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Viii biology kc

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Viii biology kc

  1. 1. T.E.T Mrphpah; jFjpj; Njh;T vl;lhk; tFg;G caphpay; ghlf;Fwpg;Gfs; (PAPER I AND II) Njh;T vOJk; Mrphpah;fSf;fhf “fy;tpr;Nrhiy” JizAld; ELA.BABU VELAN, B.Sc, B.Ed, M.L.I.Sc, B.T. ASST., PANCHAYAT UNION MIDDLE SCHOOL, CHOKKANATHANPATTI, KADAYAM (UNION), TIRUNELVELI (DIS) CELL : 9952329008 E.MAIL : raamanesh143@gmail.com www.kalvisolai.com - 1 of 29.
  2. 2. gaph; ngUf;fk; kw;Wk; Nkyhz;ik 1. Ntshz;ik – kdpjh;fs; jk; NjitfSf;fhf jhtuq;fs; kw;Wk; tpyq;Ffis tsh;g;gJ Fwpj;J gbf;Fk; mwptpay; gphpT 2. Ntshz;ikr; rhh;e;j nray;Kiwfs; - tpijg;gijj; njhlh;e;J mWtil tiuf;Fk; cs;s midj;J tifahd nray; KiwfSk; Ntshz;ik rhh;e;j nray;Kiwfs; 3. gaph; rhFgbapd; mbg;gil nray;Kiwfs; - epyj;ij jahh; nra;jy; kw;Wk; tpijj;jy; - cukpLjy; (,aw;if kw;Wk; nraw;if) - ghrd Kiwfs; - fisnaLj;jy; - mWtil nra;jy; - Nrkpj;jy; kw;Wk; re;ij gLj;Jjy; 4. epyj;ij jahh; nra;jy; - kz;iz jahh; nra;jy; - cOjy; rkd;gLj;Jjy; kw;Wk; cukpLjy; 5. cOjy; - fPo; kz;iz NkNy nfhz;L tUjy; mjid nkd;ikahf;Fjy; - NtUf;F Rthrpf;f fhw;iw mspj;jy; - <ug;gjj;ij Njq;fr; nra;jy; - Ez;Zaphpfis Cf;fg;gLj;jp kz;iz tsg;gLj;Jjy; - fis kw;Wk; mjd; tpijfis ePf;Fjy; 6. cOjy; - Kiwfs; 1. ghuk;ghpa Kiw – Vh; cOjy; 2. jw;fhy Kiw – VUe;J (buhf;lh;) 7. cOjy; nraYf;F gad;gLk; fUtpfs; kz;ntl;b, kz;thhp, fisnfhj;jp kw;Wk; Nfhlhhp 8. tpijj;jy; - kz;zpy; tpijia Cd;Wk; nray; 1. ghuk;ghpa Kiw – JhTjy; 2. ve;jpuk; Kiw – (Jis Kiw) 9. jioAuq;fsjioAuq;fsjioAuq;fsjioAuq;fs; - kz;zpy; ,aw;ifahf tsh;e;Js;s Cl;;lr;rj;J kpFe;j jhtuq;fs; 10. ePh; ghrd Kiw 1. ghuk;ghpa Kiw – fg;gp Kiw, rq;fpyp Row;rp Kiw, Vw;wk; Kiw. 2. etPd ePh; ghrd Kiw fhy;tha; ghrdk;, njspg;G ePh; ghrdk;, Njf;F ePh; ghrdk;, kw;Wk; nrhl;L ePh; ghrdk;. 11. fhy;tha; ghrdk; - coTf; fhy; topNa gha;r;rg;gLk; (ney; tay;) 12. Njf;F ePh; ghrdk; - epyk; KOtJk; ePuhy; epug;gg;gLjy; - c.k; ney; tay; 13. njspg;G ePh;g; ghrdk; - <uj;jd;ikia jf;f itf;f ,ayhj epyj;jpy; gad;gLk; - Gy; jiu 14. nrhl;L ePh; ghrdk; - jhtu NtUf;F kpf mUfpy; ghAk; tz;zk; mikAk; - kio ePh; Fiwthf cs;s fhyj;jpy; gad;gLk; - jpuhl;ir, thio, fj;jphp gaph;fSf;F gad;gLk; 15. cyfpNyNa kpfg; nghpa ghrd fhy;tha; - Jh;f;Nkdp];jhd; ehl;by; cs;s fhuhFk; (1300 fp.kP) 16. ,e;jpuhfhe;jp fhy;tha; - ,e;jpahtpy; cs;s nghpa fhy;tha;fSs; xd;W. `hpNf ghNu[; vd;Dk; ,lj;jpy; Jtq;Fk; 17. fis ePf;Fjy; - Njitaw;w jhtuq;fis taypy; ,Ue;J ePf;Fjy; - fisr; nrbfs; (Gy;, mkuhe;j];mkuhe;j];mkuhe;j];mkuhe;j];, kw;Wk; fhl;L xl;];) 18. fis ePf;Fjy; Kiw - iffshy; fisnaLj;jy; - fisnfhj;jp, guk;g gyif - Ntjpg;nghUs;fs; - lhygd;lhygd;lhygd;lhygd;, nkl;lhf;Nshh;nkl;lhf;Nshh;nkl;lhf;Nshh;nkl;lhf;Nshh;, 2222,4444----il FNshNuh gPdhf;]p mrpl;bf; mkpyk;il FNshNuh gPdhf;]p mrpl;bf; mkpyk;il FNshNuh gPdhf;]p mrpl;bf; mkpyk;il FNshNuh gPdhf;]p mrpl;bf; mkpyk; (2(2(2(2----4444----D)))) 19. caphp fisf; nfhy;yp – ghf;Bhpak;, G+Q;ir ,itfisg; gad;gLj;jpAk; fisj; jhtuq;fis mopf;fyhk; www.kalvisolai.com - 2 of 29.
  3. 3. 20. gaph; mWtilapy; nfhz;lhLk; jpUtpoh jkpo;ehL – nghq;fy; m];]hk; - gpF Nfush – efd;ah, N`hyp, Xzk; 21. fjph; mbj;;jy; - Kw;wpa jhtuq;fis mtw;wpd; jha; jhtuj;jpy; ,Ue;J ePf;Fjy; 22. Jhw;Wjy; - Njitaw;w itf;Nfhy;, ckp Nghd;wit jhdpaj;jpy; ,Ue;J ePf;Fk; Kiw 23. gRikg; Gul;rpgRikg; Gul;rpgRikg; Gul;rpgRikg; Gul;rp - ,e;jpahtpy; Ntshz;ikapy; etPd Kaw;rpfis nfhz;L czT cw;gj;jpia ngUf;f vLj;j eltbf;if 24. Fsph;gjd Kiw Nrkpj;jy; - fha;fwp, goq;fs; 25. jhdpa ghJfhg;G (,aw;if) – Ntg;g ,iy, cg;G, tpsf;nfz;nza; Nghd;wit jhdpaq;fis Ez;Zaphpfsplk; ,Ue;J ghJfhf;Fk; 26. khepy jhdpa Nrkpg;G mikg;G – tptrha nghUs;fs; kw;Wk; cuk; Nghd;wtw;wpd; Nrkpj;jiy cWjp nra;Ak; muR mikg;G. 27. jkpofj;jpd; new;fsQ;rpak; - jQ;rhT+h; 28. mf;khh;f;mf;khh;f;mf;khh;f;mf;khh;f; - tptrha nghUsfspd; juk; gphpf;Fk; muR rhh; jpl;lk; (rpwg;G, ey;y, Rkhh;, rhjhuzk; vd;gd Nghd;w juk;) 29. gaph; Row;rpgaph; Row;rpgaph; Row;rpgaph; Row;rp – jhdpaq;fisAk;, gaph; tiffisAk; xU epyj;jpy; khwp khwp gaphpLk; Kiw - ,jd; %yk; kz;zpy; cs;s fdpk rj;Jfis epiy ehl;l KbAk; - gapW tifj; jhtuq;fs; jq;fs; Nth; %z;Lfspy; thOk; ghf;Bhpahthy; tspkz;ly iel;u[id epiygLj;Jk; Mw;wiyg; ngWfpd;wd. - ney;, nfhJik rhFg;gbf;F gpd; gl;lhzp, Nrhah, nkhr;ir gaphplyhk; 30. caphp njhopy; El;gtpay; - gad;ghl;L caphpaypd; xU gphpT (nghwpapay;, njhopy;El;gtpay;, kUj;Jtapay; cs;slf;fpaJ) - Ntshz;ikj; Jiwapy; Gul;rpia Vw;gLj;jpAs;sJ 31. jhtu Nkk;ghl;by; gad;gLk; njhopy;El;gk; - Njh;T nra;jy; - fyg;gpdkhjy; - gd;ka gaph;ngUf;fk; - jpBh; khw;wg; gaph; ngUf;fk; - GNuhl;Nlhgpsh] ,izT - jpR tsh;g;G - kuG nghwpapay; 32. kuGg;; nghwpapay; - caphpj; njhopy; El;gtpaypd; xU gphpT. - ey;y gz;Gfis nfhz;l may; [Pd;fis ngw;w jhtuq;fis cUthf;Fjy;; - Neha;, G+r;rp, fisf;nfhy;yp vjph;g;G jpwid cUthf;Fjy; - iel;u[id epiyg;gLj;Jk; jd;ikia cUthf;Fjy; - kpifg;gLj;jg;glhj nfhOg;G mkpyq;fis nfhz;l vz;nza; tpj;Jfis cUthf;Fjy; - kpifg;glj;jg;glhj ];lhh;r;, tpl;lkpd; V nfhz;l cUisf;fpoq;Ffistpl;lkpd; V nfhz;l cUisf;fpoq;Ffistpl;lkpd; V nfhz;l cUisf;fpoq;Ffistpl;lkpd; V nfhz;l cUisf;fpoq;Ffis cUthf;Fjy; - kuG khw;wk; ngw;w tpijfs;, caphp cuq;fs;, caphp vhpnghUs;fis cUthf;Fjy; 33. czTg; gjg;gLj;Jjypy; caphp njhopy; El;gtpay; - kugZ khw;wk; kw;Wk; kugZ ,lkhw;wk; - kugZ khw;wk; ngw;w Gujk;, itl;lkpd;, jLg;G kUe;J - Ez;Zaphpfis Nkk;gLj;Jjy; mjd; jpwid cah;j;Jjy; - mjpfk; fdpahj jf;fhspfdpahj jf;fhspfdpahj jf;fhspfdpahj jf;fhspiaiaiaia cUthf;fTk; tshpsk; gUtj;ij miljy;tshpsk; gUtj;ij miljy;tshpsk; gUtj;ij miljy;tshpsk; gUtj;ij miljy; 1.1.1.1. mNlhy]d;];mNlhy]d;];mNlhy]d;];mNlhy]d;]; -,yj;jPd; nrhy; “mNlhy]Nu” vd;Dk; thh;j;ijapy; ,Ue;J te;jJ ,jd; nghUs; “tsh;r;rp” 2.2.2.2. tpliyg;gUtk;tpliyg;gUtk;tpliyg;gUtk;tpliyg;gUtk; - Foe;ijg; gUtj;jpw;Fk; Kjph;r;rp miljYf;fk; ,ilg;gl;l gUtk; - 11 Kjy; 19 taJ tiuapyhd gUtk; (WHO fUj;J) - ,sk; gUtj;jpdh; vd miof;fg;gLth; - cly; kw;Wk; kdjstpy; khw;wk; elf;Fk; - kdkhw;wj;jpw;F fhuzk; `hh;Nkhd;fs; - jpBnud;W tsh;r;rp mjpfhpf;Fk; gUtk; - Nfhgk;Nfhgk;Nfhgk;Nfhgk;, Fog;gk; kw;Wk; gjw;wk;Fog;gk; kw;Wk; gjw;wk;Fog;gk; kw;Wk; gjw;wk;Fog;gk; kw;Wk; gjw;wk; epyTk; gUtkepyTk; gUtkepyTk; gUtkepyTk; gUtk; www.kalvisolai.com - 3 of 29.
