfaction. With the results approaching significance, a study with a larger sample may show significant results.
  • As there seemed to be no particular effect of the questionable strategies on the job satisfaction scores, we may be able to infer that questionable coping strategies do not increase job satisfaction, but neither do they hurt it.
  • Since the prior research indicates that age is a moderator in job satisfaction, one might conduct a longitudinal study to determine if it is also a moderator of which coping strategies people choose as they mature. Another aspect to be explored further is whether there would be a greater variance in a sample with different demographics. Given the similarity of the sample in this study, there was little variance between the participants. There was also an indication the Positive Reinterpretation and Growth was significantly correlated with Job Satisfaction. The COPE researchers found that this behavior led to more active coping and planning, once the individual had reframed the situation. More specific research into this area may lead to effective training and counseling paths.
  • How Do Coping Strategies Correlate With Job Satisfaction Revised

    1. 1. How do Coping Strategies Correlate with Job Satisfaction Scores?
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Individuals spend about a third of their lives at work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2009) </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Everyone encounters stressful situations on a daily basis . . . </li></ul>
    4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>The coping strategies we employ can vary based on our perception of the situation and our personality . . . </li></ul><ul><li>(Carver & Connor-Smith, 2010) </li></ul>
    5. 5. Purpose of Study <ul><li>This study was designed to examine association between individual coping tendencies and overall job satisfaction. </li></ul>
    6. 6. COPE <ul><li>Individual coping strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(COPE; Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub, 1989) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multidimensional inventory of coping responses to stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Subscales into two clusters. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive coping strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionable coping strategies </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><ul><li>Active coping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppression of competing activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restraint coping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking social support (instrumental & emotional) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive reinterpretation & growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptance </li></ul></ul>Adaptive Cluster
    8. 8. <ul><ul><li>Denial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral disengagement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental disengagement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on & venting of emotions </li></ul></ul>Questionable Cluster
    9. 9. Job Satisfaction <ul><li>Job Satisfaction Scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(JSS; Macdonald & Macintyre, 1997) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overall satisfaction with job situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship with supervisor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type and level of work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compensation </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Hypothesis #1 <ul><li>Participants who scored higher on adaptive coping strategies will also score higher on job satisfaction scores. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Hypothesis #2 <ul><li>Participants who score higher on more questionable coping strategies will tend to score lower on job satisfaction scores. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Participants <ul><li>Participants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25 undergraduate psychology students in an advanced course at Seattle University </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70% women - 30% men </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mean age 22.1 (SD=1.8) </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Measures <ul><li>Job Satisfaction Scores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(JSS; MacDonald & MacIntyre, 1997) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual coping strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(COPE; Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub, 1989) </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. COPE <ul><li>Thirteen scales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem-focused </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotion-focused </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disengagement Behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two clusters subscales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive coping strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionable strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal consistency - (Cronbach's α = .45 - .92) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High test-retest reliability ( r = .46 - .86) & (r 2 = .42 - .89) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrates both convergent and divergent validity </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><ul><li>Measured on a 4-point scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Range </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 = I usually don't do this at all to 4 = I usually do this a lot </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher scores indicating that the individual tends more toward that type of behavior </li></ul></ul></ul>COPE
    16. 16. JSS <ul><li>Job Satisfaction Scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(JSS; Macdonald & Macintyre, 1997) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cronbach’s alpha reliability for this scale (α = .77) </li></ul><ul><li>No gender difference </li></ul><ul><li>No occupational difference </li></ul><ul><li>Older employees more satisfied </li></ul>
    17. 17. JSS <ul><li>Scoring – sum of items indicating total job satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Ten items </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(1 = Strongly Disagree, 5 = Strongly Agree) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Procedures <ul><li>A packet of five self-report paper and pencil surveys were distributed to students in two classes to complete in no particular order. </li></ul><ul><li>Most were completed in class and a few were retained and turned in later. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Results <ul><li>Hypothesis #1 – “adaptive” coping strategies would be positively correlated with higher job satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>r(23) = .36, p<0.08 (not significant) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effect size = 13% of job satisfaction can be predicted by adaptive coping skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Cohen, 1988) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Results do not support hypothesis #1 </li></ul>
    20. 20. Results <ul><li>Hypothesis #2 – “questionable” coping strategies would be negatively correlated with higher job satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>r(23) = -.003, p<0.99 (not significant due to sample size) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effect size = no effect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results do not support hypothesis #2 </li></ul>
    21. 21. Discussion – Adaptive Coping <ul><li>Significance – small sample size; results approached significance </li></ul><ul><li>Positive correlation </li></ul><ul><li>Small effect size </li></ul><ul><li>Age relevance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Future study with more diverse group </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Results showed no significance or effect size </li></ul><ul><li>“ Questionable” coping tendencies do not increase job satisfaction, but neither do they decrease it </li></ul>Discussion – Questionable Coping
    23. 23. <ul><li>Participant demographic factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Years of Experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of Jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>COPE subscales and JSS revealed relationships worth exploring further </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive Reinterpretation and Growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empirical and theoretically based </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to active and planning actions </li></ul></ul></ul>Future Research