FORMATIVE
ASSESSMENT
MODEL
BY
SHAMS PANDRANI
WHAT IS FORMATIVE
ASSESSMENT?
Assessment that takes place continuously during the
course of teaching and learning to provi...
MODEL OF FORMATIVE
ASSESSMENT
WHAT IS LEARNING
PROGRESSION?
• It means to move over time toward more expert
understanding.
• Learning progressions depic...
LEARNING GOAL
Learning goals provide the standard against which
evidence is elicited, performance is compared (by
both stu...
CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS
• The success criteria are indications to the teacher
and the student of the degree to which learning...
CRITERIA FOR
SUCCESS(CONTINUED)
Clearly understood learning objectives and criteria for
successful learning also have an i...
HOW TO ELICIT
EVIDENCE OF LEARNING?
At its core, formative assessment must collect quality
evidence of learning in order t...
HOW TO INTERPRET
THE EVIDENCE?
• What does my evidence tell me about students
current learning status?
• Is there a gap be...
HOW TO IDENTIFY THE
GAP
• Assessment is not formative unless something gets
formed?( Margaret Heritage, 2007).
• Establish...
FEEDBACK
• Feedback is the soul of formative assessment.
• Formative assessment is designed to provide
feedback at multipl...
FEEDBACK
(CONTINUED)
• Effective feedback from teachers provides clear,
descriptive, criterion-based information that
indi...
FEEDBACK
(CONTINUED)
When giving feedback to pupils, the teacher needs
to be clear about this that the:
• feedback that la...
FEEDBACK
(CONTINUED)
To support learning while it is occurring:
• teachers must provide descriptive feedback in the
form o...
PLAN LEARNING AND
INSTRUTIONAL MODIFICATION
What next?
• Upon interpreting the evidence, the teacher
identifies student le...
PLAN LEARNING AND INSTRUCTIONAL
MODIFICATION(CONTINUED)
• Students make adjustments to what and how they
are learning.
• g...
“SCAFFOLDING” IN THE ZONE
OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT
• The zone of proximal development is the area
where Vygotsky hypothesiz...
“SCAFFOLDING” IN THE ZONE OF
PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT(CONT.)
• Wood, Bruner, and Ross (1976) devised the term
―scaffolding‖ to...
CLOSE THE GAP
• Finally, the students will be able to bridge the gap
between their current level of understanding and
the ...
TABLE SHOWING THE LEARNING PROGRESSION/ STANDARD/BIG IDEA,
GOALS/STUDENTS LEAARNING OUTCOMES, CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS AND
FOR...
Curriculum based on the model of formative
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Curriculum based on the model of formative

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Curriculum based on the model of formative