  4. 4. 3.3.3.3. gUtkiljy;gUtkiljy;gUtkiljy;gUtkiljy; - ,dg;ngUf;f cWg;Gfs; Kjph;r;rp milAk; - Mz;fSf;F 14 Kjy; 15 tiuapy; Vw;gLk; - ngz;fSf;F 11 Kjy; 12 tiu elf;Fk; 4.4.4.4. gUtkiljypd; NghJ elf;Fk; khw;wq;fs;gUtkiljypd; NghJ elf;Fk; khw;wq;fs;gUtkiljypd; NghJ elf;Fk; khw;wq;fs;gUtkiljypd; NghJ elf;Fk; khw;wq;fs; m. cauk; mjpfhpj;jycauk; mjpfhpj;jycauk; mjpfhpj;jycauk; mjpfhpj;jy; - jpBnud;W elf;Fk; - Mz;, ngz; ,UtUf;Fk; nghUe;Jk; - xt;nthUtUf;fk; tsh;r;rp tpfpjk; khWgLk; - tsh;r;rp xU kdpjdpd; kuG top tUtJ M. clyikg;GM. clyikg;GM. clyikg;GM. clyikg;G khw;wq;fs;khw;wq;fs;khw;wq;fs;khw;wq;fs; ---- Mz;, ngz; NtWgl;l khw;wk; Vw;gLk; ---- ngz; - ,Lg;G kw;Wk; ,Lg;G vYk;G nghpjhFk; ---- Mz; - Njhs; mfykhFk;, cly; jir ed;F tsUk; ,.,.,.,. Fuy; xyp khw;wk;Fuy; xyp khw;wk;Fuy; xyp khw;wk;Fuy; xyp khw;wk; - Fuy; tis (yhhpq;];) mfd;W xyp khWgLk; - Mz; - Fuy; fbdkhf khWk; - ngz; - Fuy; nkd;ikahf khWk; - Fuy; tis “Mlk;]; Mg;gps;” vd miog;gJz;L <. tpah;it kw;Wk; vz;nza; Rug;gp<. tpah;it kw;Wk; vz;nza; Rug;gp<. tpah;it kw;Wk; vz;nza; Rug;gp<. tpah;it kw;Wk; vz;nza; Rug;gp ---- tpah;it kw;Wk; vz;nza; Rug;gpapy; ngUk; khw;wk; elf;Fk; ---- gUf;fs; ,U ghyUf;Fk; Njhd;wyhk; c. ,dg;ngUf;f cWg;G khw;wk;c. ,dg;ngUf;f cWg;G khw;wk;c. ,dg;ngUf;f cWg;G khw;wk;c. ,dg;ngUf;f cWg;G khw;wk; ---- Mz;fSf;F tpe;jfg;igak;, Mz;FwpAk; tsh;r;rpailAk; tpe;J nry; cw;gj;jp Muk;gkhFk; ---- ngz;fSf;F mz;lfk; Kl;ilia cw;gj;jp nra;Ak;. gpd;G mjid Kjph;r;rp milar; nra;Ak;. - ,dg; ngUf;f `hh;Nkhd;fs; cw;gj;jp Muk;gkhFk; ,J ,dg;ngUf;fj;jpw;Fk; ,uz;lhk; epiy ghy; gz;Gfs; tsh;r;rpf;Fk; cjTk; C. kdepiy khw;wq;fs;C. kdepiy khw;wq;fs;C. kdepiy khw;wq;fs;C. kdepiy khw;wq;fs; ---- czh;r;rp trg;gLjy;, kd tsh;r;rp, $h;e;jhAk; jd;ik tsh;r;rp miljy;, jpBh; Nfhgk;, kfpo;r;rp, vhpr;ry;, ftiy Nghd;w khw;wk; epfOk; 5.5.5.5. ,uz;lhk; epiy ghy; gz;Gfs;,uz;lhk; epiy ghy; gz;Gfs;,uz;lhk; epiy ghy; gz;Gfs;,uz;lhk; epiy ghy; gz;Gfs; m. rpWth;fs;m. rpWth;fs;m. rpWth;fs;m. rpWth;fs; ---- kPir kw;Wk; jhb Njhd;Wjy; ---- cNuhkq;fs; Njhd;Wk;. Fuy; xyp khWk; ---- jir tsh;r;rp, Njhs; mfykhFk;, cly; vil mjpfhpf;Fk;. M.M.M.M. rpWkpfs;rpWkpfs;rpWkpfs;rpWkpfs; ---- ghy;Rug;gpfs; tsh;r;rpAWk; ---- ,Lg;G mfykhFk;, ,Lg;ngYk;G nghpjhFk; ---- Kjy; khjtplha; Row;rp Muk;gkhFk;.... ,j;jifa khw;wq;fs; `hh;Nkhd;fshy; fl;Lg;gLj;jg;gLk; 6. Rug;gpfs;Rug;gpfs;Rug;gpfs;Rug;gpfs; ---- ekJ clypy; VNjDk; xd;iw Ruj;jy;. ,U tifg;gLk; m. ehsKs;s Rug;gpfs; - nehjpfisr; Ruf;Fk; (czT nrhpj;jy;) M. ehskpy;yh Rug;gpfs; - `hh;Nkhd;fisr; (Ntjpapay; JhJth;) Ruf;Fk; 1. gpl;A+l;lhp Rug;gp 2. ijuha;L Rug;gp 3. fizak; Rug;gp 5. tpe;jfk; (Mz;) 6. mz;lfk; (ngz;) www.kalvisolai.com - 4 of 29.
  5. 5. 7.7.7.7. gpl;A+l;lhp Rug;gpgpl;A+l;lhp Rug;gpgpl;A+l;lhp Rug;gpgpl;A+l;lhp Rug;gp (i`Nghigrp];)(i`Nghigrp];)(i`Nghigrp];)(i`Nghigrp];) - jiyik Rug;gp (midj;J ehskpy;yh Rug;gpfisak; fl;LgLj;Jk;) - %isapd; fPo; ghfj;jpy; cs;sJ - tsh;r;rp `hh;Nkhidtsh;r;rp `hh;Nkhidtsh;r;rp `hh;Nkhidtsh;r;rp `hh;Nkhid ,J Ruf;Fk; (cly; tsh;;r;rp Vw;gLk;) - mjpfk; Rue;jhy; - ,uhl;r] jd;ik (n[a;[hd;b]k;)(n[a;[hd;b]k;)(n[a;[hd;b]k;)(n[a;[hd;b]k;) - Fiwthf Rue;jhy; - Fs;sj;jd;ik (kpl;n[l;)(kpl;n[l;)(kpl;n[l;)(kpl;n[l;) - taJ Kjph;r;rpapy; mjpfk; Rue;jhy; - mf;Nuh nkfhypmf;Nuh nkfhypmf;Nuh nkfhypmf;Nuh nkfhyp ---- taJ Kjph;r;rpapy; Fiwthf Rue;jhy; - irkhz;b Nehairkhz;b Nehairkhz;b Nehairkhz;b Neha; 8.8.8.8.ijuha;L Rug;gpijuha;L Rug;gpijuha;L Rug;gpijuha;L Rug;gp ---- njhz;ilapd; ,U Gwq;fspYk; mike;Js;sJ ---- ijuhf;]pd;ijuhf;]pd;ijuhf;]pd;ijuhf;]pd; vDk; Ntjpg; nghUisr; Ruf;Fk; ---- tsh;r;rp Rthrk; tsh;rpij khw;wk; Nghd;wtw;iw fl;LgLj;Jk; ---- Fiwthf Rue;jhy; fphpbdp]k;fphpbdp]k;fphpbdp]k;fphpbdp]k; (Foe;ijfs;) ---- Kjphe;j gUtj;jpy; Fiwthf Rue;jhy; - fy;ypd; Neha;fy;ypd; Neha;fy;ypd; Neha;fy;ypd; Neha; ---- ijuha;L Rug;gp mstpy; nghpajhdhy; fha;lfha;lfha;lfha;l;l;l;l;lhhhh; (Kd; fOj;J foiy - mNahbd; Fiwthy; Vw;gLk;) ---- fphpbdp]k;fphpbdp]k;fphpbdp]k;fphpbdp]k; - vYk;G tsh;r;rp Fd;wpapUj;jy; 9. fizak;9. fizak;9. fizak;9. fizak; ---- ,iug;igapd; fPo; cs;sJ - ,U gz;Gfis nfhz;l Rug;g,U gz;Gfis nfhz;l Rug;g,U gz;Gfis nfhz;l Rug;g,U gz;Gfis nfhz;l Rug;gp (ehsKs;s kw;wk; ehskpy;yh) - ehskpy;yh Rug;gp gFjpapy; fizaj;jPTfs; (yhq;fh;`hd; jpl;Lfs;) cs;sd. - yhq;fh;`hd; jpl;Lfspy; My;gh kw;Wk;My;gh kw;Wk;My;gh kw;Wk;My;gh kw;Wk; gPl;lhgPl;lhgPl;lhgPl;lh nry;fs; cs;sd - ,r;nry;fs; FSf;fhdFSf;fhdFSf;fhdFSf;fhd; kw;Wk; ,d;Rypd,d;Rypd,d;Rypd,d;Rypd; `hh;Nkhd;fis Ruf;Fk; (rh;f;fiu msit fl;LgLj;Jk;) - ,d;Rypd; Fiwthf Rue;jhy; - ePhpopT NehaePhpopT NehaePhpopT NehaePhpopT Neha; (lahgb]; nkypl];) - FSf;fhd; ,uj;jj;jpy; rh;f;fiu msit mjpfhpf;Fk; 10. ml;hpdy; Rug;gpml;hpdy; Rug;gpml;hpdy; Rug;gpml;hpdy; Rug;gp ---- rpWePufj;jpd; Nky; mike;Js;sJ - ,U gFjpfisf; nfhz;lJ (fhh;nlf;]; kw;Wk; nkLy;yh) - Rg;uhhPdy; Rug;gpRg;uhhPdy; Rug;gpRg;uhhPdy; Rug;gpRg;uhhPdy; Rug;gp vd;Wk; miof;fg;gLk; - ml;hpdypd; vd;w (mtru `hh;Nkhd;)(mtru `hh;Nkhd;)(mtru `hh;Nkhd;)(mtru `hh;Nkhd;) `hh;Nkhidr; Ruf;Fk; - kd mOj;j Neuq;fspy; mjpfk; Rue;J ,jaj;Jbg;G Rthrk; ,uj;j mOj;jk; Kjypatw;iw rPuhf;Fk; 11. tpe;jfk;tpe;jfk;tpe;jfk;tpe;jfk; ---- ,r;Rug;gpfspy; cs;s ,ilaPl;L nry;fs; Mz;l;Nuh[dMz;l;Nuh[dMz;l;Nuh[dMz;l;Nuh[d;; vDk; ,d `hh;Nkhidr; Ruf;fpd;wd - mjpf mstpyhd Mz;l;Nuh[d;, nl];l;Nuh];buhd; vdg;gLk; - nl];l;Nuh];buhd; Kjy;epiy kw;Wk; ,uz;lhk; epiy ghy; gz;Gfspd; tsh;r;rpf;Fk; tpe;jZf;fspd; nray;ghl;bw;Fk; fhuzk; 12. mz;lfk;mz;lfk;mz;lfk;mz;lfk; ---- %d;W tifahd `hh;Nkhd;fis Ruf;Fk; - <];l;Nuh[d;, GNuh[];buhd;, kw;Wk; hpyhf;]pd;; - ghy; gz;Gfspd; tsh;r;rpf;F cjTk; 13. ml;hpdypd; Gwzpg; gFjp13. ml;hpdypd; Gwzpg; gFjp13. ml;hpdypd; Gwzpg; gFjp13. ml;hpdypd; Gwzpg; gFjp – ---- ];buha;L `hh;Nkhid ,U ghyUf;Fk; Ruf;Fk; - tpliyg; gUt tsh;r;rpf;F cjTk; 14. ,dg;ngUf;f fhy epiy14. ,dg;ngUf;f fhy epiy14. ,dg;ngUf;f fhy epiy14. ,dg;ngUf;f fhy epiy ---- tpe;jZTk; Kl;ilAk; cw;gj;jpahFk; fhy epiy - ngz; - 13 Kjy; 50 taJ tiu ,Uf;Fk; - Mz; - 13 taJ njhlq;fp tho;ehs; KOtJk; ,Uf;Fk; 15. ngz;fspd; ,dg;ngUf;f fhyepiy15. ngz;fspd; ,dg;ngUf;f fhyepiy15. ngz;fspd; ,dg;ngUf;f fhyepiy15. ngz;fspd; ,dg;ngUf;f fhyepiy m. mz;lk; ntspNaWjym. mz;lk; ntspNaWjym. mz;lk; ntspNaWjym. mz;lk; ntspNaWjy; - mz;lr; Rug;gpapy; ,Ue;J Kl;il ntspNaWjy; - khjj;jpw;F xU Kl;il ntspNaWk; M. khjtplha; epiyM. khjtplha; epiyM. khjtplha; epiyM. khjtplha; epiy - ntspg;gilahf elf;Fk; xU Row;rp Kiw - `hh;Nkhd;fshy; fl;Lg;gLj;jg;gLk; - fhy msT 3-5 ehl;fs; www.kalvisolai.com - 5 of 29.
  6. 6. ,. fh;g;gk;,. fh;g;gk;,. fh;g;gk;,. fh;g;gk; - mz;lKk; tpe;jZTk; fyj;jy; epfo;T - fU Kl;il fUg;igapd; Rth;fspy; xl;bf; nfhz;L fUthf tsUk; <. khjtpilT epfo;T<. khjtpilT epfo;T<. khjtpilT epfo;T<. khjtpilT epfo;T - ,dg;ngUf;ff; fhyepiyapd; filrp epiy - khjtplha; cjpuNghf;F epd;W tpLk; epfo;T Rkhh; ngz;fSf;F 50 tajpy; elf;Fk;. 16. Ml;Nlh FNuhNkhNrhk;fs;16. Ml;Nlh FNuhNkhNrhk;fs;16. Ml;Nlh FNuhNkhNrhk;fs;16. Ml;Nlh FNuhNkhNrhk;fs; ---- xt;nthU nry;ypYk; cs;s Kjy; 22 N[hb FNuhNkhNrhk;fs; Ml;Nlh FNuhNkhNrhk;fs; 17. ghy; FNuhNkhNrhk;fsghy; FNuhNkhNrhk;fsghy; FNuhNkhNrhk;fsghy; FNuhNkhNrhk;fs; - xt;nthU nry;ypYk; cs;s filrp N[hb (23) ghy; FNuhNkhNrhk;fs; vd;g;gLk; - ,U tifg;gLk; mit X kw;Wk; Y - ngz;fs; jq;fs; nry;fspy; ,U XX FNuhNkhNrhk;fis ngw;Ws;sdh; - Mz;fs; jq;fs; nry;ypy; xU X kw;Wk; xU Y FNuhNkhNrhk;fis ngw;Ws;sdh; - ,dg;ngUf;fr; nry;fs; cw;gj;jpahFk; NghJ ghjpahf Fiwf;fg;gLk; (46 FNuhNkhNrhk;fs; 23Mf Fiwf;fg;gLk;) 18. ghy; eph;zak;ghy; eph;zak;ghy; eph;zak;ghy; eph;zak; - X FNuhNkhNrhk; cs;s Mz; tpe;jZ xh; ngz;zpd; ,dg;ngUf;f nry;Yld; ,izAk; nghJ mf;fU ngz;zhf tsUk; - Y FNuhNkhNrhk; cs;s Mz; tpe;jZ xh; ngz;zpd; ,dg;ngUf;f nry;Yld; ,izAk; NghJ mf;fU Mzhf tsUk;. 19. tpliyg; gUtj;jpdUf;F Njitahd rj;Jfs;tpliyg; gUtj;jpdUf;F Njitahd rj;Jfs;tpliyg; gUtj;jpdUf;F Njitahd rj;Jfs;tpliyg; gUtj;jpdUf;F Njitahd rj;Jfs; - jhJ cg;Gfs; (fhy;rpak;, gh];gu];, ,Uk;Gr;rj;J) - fhy;rpak; - vYk;Gfs; cWjpahf khWtjw;F - mNahbd; - ijuha;L Rug;gp rhh;e;j Neha;fis jLf;f - ,Uk;G – Fiwe;jhy; mdPkpah Neha; tUk;. jir tsh;r;rpf;F Njit. 20. ghypay; nfhLik jLg;Gghypay; nfhLik jLg;Gghypay; nfhLik jLg;Gghypay; nfhLik jLg;G m. Kjy; epiy jLg;G – ghypay; nfhLik eilngwhky; jLj;jy; M. ,uz;lhtJ epiy jLg;G – ele;j jtW kPz;Lk; elf;fhky; jLj;jy; ,. %d;whk; epiy jLj;jy; - ghjpf;fg;gl;l Foe;ijfSf;fhd kdepiy rpfpr;ir nfhLj;jy;. 21. ghypay; nfhLik mwpFwpghypay; nfhLik mwpFwpghypay; nfhLik mwpFwpghypay; nfhLik mwpFwp – Foe;ijfsplk;Foe;ijfsplk;Foe;ijfsplk;Foe;ijfsplk; - jpdrhp eltbf;ifapy; khw;wk; - nfl;l fdTfs; - gLf;ifapy; rpWePh; fopj;jy; - ez;gh;fs;, FLk;g cWg;gpdh;fsplk; ,Ue;J tpyfy; - mbf;fb Nfhgk; Vw;gLjy; - nghpNahh;fs; Nghy; ghypay; nray;ghLfspy; <LgLjy; 22. ,sk; gUtj;jpdh; jtwhf mjpfk; gad;gLj;Jk; My;f`hy; kUe;J – gpuQ;R nkhopahd bNuhf; vd;w nrhy;ypy; ,Ue;J te;jJ 23. Kiwaw;w kUe;Jfs;Kiwaw;w kUe;Jfs;Kiwaw;w kUe;Jfs;Kiwaw;w kUe;Jfs; - kfpo;r;rpf;fhf vLf;Fk; kUe;Jfs; - rl;lj;jpw;F Gwk;ghd xd;W - gf;f tpisTfis cUthf;Fk; - xgpak;xgpak;xgpak;xgpak;, n`uhapd;n`uhapd;n`uhapd;n`uhapd;, khp[pthdhkhp[pthdhkhp[pthdhkhp[pthdh, Nfhfa;d;Nfhfa;d;Nfhfa;d;Nfhfa;d; Nghd;wit Kiwaw;w kUe;J 24. Gif gpbj;jy;Gif gpbj;jy;Gif gpbj;jy;Gif gpbj;jy; - 20k; Ehw;whz;bd; cly; eyj;jpw;F kpfTk; NfL tpistpf;Fk; nghUs; - Giff;Fk; NghJ epf;nfhbd;, mk;Nkhdpah, mrpl;Nlhd;, ghh;khy;bi`L, iel;Nul; kw;Wk; 4000 Ntjpg;nghUs;fs; kuzj;ij tpistpf;Fk; jpBh; khw;wf; fhuzpahf khWfpd;wd - ,it 40 tifahd Gw;WNeha;f;Fk; fhuzpahf khWfpd;wd. - nfl;l nfhOg;gpd; msit mjpfhpj;J ey;y nfhOg;gpd; msit Fiwf;Fk; - ,uj;j ehsq;fs; RUq;Ffpd;wd ,jd; %yk; khuilg;G, thj Neha; Vw;gl tha;g;Gs;sJ - M];Jkh gpuhq;ifb]; epNkhdpah vk;igrPkh Nghd;w Neha;fs; jPtpukhFk; - kyl;L jd;ik Njhd;Wk; www.kalvisolai.com - 6 of 29.
  7. 7. 25. Kisfl;Ljy;Kisfl;Ljy;Kisfl;Ljy;Kisfl;Ljy; - gapW tiffs;, nfhl;il tiffs; kw;Wk; jhdpa tiffis ePhpy; 12 kzp Neuk; Cw itj;J tsh;j;J Rj;jg;gLj;jp cz;z jFe;jjhf khw;Wk; nray; - tpijapy; cs;s ];lhh;r; kw;wk; vz;nza; nghUs;fs; itl;lkpd;, nehjpfs;, Gujq;fs;, rh;f;fiu nghUshf khWk; - itl;lkpd; rp msT mjpfhpf;Fk; - ntapy; glhj ,lj;jpy; tsh;f;f Ntz;Lk; (frg;G Rit ePf;f) - ,J capUs;s nehjpfs; epiwe;j, Fiwthd fNyhhp kjpg;G nfhz;l ,aw;if czT - itl;lkpd; V ,Uklq;F mjpfhpf;Fk; itl;lkpd; gp, rp Ie;jpy; ,Ue;J gj;J klq;F mjpfhpf;Fk; - jdpkq;fs; fhy;rpak;, [pq;f;, ,Uk;G Mfpait cs;sd. - Kisfl;ba kq;gPd;]; rikaYf;F Vw;wJ - gPd;]py; Kisfs; kl;Lk; gad;gLj;JtJ Vw;wJ - Nrhah kw;Wk; fpl;dp gPd;];Nrhah kw;Wk; fpl;dp gPd;];Nrhah kw;Wk; fpl;dp gPd;];Nrhah kw;Wk; fpl;dp gPd;]; Kisfs; nfLjyhdJ - nyz;by;];, fWg;G fz; gPd;];, ghh;bhp[; gl;lhzp, Nth;fliy Nghd;wit vspjpy; rPuzk; milahky; thA njhe;juT jUk;. 26. Gw;W Neha;Gw;W Neha;Gw;W Neha;Gw;W Neha; - nry;fs; xOq;fhd Kiwapy; gphpe;J, tsh;e;J, ,wf;Fk;. (mNghg;lhrp];).(mNghg;lhrp];).(mNghg;lhrp];).(mNghg;lhrp];). ,jpy; FiwghL NeUk; NghJ xOq;fw;w nry; gphpjy; eilngw;W mrhjhuzkhd nry;fs; Njhd;wp cly; ,af;fj;jpw;F fl;L glhky; jd;dpr;irahf ,aq;Ffpd;wd. - ,J Nghy; [Pd;fspd; Fiwghl;lhy; ngUFk; epiy njhlf;f epiy - fjphtPr;R, itu]; njhw;W kw;Wk; rpy Ntjpg; nghUs;fshy; Jz;lg;gLk; - Gw;W nry; ,uj;j xl;lk; %ykhf kw;w ,lq;fSf;F gutp Gw;W fl;bfis cz;Lgz;Zk; ,J ,uz;lhk; epiy (nkl;lh];lhrp];)(nkl;lh];lhrp];)(nkl;lh];lhrp];)(nkl;lh];lhrp];) - kr;rk; kw;Wk; kUtpy; nghpa mstpy; khw;wk; Vw;gLtJ Njhy; Gw;wpd; (nkyNdhkh)(nkyNdhkh)(nkyNdhkh)(nkyNdhkh) mwpFwp - tha;, ehf;fpy; ntz;Gs;sp Njhd;WtJ tha; Gw;wpd; mwpFwp - tpe;J igapDs; rpW fl;b cUthtJk; mwpFwpahFk; - %isg;Gw;W ek; mwpAk; jpwid kOq;fbj;JtpLk; - fizag; Gw;W fy;yPuy;, euk;G kz;lyk; kw;Wk; ,uj;jk; %ykhf Njhy;, fz;fSf;F gutyhk; - ngUq;Fly; Gw;why; tapw;WNghf;F kyr;rpf;fy; kyj;Jthuj;jpy; khw;wk; Vw;gLk; - %j;jpug;ig Gw;W (Guh];nll;)(Guh];nll;)(Guh];nll;)(Guh];nll;) Nehahy; mbf;fb rpWePh; fopj;jy; my;yJ ePz;l Neuk; fopj;J rpWePh; fopj;jy; Nghd;w cghij Vw;gLk; 27. Gw;W Neha; tifGw;W Neha; tifGw;W Neha; tifGw;W Neha; tif m. fhh;rpNdhkhfhh;rpNdhkhfhh;rpNdhkhfhh;rpNdhkh – clypd; Gwk;, mfg;gFjp Gw;W Neha; (EiuaPuy;, khh;G, kyf;Fly; gFjpapy; ,Uf;Fk;) M. rhh;f;Nfhkhrhh;f;Nfhkhrhh;f;Nfhkhrhh;f;Nfhkh - vYk;G, FUj;njYk;G, nfhOg;Gg; gFjp Gw;WNeha; (,izg;Gj; jpR, jir kw;Wk; jhq;F jpRf;fspy; fhzg;gLk;) ,. ypk;Nghkhypk;Nghkhypk;Nghkhypk;Nghkh - epzePh; Kbr;R kw;Wk; Neha; jil fhg;G kz;ly jpRf;fspy; fhzg;gLk;. <. Yf;NfkpahYf;NfkpahYf;NfkpahYf;Nfkpah – vYk;G k[;i[ kw;Wk; ,uj;j xl;lj;jpy; fhzg;gLk; c. mbNdhkhmbNdhkhmbNdhkhmbNdhkh – ijuha;L, gpl;A+l;lhp, ml;hpdy; kw;Wk; gpw Rug;gpfspy; fhzg;gLk;. 28. Gw;WGw;WGw;WGw;WNeha;Neha;Neha;Neha; jLj;jy; Kiwfs;jLj;jy; Kiwfs;jLj;jy; Kiwfs;jLj;jy; Kiwfs; - Gifgpbj;jiy jtph;j;jy; (EiuaPuy; Gw;W jLf;fyhk;) - fha;fwp, goq;fs; mjpfk; cz;Zjy; - mirt czT tiffis tpl fha;fwp ehh;rj;J kw;Wk; epiwTw;w nfhOg;G mkpyk; mlq;fpaJ - CWfha; kw;Wk; cg;G mjpfk; cs;s cztpid jtph;f;fNtz;Lk; - fPNkhnjugpfPNkhnjugpfPNkhnjugpfPNkhnjugp, nubNah njugpnubNah njugpnubNah njugpnubNah njugp, `hh;Nkhdy; njug`hh;Nkhdy; njug`hh;Nkhdy; njug`hh;Nkhdy; njugp Nghd;wtw;why; Gw;W Nehia Fzg;gLj;jyhk;. kdpj cly; ,af;fk;kdpj cly; ,af;fk;kdpj cly; ,af;fk;kdpj cly; ,af;fk; 1. kdpj nray;ghLfs; - vYk;Gfs; kw;Wk; jirfspdhy; eilngWfpd;wd. 2. ,af;fj;jpd; NghJ jir, vYk;Gfis ,Of;f kl;Lk; nra;Ak; 3.3.3.3. jir ehz;fs;jir ehz;fs;jir ehz;fs;jir ehz;fs; - jbj;j ,io (jfL) Nghd;w ,izg;G jpRtpd; khWgl;l mikg;G. - jirfis vYk;Gld; ,izf;Fk; - jir vYk;Gld; ,Wf;fkhfTk; mirTf;F (RUq;Fjy;, ,Oj;jy;) Vw;wthWk; ,ize;jJ. - ,af;fj;jpd; NghJ Kjypy; jir jsh;j;jg;gLk; mNj rkak; kw;w jirfs; RUq;Fk; ,jd; fhuzkhf vYk;G efUk; 4. iffis klf;Fk; NghJ Vw;gLk; khw;wk; - Nkw;ifapy; cs;s ,Ujiyj; jir,Ujiyj; jir,Ujiyj; jir,Ujiyj; jir RUq;Fk; - fPo; ifapy; cs;s Kj;jiyj; jirKj;jiyj; jirKj;jiyj; jirKj;jiyj; jir jsUk; www.kalvisolai.com - 7 of 29.