  1. 1. FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT MODEL BY SHAMS PANDRANI
  2. 2. WHAT IS FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT? Assessment that takes place continuously during the course of teaching and learning to provide teachers and students with feedback to close the gap between current learning and desired goals. ( Black et al., 2003; Black & Wiliam, 1998; OECD, 2005; Sadler,1989; Shepard, 2000)
  3. 3. MODEL OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
  4. 4. WHAT IS LEARNING PROGRESSION? • It means to move over time toward more expert understanding. • Learning progressions depict successively more sophisticated ways of thinking about an idea that might reasonably follow one another as students learn. • Using research on children’s learning, learning progressions can be identified that trace the path that children might follow as instruction helps them move from naïve ideas to more sophisticated understanding.
  5. 5. LEARNING GOAL Learning goals provide the standard against which evidence is elicited, performance is compared (by both student and teacher), and feedback is generated to close the “ gap” between current learning and desired goals.
  6. 6. CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS • The success criteria are indications to the teacher and the student of the degree to which learning is moving through the ZPD toward independent achievement. • The success criteria provide the framework within which formative assessment takes place and make possible the interpretation of the evidence Note: Learning goals and criteria for success should be clearly identified and communicated to students.
  7. 7. CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS(CONTINUED) Clearly understood learning objectives and criteria for successful learning also have an important role to play in managing the learning process. They guide learners in identifying evidence of success in learning and appropriate success criteria provide the basis for well focused feedback.
  8. 8. HOW TO ELICIT EVIDENCE OF LEARNING? At its core, formative assessment must collect quality evidence of learning in order to be effective. According to Heritage (2009a, 2009b), no single way to collect evidence is necessarily better than others, but decisions should be made appropriate to the purpose, aligned with learning goals, embed the concepts and skills that are the focus of the lesson, and provide sufficiently detailed information for action. The various strategies for evidence gathering can be categorized into the following three broad types: curriculum-embedded (or systematic), planned, and on-the-fly (or spontaneous)
  9. 9. HOW TO INTERPRET THE EVIDENCE? • What does my evidence tell me about students current learning status? • Is there a gap between my students current learning status and the desired goal? what is it? Can I determine that from the evidence I have or do I need more evidence? • Are my students on right track to meet the success criteria or have they met it?
  10. 10. HOW TO IDENTIFY THE GAP • Assessment is not formative unless something gets formed?( Margaret Heritage, 2007). • Establishing where the learners are in their learning, establishing where they are going and what needs to be done to get them there. • Sadler (1989) stresses the importance of identifying the gap between what a learner knows currently and the desired goal for him/her to reach. (just the right gap)
  11. 11. FEEDBACK • Feedback is the soul of formative assessment. • Formative assessment is designed to provide feedback at multiple levels. First, it provides feedback to the teacher about current levels of student understanding. This feedback also informs what the next steps in learning should be
  12. 12. FEEDBACK (CONTINUED) • Effective feedback from teachers provides clear, descriptive, criterion-based information that indicates to the students where they are in a learning progression, how their understanding differs from the desired learning goal, and how they can move forward
  13. 13. FEEDBACK (CONTINUED) When giving feedback to pupils, the teacher needs to be clear about this that the: • feedback that lacks focus because it covers too much or is too general isn’t particularly helpful. If feedback is based on clear learning intentions and shared success criteria, it is much more likely to provide a focus for meaningful improvement.
  14. 14. FEEDBACK (CONTINUED) To support learning while it is occurring: • teachers must provide descriptive feedback in the form of ideas, strategies, and tasks the student can use to close the “gap” between his or her current learning level and the next level. In this sense, feedback becomes instructional scaffolding in the zone of proximal development.
  15. 15. PLAN LEARNING AND INSTRUTIONAL MODIFICATION What next? • Upon interpreting the evidence, the teacher identifies student learning gaps relative to the learning goal. The teacher provides descriptive feedback to students and plans instructional modifications based on the students’ zone of proximal development. • The teacher takes steps to close the gap between the students' current learning and the goal by modifying instruction, assessing again to give further information about learning, modifying instruction again, and so on.
  16. 16. PLAN LEARNING AND INSTRUCTIONAL MODIFICATION(CONTINUED) • Students make adjustments to what and how they are learning. • gathering evidence of learning and focusing feedback on improvement all have a contribution to make but the real success criterion for a reflective professional is whether or not pupils have learned through these experiences on how to take responsibility for their own learning
  17. 17. “SCAFFOLDING” IN THE ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT • The zone of proximal development is the area where Vygotsky hypothesizes learning and development take place. It is defined as the distance between what the child can accomplish during independent problem solving and the level of the problem solving that can be accomplished under the guidance of an adult or in collaboration with a more expert peer. Through these processes, cognitive growth occurs as the child internalizes problem solving processes.
  18. 18. “SCAFFOLDING” IN THE ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT(CONT.) • Wood, Bruner, and Ross (1976) devised the term ―scaffolding‖ to characterize the support that adults (teachers) give to learners in the zone of proximal development to move them from what they already know to what they can do next
  19. 19. CLOSE THE GAP • Finally, the students will be able to bridge the gap between their current level of understanding and the desired goal or goals.
  20. 20. TABLE SHOWING THE LEARNING PROGRESSION/ STANDARD/BIG IDEA, GOALS/STUDENTS LEAARNING OUTCOMES, CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS AND FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES Standard/Learning Progression/ the Big Idea All students will search for, discover and understand a variety of text types through tasks which require multiple reading and thinking strategies for comprehension, and enjoyment. SLOs or Goals Criteria for Success Formative Assessment Strategies 1-identify that the main idea in a paragraph is carried in a sentence called a topic sentence 2-Recognize that other sentences in the paragraph support the topic sentence Students should have the ability to recognize the topic sentence in a paragraph and they should also be able to tell how other sentences in the paragraph build on the topic sentence. Different paragraphs would be given out among the students in groups and they would be asked to differentiate between the topic sentence and the supporting details in the paragraphs. Meanwhile, the groups’ activities will be kept under continuous observation and leading open ended and probing question will be asked to remove the misconceptions and bridge the gap between their current understanding and the desired goals.

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