  8. 8. 5. iffis ePl;Lk; NghJ Vw;gLk; khw;wk; - Nkw;ifapy; cs;s ,Ujiyj; jir jsUk; - fPo; ifapy; cs;s Kj;jiyj; jir RUq;Fk; 6.6.6.6. vYk;GvYk;GvYk;GvYk;G - fbdkhdJ - ntz;zpw rhk;gy; epw nghUs;fshy; MdJ - %d;wpy; ,uz;L gq;F fhy;rpak;, gh];Ngl;Lfs; kw;Wk; fhh;gNdl;Lfs; mlq;fpAs;sd - 1 gq;F fhpkg; nghUs;fshy; MdJ (cilaf; $baJ) - vYk;G jplg;nghUs; my;y. ffffbdkhdbdkhdbdkhdbdkhd neUf;fkhd vYk;G jpRf;fshy; MdJ. 7.7.7.7. vYk;G k[;i[vYk;G k[;i[vYk;G k[;i[vYk;G k[;i[ - vYk;gpd; ikaj;jpy; cs;s kpUJthd vilFiwthd cwpQ;Rk; jd;ikAs;s gQ;R Nghd;w nghUs; - ,uj;j rptg;gZ kw;Wk; nts;isaZf;fis cUthf;Ffpd;wd 8. nnnnghpah];bakghpah];bakghpah];bakghpah];bak; - vYk;ig %bAs;s fbdkhd Njhy; 9. vYk;G – mtrpak; - ek; cliyj; jhq;fp ghJfhf;f - %is, EiuaPuy; Nghd;w cWg;Gfis ghJfhf;f - cly; ,af;fjpw;Fk; mtrpakhFk; 10.10.10.10. vYk;GvYk;GvYk;GvYk;G - tbtj;jpd; mbg;gilapy;tbtj;jpd; mbg;gilapy;tbtj;jpd; mbg;gilapy;tbtj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; ---- tiftiftiftif m. ePskhd vYk;GePskhd vYk;GePskhd vYk;GePskhd vYk;G – njhil vYk;Gnjhil vYk;Gnjhil vYk;Gnjhil vYk;G, fhy; vYk;G, fhy;tpuy; vYk;G, ifnaYk;G, Kd; ifnaYk;G, iftpuy; vYk;G. M. Fl;ilahd vYk;G – kzpf;fl;L, fZf;fhy; vYk;G ,. jl;ilahd vYk;G – kz;ilNahl;L vYk;G, fhiunaYk;G (Njhs;gl;il), Njhs; gl;ilapy; cs;s khh;ngYk;G. <. xOq;fw;w tbtk; nfhz;l vYk;G – kz;ilNahL Kf vYk;G kw;Wk; KJnfYk;G njhlhpd; filrp thy; vYk;G 11. %l;Lfs; - vYk;GfSf;fpilNaAk; FWj;njYk;GfSf;fpilNaAk; gw;fSf;Fk; vYk;GfSf;fpilNaAk; ,izg;ig Vw;gLj;Jk; mikg;G - ,uz;L vYk;GfSf;fpilNa cWjpahd ,izg;gpio %yk; ,ize;Js;sJ - ,izg;gpiofs; (ligament) ,izg;G jpRf;fshy; MdJ 12.12.12.12. %l;L tiffs; (mirT mbg;gil)%l;L tiffs; (mirT mbg;gil)%l;L tiffs; (mirT mbg;gil)%l;L tiffs; (mirT mbg;gil) m. mirAk; %l;L M. mirah %l;L 13. %l;Lfspd; ,izg;G tif%l;Lfspd; ,izg;G tif%l;Lfspd; ,izg;G tif%l;Lfspd; ,izg;G tif m. ehhpizg;G %l;Lfs;ehhpizg;G %l;Lfs;ehhpizg;G %l;Lfs;ehhpizg;G %l;Lfs; - vYk;G ,izg;G jpR ehh;fshy; ,izf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ - ,ilapy; ,ilntsp ,y;iy - mirTfs; ,y;iy - ijay; ,izg;ghy;ijay; ,izg;ghy;ijay; ,izg;ghy;ijay; ,izg;ghy; ,izf;fg;gl;ls;sd c.k;. kz;ilnahl;L vYk;G, Kd; fhy; vYk;Gfs; ntspfhy; vYk;GfSf;fpilNaahd ,izg;G M. FUj;njYk;G %l;Lfs;FUj;njYk;G %l;Lfs;FUj;njYk;G %l;Lfs;FUj;njYk;G %l;Lfs; - vYk;Gfs; FUj;njyk;Gfs; %yk; ,ize;Js;sd - ,jpy; rpNdhtpay; ,ilntsp ,y;iyrpNdhtpay; ,ilntsp ,y;iyrpNdhtpay; ,ilntsp ,y;iyrpNdhtpay; ,ilntsp ,y;iy c.k;. fhJ kly;, %f;fpd; Edp, khh;ngYk;G ,. jput %l;Lfs; my;yJ rpNdhtpay; %l;Lfsjput %l;Lfs; my;yJ rpNdhtpay; %l;Lfsjput %l;Lfs; my;yJ rpNdhtpay; %l;Lfsjput %l;Lfs; my;yJ rpNdhtpay; %l;Lfs; - Fwpg;gpl;l jpirapy; mirAk; - ,ilntsp cs;sJ - %l;Lfs; rpNdhtpay; rt;thYk; FUj;njYk;ghYk; MdJ - ,ilntspapy; rpNdhtpay; jputk; cs;sJrpNdhtpay; jputk; cs;sJrpNdhtpay; jputk; cs;sJrpNdhtpay; jputk; cs;sJ c.k;. ,Lg;G ,izAk; ,lk,; Njhs;gl;il vYk;G NrUkplk; fOj;J Ks;nsYk;G, fZf;fhy; vYk;Gfspy; fhzg;gLfpwJ 14. jput %l;Lfs; (rpNdhtpay; %l;Lfs;)jput %l;Lfs; (rpNdhtpay; %l;Lfs;)jput %l;Lfs; (rpNdhtpay; %l;Lfs;)jput %l;Lfs; (rpNdhtpay; %l;Lfs;) m. ge;J fpz;z %l;L - ,izAk; xU vYk;G ge;J Nghd;Wk; kw;nwhd;W fpz;zk; Nghd;Wk; ,Uf;Fk; (Njhs;gl;il, ,Lg;ngYk;G) M. fPy; %l;L - ,izAk; xU vYk;gpd; Kid Ftpe;Jk; kw;nwhU vYk;gpd; Kid Fope;Jk; ,Uf;Fk; (Koq;fhy;, Koq;if) ,. tOf;F %l;L - ,izAk; vYk;Gfspd; Nkw;gFjp totog;ghf ,Uf;Fk; (fZf;fhy; vYk;G, cs;sq;if vYk;G, Njhs;gl;ilnaYk;G, khh;ngYk;G) www.kalvisolai.com - 8 of 29.
  9. 9. <. Kis %l;LKis %l;LKis %l;LKis %l;L – - ,izAk; ,U vYk;Gfspy; xd;wpd; Kid $h;ikahfTk; cUis tbtj;jpYk; ,Uf;Fk;. kw;nwhU vYk;G ,jd; kPJ tl;lKidahf Roy;tJ Nghy; ,Uf;Fk; - ,jpy; ,izg;gpio (ligament) ghjpasT cs;sJ. - ,J jiyapid ,lk; kw;Wk; tyg;Gwk; mirf;fgjiyapid ,lk; kw;Wk; tyg;Gwk; mirf;fgjiyapid ,lk; kw;Wk; tyg;Gwk; mirf;fgjiyapid ,lk; kw;Wk; tyg;Gwk; mirf;fg; gad;gLk; - c.k; Kjy; kw;Wk; ,uz;lhtJ fOj;J Ks; vYk;Gfs; 15. kdpj vYk;G kz;lyk; (rl;lfk;)15. kdpj vYk;G kz;lyk; (rl;lfk;)15. kdpj vYk;G kz;lyk; (rl;lfk;)15. kdpj vYk;G kz;lyk; (rl;lfk;) kdpj nray;ghLfshd xLjy;, elj;jy; Nghd;w gy tpjkhd mirTfSf;F gad;gLk; mikg;G - ,U ngUk; gphpT cs;sJ (m) mr;Rr; rl;lfk; (M) ,izAWg;Gr; rl;lfk;(m) mr;Rr; rl;lfk; (M) ,izAWg;Gr; rl;lfk;(m) mr;Rr; rl;lfk; (M) ,izAWg;Gr; rl;lfk;(m) mr;Rr; rl;lfk; (M) ,izAWg;Gr; rl;lfk; (m) mr;Rr; rl;lfk;(m) mr;Rr; rl;lfk;(m) mr;Rr; rl;lfk;(m) mr;Rr; rl;lfk; - cliy Neuhf itj;jpUf;f cjTk; ((((a)))) kz;ilNahL vYk;Gkz;ilNahL vYk;Gkz;ilNahL vYk;Gkz;ilNahL vYk;G – 8 jiy vYk;G 14 Kf vYk;G nkhj;jk;nkhj;jk;nkhj;jk;nkhj;jk; ----22222222 ((((b) KJnfYk;G njhlhKJnfYk;G njhlhKJnfYk;G njhlhKJnfYk;G njhlh; - 5 gFjpfis nfhz;lJ 1. fOj;Jg;gFjp - 7 Ks;nsOk;G cs;sJ 2. khh;Gg; gFjp - 12 Ks;nsYk;G cs;sJ 3. tapw;Wg;gFjp - 5 Ks;nsYk;G cs;sJ 4. ,Lg;Gg;gFjp (jpUntYk;G) – 5 Ks;nsYk;G cs;sJ 5. thy; Ks;nsYk;G - 4 Ks;nsYk;G cs;sJ ((((c) khh;Gf;$Lk; kw;Wkhh;Gf;$Lk; kw;Wkhh;Gf;$Lk; kw;Wkhh;Gf;$Lk; kw;Wk; khh;ngYk;Gk; khh;ngYk;Gk; khh;ngYk;Gk; khh;ngYk;Gfs;fs;fs;fs; - EiuaPuy; ,jak; Nghd;wtw;iw ghJfhf;fpwJ - 12 ,iz tpyh vYk;Gfs; cs;sd - Kjy; 7 ,iz khh;ngYk;Gld; Nehpilahf ,izAk; (cz;ik tpyh vYk;G)(cz;ik tpyh vYk;G)(cz;ik tpyh vYk;G)(cz;ik tpyh vYk;G) - mLj;Js;s 3 ,iz Nehpil ,d;wp khh;ngYk;Gld; ,ize;Js;sd (ngha; tpyh(ngha; tpyh(ngha; tpyh(ngha; tpyh vYk;Gfs;)vYk;Gfs;)vYk;Gfs;)vYk;Gfs;) - kPjpAs;s 11 kw;Wk; 12 tJ ,iztpyh vYk;G khh;ngYk;Gld; ,izahky; ,Uf;Fk;- kpjf;Fk; tpyhvYk;Gkpjf;Fk; tpyhvYk;Gkpjf;Fk; tpyhvYk;Gkpjf;Fk; tpyhvYk;G (M)(M)(M)(M) ,izAWg;Gr; rl;lfk;,izAWg;Gr; rl;lfk;,izAWg;Gr; rl;lfk;,izAWg;Gr; rl;lfk; ---- (,izAWg;G vYk;G kz;lyk;)(,izAWg;G vYk;G kz;lyk;)(,izAWg;G vYk;G kz;lyk;)(,izAWg;G vYk;G kz;lyk;) Njhs;gl;il vYk;G, ,Lg;G vYk;G tisak;, ifnaYk;Gfs; kw;Wk; fhy; vYk;GfSk; mlq;Fk; (a) Njhs; gl;ilaYk;G – Njhs;gl;ilnaYk;Gk; xU fhiunaYkfhiunaYkfhiunaYkfhiunaYk; cs;sJ. fhiunaYk;gpd; Nky; gFjpapy; fpspdha;L Fopfpspdha;L Fopfpspdha;L Fopfpspdha;L Fop cs;sJ ,jpy; Nkw;ifnaYk;G nghUe;jpAs;sJ. (b) ifnaYk;G – - ePz;l Nkw; if vYk;G xd;W cs;sJ - ,J Kd; ifnaYk;Gld; %l;L cjtpAld; ,izAk; - Kd; ifapy; Kd;ifnaYk;G kw;Wk; Mu vYk;GMu vYk;GMu vYk;GMu vYk;G cs;sJ - kzpf;fl;L 8 rpwpa vYk;Gfisf; nfhz;lJ (4+4) - fl;il tpuypy; ,U tpuy; vYk;G cs;sJ kw;w tpuy;fspy; 3tpuy; vYk;G cs;sJ (c) ,Lg;G tisak; - rhf;ukrhf;ukrhf;ukrhf;uk; (jpUntYk;G) kw;Wk; xhpiz fhf;Nrfhf;Nrfhf;Nrfhf;Nr (,Lg;ngYk;G) ,uz;lhYk; MdJ - fhf;Nrfhf;Nrfhf;Nrfhf;Nr (,Lg;ngYk;G) - ,ypak; (RtL vYk;G), ,];fpak; (,Lg;G gpizg;ngYk;G), gpAgp]; (G+g;ngYk;G) vd;w %d;nwYk;Gfshy; MdJ. - ,Lg;G tisaj;jpy; cs;s fpz;zf;Fop (mrpl;lhGyk;) fhy;fs; ,iza cjTk; (d) fhy; vYk;G - njhilapy; cs;s ePz;l vYk;G gPkh; vd;g;gLk; - ,jd; Nky; gFjp fpz;zf;FopAld; ,izAk; - njhilnaYk;gpd; fPo;gFjp fPo; fhy; vYk;GfSld; (Kd; fhnyYk;G kw;Wk; fPo;fhy; ntspnaYk;G) ,izAk; - fPo; fhy; vYk;GfSld; fZf;fhy; vYk;G ,izAk; gFjp lhy];lhy];lhy];lhy]; 16. rl;lfj;jpd; Ntiyfs; (vYk;G kz;ly gzpfs;) - jhq;Fjy; - cliy jhq;Fjy; tbtk; nfhLj;jy; - ghJfhj;jy; - ,jak; %is EiuaPuy; ghJfhg;G - ,af;fk; - nek;GNfhy; Nghy; nray;gl;L mirTf;F cjTk; - Nrkpg;G - jhJ cg;Gfs; (fhy;rpak;, gh];Ngl;, fhh;gNdl;) - cw;gj;jp - ,uj;j mZf;fs; (rpfg;G, nts;is, jl;il) 17. vYk;Gfsw;w caphpfs; - igyk; nky;Ylypfsigyk; nky;Ylypfsigyk; nky;Ylypfsigyk; nky;Ylypfs;; 18. kdpjdpy; cs;s kpf ePskhd vYk;G – njhil vYk;G (45 nr.kP) 19. kdpjdpy; cs;s kpfr;rpwpa vYk;G – mq;ftb (eL fhjpy; cs;sJ) 20. KJnfYk;gw;witfspy; cUisg;GOf;fs; kl;Lk; ePs; thl;l efh;jypy; <LgLk;. www.kalvisolai.com - 9 of 29.
  10. 10. 21. kdpj clypy; cs;s vYk;Gfs; nkhj;jk; - 206 mr;R rl;lfj;jpy; - 80 (jiy(28), KJnfYk;G(26), khh;G(25), `aha;L(1) ,izAUg;G rl;lfj;jpy; - 126 22. tpyq;Ffspd; ,af;fj;jpw;F cjTk; cWg;Gfs; - FW ,iofs; - ePspiofs; - ,izAWg;Gfs; - JLg;Gfs; - if, fhy; - rPl;Nl kw;Wk; jirg;ghjk; 23. kPd;fs; - ,af;fk; - ,af;fj;jpw;F cjTk; cWg;G – JLg;Gfs; - bd;dp kPd;fs; - thiy gf;fthl;by; mirg;gjd; %yk; ,aq;Fk; - gpisa];, gpsd;l;]; - jl;il mikg;G cilaJ NkYk; fPOk; ,aq;Fk; - tpyhq;F kPd; - ePz;l cly; mikg;g cly; KOtJk; mirj;J ,aq;Fk; - vYk;Gila kPd;fs; - fhw;W igfis nfhz;Ls;sd kpjf;f cjTk; 24. kz;GO - ,af;fk; - tl;l kw;wk; ePs; jirfs; kw;Wk; rPl;lhf;fspd; cjtpahy; elf;Fk; - rPl;lhf;fs; (jir ePl;rp) rPl;lhf;FopapDs; cs;sJ - rPl;lhFop jir RUq;Ftjhy; rPl;lhf;fs; ntspNa ePl;LjYk; cs;spOf;fg;gLjYk; elf;Fk;. - efh;r;rpapd; NghJ kz;iz gw;wpf; nfhs;s ,it cjTk; - kz;GO efh;jypy; euk;G kz;lyKk; ,ize;J nray;gLk; - kpUJthd gug;gpy; efu rPl;lh cjthJ - kz; GO epkplj;jpw;F 25 nr.kP Ntfj;jpy; nry;Yk;. 25. fug;ghd; G+r;rp - ,af;fk; - tapw;W Gwj;jpy; cs;s 6 fhy;fs; cjTfpd;wd - ,U ,iz ,wf;if cs;sJ. Kd; ,iz ,wf;if jbj;JapUf;Fk; ,J G+r;rpapd; cliy ghJfhf;Fk; - gpd; ,iz ,wf;if nkd;ikahd rt;thy; MdJ. ,J gwf;f cjTk; 26. ghk;G - ,af;fk; - ePhpy; miy tbt ,af;fk; Nkw;nfhs;Sk; (S tbt ,af;fk;) - fOj;J gFjpapy; njhlq;Fk; RUf;f mirT cly; KOtJk; flj;jg;gl;L Kd;Ndhf;fp nry;Yk; - ghiw, gs;sq;fs;, fpisfs; - nrjpy;fs; gw;Wtjd; %yk; ,lk;ngaUk; 27. gwitfs; - ,af;fk; - fhw;wpy; gwf;Fk; tz;zk; $h; mikg;Gs;sJ - gwitfspd; ,wf;iffs; - Kd;dq;fhypd; etPd khw;WU - epiyahf epw;f eq;$u tbtk; cs;s jir, vYk;Gjl;bd; (fPy;) cjtpAld; khh;gpy; ,ize;Js;sJ. - Njhs;gl;il jirfSld; ,ize;j ,wf;if NkYk; fPOk; mirtjhy; ,af;fk; eilngUfpwJ. - ngUk;ghyhd gwitfs; gwf;Fk; Kiw fPo;Nehf;F mirT – fhw;W ,wf;ifapd; cs; nry;yhJ Nky;Nehf;F mirT – fhw;W ,wf;ifapd; cs; nry;Yk; ,wq;Fjy; - ,wf;if RUf;fg;gLk; jhtu cyfk; G+Q;irfs; 1. tpl;Nlf;fhpd; Ie;Jyf tifg;ghl;by; ,J 3tJ cyfkhf cs;sJ 2. gr;irak; ,y;iy ,tw;why; czT jahhpf;f KbahJ 3. Nkhy;Lfs;, fhshd;fs;, Nlhl;];^];, milg;Gf;Fwp G+Q;ir, kw;Wk; g/g; ge;Jfs; Nghd;wit cjhuzq;fs; 4. xU nry;yhy; Md G+Q;ir - <];l; 5. gy nry;yhy; Md G+Q;ir – iuNrhg];, mfhhpf];, m];ngh;[py;y]; 6. G+Q;irfspd; clyk; ikrPyak; MFk; i`ghf;fs; ,ize;J ikrPypak; cUthFk; 7. ,dg;ngUf;fk; - ghy; kw;Wk; ghypyh ,dg;ngUf;fk; www.kalvisolai.com - 10 of 29.
  11. 11. 8. G+Q;irfspd; tif ( czT+l;l mbg;gilapy;) (m) xl;lz;zp - gpw jhtuq;fisr; rhh;e;J thOk; (gf;rPdpah) (M) rhWz;zp - ,we;j mOfpa nghUspy; tsUk; (mfhhpf]; kw;Wk; iuNrhg];) (,) $l;Laphpfs; 1. iyf;fd;fsiyf;fd;fsiyf;fd;fsiyf;fd;fs; (G+Q;ir kw;Wk; ghrp) 2.ikf;Nfhiurhikf;Nfhiurhikf;Nfhiurhikf;Nfhiurh (G+Q;ir kw;Wk; cah; jhtuNth;) 9. ,J tiu fz;lwpag;gl;l G+Q;irapdq;fs; - 100000 10. iyf;fd;fs; - Rw;Wr;#oy; ghjpg;gpid czh;j;Jk; caphp fhl;bfs; 11. G+Q;irfs; tifg;ghL (m) irNfhikNfhlh – nuhl;b fhshd; (M) M];NfhikNfhlh – Nfhg;ig G+Q;ir (,) ngrpbNahikNfhl;lh – fZtb G+Q;ir (<) AnlNuhikNfhl;lh – ngdprPypak; 12. cz;zj; jFe;j fhshd;fs; - mjpfsT cz;zg;gLgit – mfhhpf]; (nghj;jhd; fhshd;) - Rkhh; 2000 tif fhshd;fs; cz;zj;jFe;jit - Gujk; kw;Wk; fdpkq;fs; mjpfsT cs;sd - c.k; mfhhpf]; fk;ng];l;hp]; kw;Wk; mfhhpf]; ig];Nghu]; 13. er;R fhshd;fs; (Nlhl;];^y;];)(Nlhl;];^y;];)(Nlhl;];^y;];)(Nlhl;];^y;];) - gpufhrkhd epwq;fSld; fhzg;gLk; - c.k;. mkhdplh k];fhhp]; kw;Wk; mkhdplh gy;Nyha;l;]; 14. Ez;Zaph; vjph; nghUs; - Ntjpg;nghUs;. xU caphpdj;jpypUe;J gphpj;njLf;fg;gl;L kw;nwhU caphpdj;ij mopf;fNth my;yJ mjd; tsh;r;rpapid jil nra;aNth gad;gLk; - ngdprpypd;, ];l;nug;Nlhikrpd;, epNahikrpd,; fhdhikrpd;, n[d;Nlhikrpd;, vhpj;Nuhikrpd; Nghd;wit cjhuzq;fs; - ngdprpypd; - ngdprPypak; nehl;Nll;lk; vd;Dk; G+Q;irapy; ,Ue;J jahhpf;fg;gLfpwJ. 15. itl;lkpd; gp (iuNghgpNstpd;) – jahhpg;G - m];/g;ah fh]pg; kw;Wk; vhpNkhjPrpak; m];/g; G+Qir gad;gLk; 16. G+Q;ir Neha;fs; (m) kdpjd; - ikNfhr]; (Njhy;, efk;, Kb) - ghjg;gil glh;jhkiu (M)tpyq;Ffs; - vh;fhl; kw;Wk; ghjg;gil (,)jhtuq;fs; - JU Neha;, fUg;gOfy;, fWk;Gs;sp, kw;Wk; Nfd;fh; 17. gfw;fdT G+Q;ir my;yJ csT G+Q;ir – fpshtp];nrg;]; gh;gh;hpah 18. xt;thikia Vw;gLj;Jk; G+Q;ir – M];gh;[py;y]; 19. xt;thikapy; ,Ue;J ghJfhf;Fk; G+Q;ir – fpsh];Nlh];Nghhpak; 20. Crpf; fhshd; - kpA+f;fh; (kl;Fz;zp G+Q;ir) 21. kugpay; Muha;r;rpf;F gad;gLk; G+Q;ir –epA+Nuh];Nghuh, M];ngh;[py;y]; 22. cUisapy; nkd; mOfy; Neha; - igl;NlhNjhuh ,d;ng];ld;]; 23. fliyapy; ,iyg;Gs;sp Neha; - nrh;Nfh];Nghuh ngh;Nrhndl;lh 24. fUk;gpy; rpfg;gOfy; Neha; - nfhypl;Nlh biuf;fk; gy;Nfl;lk; 25. gUj;jpapy; thly; Neha; - gA+Nrhpak; 26. <];bd; jhtutpay; ngah; - rhf;Nuhikrp]; nrhptprpNa ghrpfs; 1.1.1.1. ghrp gz;Gfs;ghrp gz;Gfs;ghrp gz;Gfs;ghrp gz;Gfs; - gr;irak; cs;s G+thj; jhtug; gphpitr; rhh;e;jJ - xU nry;yhfNth gy nry;yhfNth fhzg;gLk; - ,io my;yJ fpisj;j kuk; Nghd;Nwh fhzg;gLk; - jhNk czT jahhpj;Jf; nfhs;Sk; - nry; Rth; nry;YNyhrhy; MdJ. 2. ,dg;ngUf;Fk; - Jz;lhjy; (nt[pNll;bt;) – c.k; ];igNuhifuh - ghypyh ,dg;ngUf;fk; - ];Nghh;fs; %yk; elf;Fk; - ghy; ,dg;ngUf;fk; - (1)Vzp ,izT (2)gf;f ,izT (c.k; ];igNuhifuh) - ghy; cWg;Gfs; %yk; - Me;jphPbak;, Mh;f;fpNfhzpak; <LgLk; (c.k; fhuh) www.kalvisolai.com - 11 of 29.
  12. 12. 3. ghrpfspd; tifg;ghL (epwkpfspd; mbg;gilapy;) (m) raNdhigl;lhraNdhigl;lhraNdhigl;lhraNdhigl;lh – c.k; M]py;yNlhhpah kw;Wk; eh];lhf; tz;zk; - ePyg;gr;ir epwkp - igNfhradpd; Nrkpg;G czT – raNdh igrpad; ];lhh;r; (M) FNshNuhiglFNshNuhiglFNshNuhiglFNshNuhigl;lh;lh;lh;lh – c.k;. fpshkpNlhNkhdh]; & vd;bNuhkhh;gh (Ez; My;fh) tz;zk; - gr;ir epwkp - gr;irak; Nrkpg;G czT - ];lhh;r; (,) NgNahigl;lhNgNahigl;lhNgNahigl;lhNgNahigl;lh - c.k;. rh;fh]k; (fly;fis) tz;zk; - gOg;G epwkp - g;A+Nfh]he;jpd; Nrkpg;G czT – yhkpNdhpad; ];lhh;r; (<) NuhNlhigl;lhNuhNlhigl;lhNuhNlhigl;lhNuhNlhigl;lh - c.k; ghypirNghdpah & fphpndy;yh tz;zk; - rptg;G epwkp - igNfhvhpj;hpd; nrkpg;G czT – GNshhpbad; ];lhh;r; 4. ghrpfspd; gad; (m) czT – cy;th, Nykpndhpah, rh;fh]k;, FNshnuy;yh (M) mfh; mfh; - Nrhjidr; rhiyapy; jhtuq;fis tsh;f;fg; gad;gLk; tsh;jsk; - rptg;G ghrpapy; ,Ue;J jahhpf;fg;gLk; - c.k; n[ypbak; kw;Wk; fpuh]pNyhpah (,) mNahbd; - NykpNdhpahtpy; (gOg;G ghrp) ,Ue;J jahhpf;fg;gLk; (<) tpz;ntspg; gazj;jpy; gad;jUk; ghrp - FNshnuy;yh kw;Wk; ignuNdha; Nlh]h - kdpjdpd; rpWePiu rpijf;f kw;Wk; fopTfis ePf;f 5. kpf Ntfkhf tsUk; fly; fis - ,uhl;rj nfy;g; (fypNghh;dpah) 150 kPl;lh; tiu tsUk; 6. xU nry; ghrp cjhuzk; - FNshnuy;yh, fpshkpNlhNkhdh]; 7. gy nry; ghrp cjhuzk; - ];igNuhifuh 8. ePh;g; gl;L vd miof;fg;gLtJ - ];igNuhifuh 9. fhydp mikT nfhz;l ghrp - thy;thf;]; ($l;likT) 10. fphPd; <];l; vd miof;fg;gLk; ghrp – fpshkpNlhNkhdh]; 11. My;fhy[p (igf;fhy[p) – ghrpfs; gw;wpa mwptpay; gphpT 12. igl;Nlhgpshq;ld; - jdpj;J ePhpy; ePe;Jk; Ez;zpa My;fh 13. nge;jpf; – fly; mbapy; xl;b thOk; My;fh 14. vgpigl;Lfs; - njhw;W tho;f;if thOk; My;fh 15. ypj;Njhigl; - ghiw tho; My;fh 16. My;fh g;Sk; - ePhpy; My;fhtpd; ngUf;fk; (Mf;]p[d; FiwAk;) gpiuNahigl;LfsgpiuNahigl;LfsgpiuNahigl;LfsgpiuNahigl;Lfs;; 1. G+thj; jhtuk; 2. ePhpy; cUthfp epyj;jpy; thOk; jftikg;ig ngw;wit 3. G+f;Fk; jd;ikaw;w ,U tho;tpfs; vdg;gLk; 4. kuq;fs; kw;Wk; ghiwfspy; rpW jhtuq;fshf tsUk; 5. th];Fyhh; jpR ,y;iy (iryk; kw;Wk; GNshak;) 6. jhy]; jhtu clyk; cs;sJ – hpf;]pah, khh;fd;~pah, GNdhpah 7. Nkk;gl;l jhtu clyk; cs;sJ – kh]; (Nth;,jz;L,,iy cz;L) 8. tho;f;if Row;rp – re;jjp khw;wk; cz;L (m) Kjy; re;jjp NfkpNlhigl; -jhy]; (n re;jjp n`g;sha;L) - ghy; ,dg;ngUf;fk; - Mz; cWg;G – Me;j;hPbak; (fij tbtk;) - ngz; cWg;G – Mh;f;fpNfhdpak; (ePs Flit tbtk;) (M) ,uz;lhk; re;jjp ];NghNuhigl; (2n re;jjp bg;sha;L) - ghypyh ,dg;ngUf;fk; - ];Nghh;fs; kw;Wk; Jz;lhjy; Kiwapy; elf;Fk; 9. gpiuNahigl;Lfs; tifg;ghL (m) n`ghbNf – c.k; hpf;rpah (NtWghL milahj clyk;) (M) Me;j;Njhnrul;Nl – c.k; Me;j;NjhrpNuh]; (,) k];i] - g;A+Ndhpah (Nth; jz;L, ,iy NtWghL cz;L) www.kalvisolai.com - 12 of 29.
  13. 13. 10. gpiuigl;Lfs; - gad;fs; m. vhpnghUs; - gPl; kh]; kw;Wk; ];ghf;dk; M. Giu jLg;ghd; - ];ghf;dk; ,. tpij ehw;wq;fhy; kw;Wk; gRik ,y;yk; -];ghf;dk; <. kz;zhpg;ig jLf;fk; jpwd; nfhz;lJ gpiuNahigl;Lfs; c. Kd;G Foe;ijfs; fhy;rl;ilahf gad;gl;lJ - ];ghf;dk; kh]; nlhpNlhigl;Lfs;nlhpNlhigl;Lfs;nlhpNlhigl;Lfs;nlhpNlhigl;Lfs; 1. th];Fyhh; fphpg;Nlhnfk;fsth];Fyhh; fphpg;Nlhnfk;fsth];Fyhh; fphpg;Nlhnfk;fsth];Fyhh; fphpg;Nlhnfk;fs; vd miof;fg;gLk; my;yJ rhw;Wf; Foha; fw;iwg; ngw;w jhtuq;fs; (iryk; kw;Wk; GNshak; mikg;G) 2. [_uhrpf; fhyj;jpy; ,Ue;J tho;e;J tUk; jhtuq;fs; 3.3.3.3. jhtu mikg;Gjhtu mikg;Gjhtu mikg;Gjhtu mikg;G - iuNrhk; - jiuabj; jz;L (kl;l epyj; jz;L) - ];Nlhyd;fs; - jhtuj;jpd; gf;f thl;L fpisfs; - ];lhf; - ,iyfis cila rpwpa fpisfs; - g;uhz;l; - ,wF Nghd;w nghpa ,iyfs; ,jpy; rpw;wpiy cs;sJ - ,it rh;rpNdl; vdg;gLk; fbfhu RUs; ,iy mikT nfhz;lJ - Nukz;l;lh - ,iyf; fhk;ig %bapUf;Fk; gOg;G epw nrjpy; 4.4.4.4. ,dg;ngUf;fk;,dg;ngUf;fk;,dg;ngUf;fk;,dg;ngUf;fk; re;jjp khw;wk; - ];NghNuhigl; kw;Wk; Nfkpl;Nlhigl; epiy cz;L m. ];NghNuhigl; epiym. ];NghNuhigl; epiym. ];NghNuhigl; epiym. ];NghNuhigl; epiy - ];Nghh;fs; %yk; elf;Fk; - g;uhz;L ,iyfspd; fPo;Gwk; ];Nghh;fs; cs;sd - ,d;^rpak; - ];Nghh; igia %ba mikg;G (rpWePuf tbtk;) - ];Nghh;fs; N`hNkh];Nghh;fs; my;yJ n`bNuh];Nghh;fs; - ];Nghh;fs; ntspNaWtJld; ,e;j epiy KbTngWk; - ,j;jhtu tiffspy tpijfs; fpilahJ M. Nfkpl;Nlhigl; epiyM. Nfkpl;Nlhigl; epiyM. Nfkpl;Nlhigl; epiyM. Nfkpl;Nlhigl; epiy - Nfkpl;Nlhigl; clyk; GNuhjhy]; (,ja tbtk;) - Nfkpl;Nlhigl; epiyapy; Me;j;hPbakMe;j;hPbakMe;j;hPbakMe;j;hPbak; (Kl;il tbtk;) Mh;f;fpNfhdpakMh;f;fpNfhdpakMh;f;fpNfhdpakMh;f;fpNfhdpak; (FLit tbtk;) 5.5.5.5. nlhpNlhigl;Lfs; tifg;ghLnlhpNlhigl;Lfs; tifg;ghLnlhpNlhigl;Lfs; tifg;ghLnlhpNlhigl;Lfs; tifg;ghL m. i]yhg;]plh – (c.k;) i]Nyhl;lk; M. iyNfhg;]plh – (c.k;) iyNfhNghbak; (fpsg;kh];) ,. ];gPdhg;]plh - (c.k;) <f;Arpl;lk; (Fjpiuthy; nguzp) <. Buhg;rplh - (c.k;) neg;Nuhnyg;gp]; 6.6.6.6. nlhpNlhigl;Lfs; gad;fs;nlhpNlhigl;Lfs; gad;fs;nlhpNlhigl;Lfs; gad;fs;nlhpNlhigl;Lfs; gad;fs; m. nguzpfs; mofhf ,Ug;gjhy; moF nrbahf gad;gLfpwJ M. khh;]pypah - czthfg; gad;gLfpwJ ,. l;uahg;nlhp]; - tapw;Wg;G+r;rp mfw;wpahf gad;gLfpwJ <. iyNfhNghbak; - nghb kUe;jhf gad;gLfpwJ 7. nlhpNlhigl;Lfis tifg;gLj;jpath; - ];kpj; 8. xNu khjphpahd ];Nghh;fis cUthf;Fk; jhtu $l;lk; -N`hNkh];nghh; 9. ntt;NtW tifahd ];Nghh;fis cUthf;Fk; jhtu $l;lk; - n`l;bNuh];Nghh;fs; 10. mbahe;jk; - kq;ifah; $e;jy; nguzp vd miof;fg;gLk; G+f;Fk; jhtuq;fs; ([pk;Ndh];ngh;k;fs;) 1. ,U ngUk; gphpTfisf; nfhz;lJ m. [pk;Ndh];ngh;k;fs; (jpwe;j tpij cila jhtuk;) M. MQ;rpNah];ngh;k;fs; (%ba tpij cila jhtuk;) 2. [pk;Ndh];ngh;k;fs; - NtWghLs;s jhtu clyk; (Nth; jz;L ,iy) - MzpNth; njhFg;G cs;sJ - Nfkpl;Nlhigl; kw;Wk; ];NghNuhigl; epiyfs; cz;L - tpijfs; jpwe;jit fdpj;Njhypdhy; %lg;gl;bUf;fhJ - gy;yhz;L thof;$ba kuq;fs;. rpy Gjh; nrbfshf cs;sd. - tho;f;if Row;rpapy; n`l;bNuhkhh;gpf; re;jjp fhzg;gLk; - `pkhyah gpuNjrj;jpy; Crp ,iyf; fhLfspy; mjpfk; cs;sJ www.kalvisolai.com - 13 of 29.
  14. 14. 3. [pk;Ndh];ngh;k;fs; tifg;ghL m. irfNly;];irfNly;];irfNly;];irfNly;]; - c.k. irf]; - gid Nghd;w rpwpa kuk; - rpwF $l;biy cs;sJ - $k;G tbt cr;rp kuj;jpw;F cs;sJ - Mzp Nth;j; njhFg;G cs;sJ M. [pq;f;Nf[pq;f;Nf[pq;f;Nf[pq;f;NfhNay;];hNay;];hNay;];hNay;]; - c.k;. [pq;Nfh igNyhgh - tprpwp tbt ,iyfisftprpwp tbt ,iyfisftprpwp tbt ,iyfisftprpwp tbt ,iyfisf; nfhz;l kuk; - ehw;wk; juf;$baJ ,. NfhdpngNuy;];NfhdpngNuy;];NfhdpngNuy;];NfhdpngNuy;]; - c.k;. igd]; -$k;G tbt Njhw;wk; nfhz;l kuq;fs; - ,iyfs; Crp kw;Wk; nrjpy;fs; Nghy; ,Uf;Fk; - ,wf;ifAila tpijfisf,wf;ifAila tpijfisf,wf;ifAila tpijfisf,wf;ifAila tpijfisf; nfhz;lJ <. ePl;Nly;];ePl;Nly;];ePl;Nly;];ePl;Nly;]; - c.k;. ePl;lk; - #y;fs; G+g;Nghd;w jz;bd; kPJ jpwe;j epiyapy; cs;sJ - cah; gz;Gfisf; nfhz;l rpwpa jhtu $l;lk; - ePl;ly;]; jhtuj;jpy; kl;Lk; iryf; Foha;fsiryf; Foha;fsiryf; Foha;fsiryf; Foha;fs; cs;sd 4. [pk;ndh];ngh;k;fs; - gad;fs; igd; - kuf;fl;il vz;nza; kw;wk; nurpd;, thh;dp];, ngapz;L Vgpl;uh – vgpl;hpd; vd;Dk; My;fyha;L (M];Jkh kUe;J) ePl;lk; - %l;L thjj;ij Fzg;gLj;j cjTk; mfj;jp]; - fhfpj $o; jahhpf;fg;gLfpwJ (fhfpjk;) muf;Nfhpah – moF jhtukhf gad;gLfpwJ (Fuq;fpd; Gjph;) nrl;u]; - vz;nza; khh;G rspf;F kUe;J nrl;u]; - jukhd kuf;fl;il jahhpf;fg; gad;gLfpwJ 5. [pk;Ndh];ngh;k;fspy; kpf ePskhd jhtuk; - nrf;Nfhah MQ;rpNah];ngh;k;fs; (%ba tpijAila jhtuk;) 1. G+f;Fk; jhtuq;fspy; kpfg;nghpa njhFjp 2. 286000 rpw;wpdq;fisf; nfhz;lJ 3. rpWnrb, Gjh; nrb, nfhb kuq;fshf tsh;fpd;wd 4. iryk;, GNshak; cz;L 5. ,U ngUk; gphpTfisf; nfhz;lJ m. xU tpj;jpiyj; jhtuq;fs; - NkNdh fhl;byplNd - tpijapDs; xNu xU tpj;jpiyia nfhz;Ls;sJ - ry;ypNth; njhFg;G cz;L - ,izg;Nghf;F euk;gikT cz;L - my;yp tl;lk;, Gy;yp tl;lk; NtWghL ,y;iy - G+tpjo; tl;lk; cs;sJ - %ba th];Fyhh; fw;iwfs; cs;sd - jz;by; th];Fyhh; fw;iwfs; tputpAs;sd - ,uz;lhk; epiy tsh;r;rp ,y;iy - kyhpd; mq;fq;fs; 3d; klq;Ffshf mikAk;. - c.k;. Gy;, ney;, Nrhsk;, NfhJik M. ,U tpj;jpiyj; jhtuq;fs; - il fhl;byplNd - tpijapDs; ,U tpj;jpiyfis nfhz;Ls;sJ - MzpNth; njhFg;G cz;L - tiy euk;gikT cz;L - my;yp tl;lk;, Gy;yp tl;lk; NtWghL cz;L - kyhpd; mq;fq;fs; 4 5my;yJ mjd; klq;Ffshf mikAk; - c.k;. mtiu, gl;lhzp, kh 6. MQ;rpNah];ngh;k;fspy; kpf ePskhd jhtuk; - A+fypg;l]; www.kalvisolai.com - 14 of 29.
  15. 15. Nthpd; mikg;G 1. iuNrhnlh;kp]; - Nthpd; Gwj;Njhy; ,jpy; Nth;j; Jhtpfs; cs;sd 2. fhh;nlf;]; - iuNrhnlh;kpir mLj;Js;s mLf;F. flj;Jjy; kw;Wk; Nrkpj;jYf;F cjTk; 3. iryk; nt]y; - Nthpy; ,Ue;J kw;w ghfq;fSf;F ePiu flj;Jk; 4. GNshak; nt]y; - xspr;Nrh;f;if %yk; jahhpf;fg;gl;l czit ,iyapy; ,Ue;j jhtuj;jpd; gpw cWg;GfSf;F flj;Jk; 5. ,izg;Gj; jpR – iryj;ijAk;, GNshaj;ijAk; ,izf;Fk; jpR 6. gpj; - - Nthpd; ikag;gFjp. - xU tpj;jpiy jhtuj;jpy; kl;Lk; ,Uf;Fk; - czT Nrkpg;gjpy; gad;gLfpwJ 7. jz;bd; mikg;G f;A+l;bfpsf;A+l;bfpsf;A+l;bfpsf;A+l;bfps; - ,iyapd; Nky;Gwk; mike;js;s nkOF glyk; vgpnlh;kp];vgpnlh;kp];vgpnlh;kp];vgpnlh;kp]; - cUis tbtk; cilait. ghJfhg;G mspf;fk; ,jpy; ,Ue;J Nth;j;Jhtp cUthFk; fhh;nlf;];fhh;nlf;];fhh;nlf;];fhh;nlf;]; - %d;W gFjpfshf gphpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ m) Nfhyd;ifkh – jbg;ghdJ – jhq;Fjy; gzp M) Fnshud;ifkh – nky;ypaJ gr;irak; cs;sJ (xspr;Nrh;f;iff;F cjtp ) ,) ghud;ifkh – nky;ypa Rth; - Nrkpg;G kw;Wk; fhw;Nwhl;lk; vz;Nlhnlh;kp];vz;Nlhnlh;kp];vz;Nlhnlh;kp];vz;Nlhnlh;kp]; - ];lhh;r; ciw – gPg;gha; tbtk; - ghJfhg;G flj;jy; gzp nghpirf;fpsnghpirf;fpsnghpirf;fpsnghpirf;fps; -];fpspnud;ifkhTk; ghud;ifkhTk; mike;Js;sd. th];Fyhh;fw;iwth];Fyhh;fw;iwth];Fyhh;fw;iwth];Fyhh;fw;iw m) g;nshak; - czTf; flj;jy; M) iryk; - ePh; kw;Wk; fdpkq;fs; flj;jy; ,) Nfk;gpak; - ,uz;Lf;Fk; ,ilapy; cs;s ,uz;lhk; epiy tsh;r;rp gpjgpjgpjgpj; - eLtpy; cs;s mikg;G flj;jpy; cjTk; FWf;F fjphFWf;F fjphFWf;F fjphFWf;F fjph; - th];Fyhh; fw;iwfSf;F ,ilNa cs;sJ 8. ,U tpj;jpiyj; jhtu ,iy – mikg;G m) fpA+l;bfpsfpA+l;bfpsfpA+l;bfpsfpA+l;bfps; - Gwj;Njhypd; ntsp mLf;F M) Nkw;g;Gwj;Njhy; - cUis tbtk;. ghJfhg;gpy; cjTk; ,) ghypN]L ghud;ifkhghypN]L ghud;ifkhghypN]L ghud;ifkhghypN]L ghud;ifkh - Foha; tbt nry; - gRq;fzpfq;fis ngw;Ws;sd. Xspr;Nrh;f;iff;F cjTk; <) ];ghd;rp ghud;ifkh];ghd;rp ghud;ifkh];ghd;rp ghud;ifkh];ghd;rp ghud;ifkh – - Kl;il tbt nry; - gRq;fzpfk; ,y;iy. Nrkpg;G kw;Wk; flj;jypy; cjTk; c) th];Fyhh; fw;iw – iryk;, GNshak; cs;sJ (ePh; & czT flj;jy;) C) fPo;g;Gwj;Njhy; - cUis tbt nry; - ,iyj; Jisfs; cs;sd –ePuhtpg;Nghf;F& thAghpkhw;wk; 9. INrhigNyl;luyINrhigNyl;luyINrhigNyl;luyINrhigNyl;luy; - xU tpj;jpiyj; jhtu ,iyapy; ghypN]L my;yJ ];ghd;]p ghud;ifkh ,uz;by; VNjDk; xd;W kl;Lk; fhzg;gLk; 10. lhh;rp ntz;l;uylhh;rp ntz;l;uylhh;rp ntz;l;uylhh;rp ntz;l;uy; - ,U tpj;jpiy jhtu ,iyapy; ghypN]L kw;Wk; ];ghd;]p ghud;ifkh ,uz;Lk; fhzg;gLk; 11. ];By];By];By];By; - ikaj;jpy; iryk; mike;J mjidr; Rw;wp GNshak; jpR #og;gl;l mikg;G 11. vz;Nlh];By;vz;Nlh];By;vz;Nlh];By;vz;Nlh];By; - ];BYf;F cs; fhzg;gLk; mikg;G. ghud;ifkh ];fpspud;ifkh gpj; Nghd;wtw;iw cs;slf;fpaJ. 12.12.12.12. GNshak;GNshak;GNshak;GNshak; - czitf; flj;Jk; XU $l;L jpR - gy tif nry;fshy; MdJ - ry;yilf; Foha;, Jiznry;, GNshak; ghud;ifkh kw;Wk; GNshak; ehh;fs;. www.kalvisolai.com - 15 of 29.
  16. 16. 13.13.13.13. iryk;iryk;iryk;iryk; - ePh; kw;wk; fdpkq;fisf; flj;Jk; xU $l;L jpR - l;uf;fPL, iryk; Foha;, iryk; ehh;fs;, iryk; ghud;ifkh Nghd;w nry;fs; cs;sd. 14. %ba th];Fyhh; fw;iw%ba th];Fyhh; fw;iw%ba th];Fyhh; fw;iw%ba th];Fyhh; fw;iw – xU tpijapiyj; jhtuq;fspy; iryk; kw;Wk; GNshak; ,ilNa Nfk;gpak; ,y;yhj mikg;G 15. jpwe;j th];Fyhh; fw;iwjpwe;j th];Fyhh; fw;iwjpwe;j th];Fyhh; fw;iwjpwe;j th];Fyhh; fw;iw - ,U tpijapiyj; jhtuq;fspy; iryk; GNshak; ,ilNa Nfk;gpak; cs;s mikg;G Ez;Zaphpfs; itu]; 1. itu]; - yj;jPd; nkhopr; nrhy; nghUs; - eQ;R 2. bkpl;hpf; ItNdh];fp fz;Lgpbj;jhh; 3. w.m. ];lhd;yp – itui] gbf tbtpy; gphpj;jth; 4. ituhy[p – itu];fis gw;wpa mwptpay; gphpT 5. vy;iyf;NfhL - ,it capUs;s capuw;w gz;Gfis nfhz;l caphpfspd; vy;iyf;NfhL 6. tpUe;Njhk;gp nry; - itu]; jd;id ngUf;fpf; nfhs;s cjTk; caphp. 7. nry; glyk;, tsh;rpij khw;w cWg;G ,y;iy 8. Nfg;]pl; - itui] Rw;wpAs;s ciw 9. kuGg; nghUs; - DNA (OR) RNA 10. tphpahd; - xU KOikahd itu]; 11. TMV – Kjypy; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;l itu]; (Gifapiy nkhirf;) 12. ghf;BhpahNg[; - ghf;Bhpahitj; jhf;fk; itu]; 13. igNfhNg[; - ghrpia jhf;fk; itu]; 14. igl;NlhNg[; - jhtuq;fis jhf;Fk; itu]; (RNA itu];) 15. #Ng[; - tpyq;ffisj; jhf;Fk; itu]; (DNA itu];) 16. ikf;NfhNg[; - G+Q;irfisj; jhf;Fk; itu]; 17. raNdhNg[; - ePyg; gRk; ghrpfisj; jhf;fk; itu]; 18. RUs; tbt itu]; - TMV kw;wk; ,d;GSnad;]h 19. fdrJu tbtk; - HIV( nul;Nuh) kw;Wk; mbNdhitu]; 20. Gw;W Neha; - Md;Nfhn[dpf; itu]; (irkd; itu]; (sv40)) 21. AIDS – HIV itu]; gug;Gk; 22. SARS – Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (NfhNuh itu];) 23. Ntwpeha;f;fb – Nugp]; (yp];]h itu];) 24. nghd;Df;F tPq;fp – ghuhkpf;Nrh itu]; 25. kQ;rs; fhkhiy – n`gilb]; itu]; 26. nlq;F – gpNstp 27. gd;wp fha;r;ry; - ];itd; ,d;GSad;]h (A H1 N1) ghf;Bhpah 1. Md;ld; thd; ypA+td; `f; vd;gth; fz;Lgpbj;jhh; (1675) 2. Vud;gh;f; - ghf;Bhpah vd;w nrhy;iy Kjypy; gad;gLj;jpath; 3. ,uhgh;l; Nfhr; - Neha;fSf;Fk; Ez;ZaphpfSf;Fk; cs;s njhlh;G 4. Yhap gh];lh; - n[k; nfhs;if (Neha;fs; gw;wpaJ) 5. ghf;Bhpah – mikg;G m) GNuhNfhpahbf; nry;yhy; MdJ M) nry;Rth; - ghJfhg;ig mspf;Fk; ,) GNuhl;Nlhgpsh]k; - nry;Yf;F cs;Ns cs;s capUs;s nghUs;. nry;rt;T, irl;Nlhgpshrk;, epA+f;spa]; vd gphpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ <) Nfhy;if cWg;G, iyNrhNrhk;, ikl;Nlhfhz;lhpah, vz;Nlhgpshr tiy Nghd;wit ,y;iy c) epwkpfs; irl;Nlhgpshrj;jpy; fhzg;gLfpd;wd (FNshNuhgpy;) C) epA+f;spa]; gFjpapy; tl;l tbt <hpio bvd;V cs;sJ v) gpsh];kpl; - irl;Nlhgpshrj;jpy; cs;s [PNdhk; ,y;yhj bvd;V V) nry;Rthpy; firapio fhzg;gLfpwJ (efh;Tf;F cjTk;) I) rpy ghf;Bhpahf;fspy; mstpy; rpwpa igy]; (m) gpk;ghpNa cs;sJ. ,J ghf;Bhpah ,izjypy; cjTk; 6. ghf;Bhpah msT – ikf;uhd; myfhy; msf;fg;gLk; 0.2 Kjy; 1.5 ikf;uhd; tpl;lk; 3 Kjy; 5 ikf;uhd; ePsk; www.kalvisolai.com - 16 of 29.
  17. 17. 7. ghf;Bhpah tif – tbtk; mbg;gilapy; m) fhf;f]; - Nfhs(m)cUis tbtk; M) N;grpy;y]; - Nfhy; (m) Fr;rp tbtk; ,) ];ighpy;yk; - jpUF (m) RUs; tbtk; <) tpg;hpNah – fhy;Gs;sp (m) fkh tbtk; 8. ghf;Bhpah tif – firapio mbg;gilapy; m) xw;iw firapio – xU Kidapy; kl;Lk; firapio ,Uf;Fk; M),UKid firapio - ,U KiaapYk; firapio cs;sJ ,)xU fw;iw firapio – xU Kidapy; fw;iwahf ,Uf;Fk; <)nghpl;iuf]; - nry;iyr; Rw;wp firapio cs;sJ c)firapio mw;wit (Atrichous) – firapio fpilahJ 9. Mh;j;Nuhghf;lh; - xd;Wf;F Nkw;gl;l tbtk; nfhz;l ghf;Bhpah 10. ghf;Bhpah Neha;fs; ilgha;L - rhy;Nkhndy;yh ilgp fhyuh - tpg;hpNah fhyNu gpNsf; - vh;rpdpah ng];b]; rpgpyp]; - l;hpg;NghdpNkhghyplk; rpgpyp]; (ghy;tpid Neha;) ep];Nrhpah nfhNdhhpah – ep];Nrhpah ghf;Bhpak; (ghy;tpid Neha;) l;A+gh; FNshrp]; - ikf;Nfh ghf;Bhpak; njhONeha; - ikf;Nfh ghf;Bhpak; Nyg;Nu ney; - ntg;GNeha; (gpisl;) - rhe;NjhNkhdh]; xiuN] gUj;jp - Nfhz ,iyg; Gs;sp – rhe;NjhNkhdh]; khyNtrpNauk; Nghp - jP ntg;G Neha; - #lhNkhdh]; NrhyNdrpNauk; Nful; - nkd; mOfy; Neha; - vh;tpdpah Nful;NlhNthuh cUis – tpy;l; Neha; - #lhNkhdh]; nrhyudhrPahuk; vYkpr;ir – rpl;u]; Neha; - rhe;NjhNkhdh]; rpl;hp ML – Me;jpuhf;]; - Ngrpy;y]; Me;j;uhrp]; khL – GUnry;kyhrp]; - GUnry;Nyh mNghh;lr]; nrk;kwp ML – GUnry;yh nkypg;nld;rp]; 11. ghf;Bhpah ed;ikfs; m) ,aw;ifapd; Jg;Gwthsh;fs; - ,we;j jhtu tpyq;F clk;gpy; cs;s Gujq;fis, mk;Nkhdpah iel;Nul;Lfs; kw;wk; iel;iul;Lfshf khw;Wk;. M) mk;Nkhdpahit epiyepWj;Jk; ghf;Bhpah – ghrpy;y]; uNkh]]; ,) iel;hpigapq; ghf;Bhpah – iel;Nuhghf;lh;, iel;NuhNrhNkhdh]; <) iel;u[id epiyepWj;Jk ghf;Bhpah – mrNlhghf;lh;, fpsh];l;hPbak;, iuNrhgpak; c) tpdpfh; jahhpg;G – mrpl;Nlhghf;lh; mrpl;il C) gpA+l;ily; My;f`hy; kw;Wk; kPj;ijy; My;f`hy; - fpsh];l;hPbak; mrNlh G+l;bypf;fk; v) ];nlg;l;Nuhikrpd; - ];nlg;l;Nuhikrp]; fpNurpa]; V) ghrpl;uhd; - Ngrpy;y]; rg;byp]; c) ghiy japuhf khw;w - ];l;nug;nlhfhf;f]; yhf;b]; C) eWkzk; - ghrpy;y]; nkfhjPhpak; (Njapiy, Nfhf;Nfh, fhg;gpnfhl;il) ghrpfs; 1. fpshkpNlhnkhdh]; - xU nry;yhy; Md ghrp - cUis (m) Kl;il tbtk; - nry;YNyhrhy; Md nry; Rth; cz;L - nry;Rtiu Rw;wpAs;s ciw ngf;bd; - fpz;z tbt gr;irak; cz;L (ighpdha;L, ];lhh;r; ,Uf;Fk;) - xU N[hb firapio cz;L (,lg;ngah;r;rpf;F cjTk;) - ghrpfis Fwpj;j mwptpay; gphpT – igf;fhy[p - Mrpyl;Nlhhpah mdgPdh eh];lhf; Nghd;wit iel;u[id epiyepWj;Jfpd;wd - My;[pdpf; mkpyk; g;uTd; My;fhtpy; ,Ue;J jahhpf;fg;gLk; www.kalvisolai.com - 17 of 29.
  18. 18. G+Q;irfs; 1. <];l; - xU nry;yhy; Md rhWz;zp - epA+f;spa]; cz;L - vz;Nlhgpshr tiy iuNghNrhk; ikl;Nlhfhz;l;hpah cs;sJ - gr;irak; ,y;iy. czT jahhpf;f KbahJ - xl;Lz;zp (m) rhWz;zp tho;f;if Kiw - xapd; kw;Wk; My;f`hy; jahhpg;gpy; <];L cjTfpwJ - itl;lkpd; gp kw;Wk; hpNghgpNstpd; jahhpg;gpy; <];l; cjTk; 2.G+Q;ir jPikfs; - Nth; fliy – bf;fhNeha; - nrh;Nfh];Nghuh ngh;rNdl;lh kw;Wk; nrh;Nfh];Nghuh muhf;fpbf;Nfhyh - fUk;G – rpfg;G mOfy; Neha; - Nfhypl;Nlh biuf;fk; gy;Nfl;lk; - ney; - ,iyg;Gs;sp Neha; - ighpFNyhpah xiuNr - czT nfLjy; - mgNyhlhf;]pd;(er;R) – M];gh;[py;y]; 3.G+Q;ir – ed;ikfs; - czTf; fhshd; -mfhhpf]; kw;Wk; Nkhh;nry;yh - Guj Cl;lg; nghUs; - FNshnuy;yh kw;Wk; ];ighpypdh - Mf;]hypf; mkpyk; - M];ngh;[py;y]; iefh; - ngdprpypd; - ngdprPypak; nehnll;lk; kw;Wk; ng.fpiuNrh[Pdk; GNuhl;NlhNrhth 1. xU nry;caphp 2. jdpj;Jk; thOk; (ed;dPh;, cg;GePh;). xl;Lz;zpahfTk; thOk; 3. xl;Lz;zp mf xl;Lz;zpahfTk;, Gw xl;Lz;zpahfTk; thOk; 4. GNuhl;NlhNrhth cjhuzq;fs; - gpsh];Nkhbak; - (tFg;G -];NghNuhNrhth) - vz;lkPgh `p];lhypfh - (tFg;G - iuNrhNghlh) - bhpg;gd;dNrhkh Nfk;gpad;]; - (tFg;G - gpsh[Nyl;lh xl;Lz;zp) - A+f;spdh - (tFg;G - gpsh[Nyl;lh xl;Lz;zp) - mkPgh - (tFg;G - iuNrhNghlh xl;Lz;zp) 5. GNuhl;NlhNrhth Neha;fs; - B.T . kNyhpah – gpsh];Nkhbak; itthf;]; - M.T. kNyhpah(Black water fever) – gpsh];Nkhbak; ghy;rpNghuk; - mkPgpahrp]; - vz;lkPgh `p];lhyp bf;fh - igNahhpah - vz;lkPgh [pQ;Rthyp]; - tapw;Wg; Nghf;F - [pahh;bah - Nfk;gpad; Jhf;f tpahjp - bhpg;gd;dNrhkh Nfk;gpad;]; - Ubrpad; Jhf;f tpahjp - bhpg;gd;dNrhkh Ubrpad;]p - ghf;Bhpahf;fis cz;L tho;tjhy; kz; tsk; nfLk; - fly;tho; Gnuhl;NlhNrhthf;fshy; kPd;, rpg;gp, kl;b ghjpg;gilAk; 6. vjph; caphpfs; - Ez;Zaphpfsplk; ,Ue;J jahhpf;fg;gLk; kUe;J. Ez;Zaphpfis mopg;gjw;F cjTk;. - c.k;. ngdprpypd;, ghrpl;uhrpd;, ];nlg;l;Nuhikrpd; 7. Neha;gug;gpfs; - Nehia xUthplk; ,Ue;J kw;nwhUtUf;F gug;Gk; caphpfs; 8. Neha;fs; kw;Wk; guTk; Kiw - rsp – fhw;W - kQ;rs; fhkhiy – ePh; - ,d;GSnad;]h – ePh; - fhyuh, ilgha;L – mRj;j ePh; - nll;ld]; - cly; fhaq;fs; - vypf;fha;r;ry; - tpyq;F rpWePh; (mzpy; kw;Wk; vyp) - njhONeha; - Neubj; njhlh;G ePh; fZf;fhy; Neha; gug;gp %yk; - kNyhpah – Neha;gug;gp %yk; - ghjg;gil – epyk; kw;Wk; ePh; (];Nghh;fs;) - rPjNgjp – mRj;j ePh; czT <f;fs; - ff;Fthd; ,Uky; - fhw;W www.kalvisolai.com - 18 of 29.
  19. 19. - vYk;GUf;fp – fhw;W (%f;F top) - rpd;dk;ik – ePh; Jsp topahf - jl;lk;ik – ePh; Jsp topahf - nghl;lhyk;ik – ePh; kw;Wk; Jhrp - va;l;]; - cly; Nrh;f;if jha; %yk; jpRghpkhw;wk; - nlq;F, rpf;Fd; Fdpah – Neha;gug;gp %yk; (nfhR) 9. czT – Ez;Zaphpfis fl;LgLj;Jk; Kiwfs; - lg;ghfspLjy; - Fsp&l;Ljy; - ePiu ntspNaw;Wjy; -#hpa xspapy; fha itj;jy; - gjg;gLj;jpfis gad;gLj;Jjy; (tpdpfh;, Nrhbak; ngd;NrhNal;) - ntg;gg;gLj;Jjy; - nfhjpf;f itj;jy; - cyh;j;Jjy; - 10. ghy;gjg;gLj;Jjy; - 72 nrd;bfpNuL ntg;gepiyf;F 30 epkplq;fSf;F #LgLj;jp cldbahf 120 nrd;bfpNuLf;F Fspu itf;fntz;Lk; - (gh];bah; Kiw) 11. caphpay; fl;lg;ghL – ghf;Bhpah kw;w caphpdq;fis jhf;fhky; gaph;fis jhf;Fk; g+r;rpfis mopj;jy; 12. kuG nghwpapaypy; Ez;Zaphpfspd; gq;F - [Pd; kUj;Jtj;jpy; gad;gLfpwJ - ,d;Rypd; [Pd;, epg; [Pd; Nghd;wtw;iw cUthf;f (,.Nfhyp, Ngrpy;y];, ];l;nug;Nlhikrp];) - caphpay; Ma;T fUtpahf (itu];) - ghf;Bhpah ngUf;fk; (,ul;il gpsT) – ghy; japuhjy; - ,we;j cly;fis rpijj;J Rj;jg;gLj;jy; - rhWz;zp ghf;Bhpah - iel;u[id epiyg;gLj;Jjy; - ghf;Bhpah 13. My;fh kyh;r;rp – ePh; epiyfspy; eilngWk; My;fhf;fspd; ngUf;fk; ,jd; %yk; ePh; tho; caphpdq;fs; ghjpf;fg;glfpd;wd ,J A+l;NuhgpNf~d; vd;Wk; $Wth; 14. caph; – Gtp Row;rp - caph;Nfhsj;jpy; fhzg;gLk; Ntjpapay; Row;rp - caphpdq;fSf;Fk; - #oYf;Fk; ,ilNa eilngWk; Row;rp 15. Nehapay; - caphpdq;fSf;F Ez;Zaphpfshy; Vw;gLk; Neha;fisAk; mjd; fhuzq;fisAk; gw;wp mwpAk; mwptpay; gphpT caphpdq;fspd; gy;jd;ikcaphpdq;fspd; gy;jd;ikcaphpdq;fspd; gy;jd;ikcaphpdq;fspd; gy;jd;ik 1. nry; - caphpdq;fspd; mikg;G kw;Wk; nray; myF - ,uhgh;l; `_f; fz;lwpe;jhh; 2. nry; nfhs;if - N[f;fg; ];yPld; kw;Wk; jpNahlh; ];thd; ntspapl;ldh; (1838) - vy;yh caphpdq;fSk; nry;yhy; Mf;fg;gl;lit - nry;fs; mjd; Ke;ija nry;fspy; ,Ue;J cUthFk; 3. kdpj nry;fs; - tbtk; euk;G nry; el;rj;jpuk; Rlh; nry; Foy; Rug;gp nry; fd rJuk; jl;L vgpjPyak; gy; Nfhzk; Jhz; vgpjPypak; cUis mz;l nry; Kl;il ,uj;jr; nry;fs; tl;lk; jirnry; ehh; nry; ePs; tbtk; www.kalvisolai.com - 19 of 29.
  20. 20. 4. kdpj nry;fs; - gzp jl;L vgpjPypak; tbtk; ghJfhg;G jir nry;fs; RUq;fp tphpjy; nfhOg;G nry;fs; nfhOg;Gfis Nrkpf;f euk;G nry;fs; euk;Gj; Jz;liy flj;jy; vYk;G nry;fs; cWjp & cliy jhq;Fjy; $k;G kw;Wk; Fr;rp nry;fs; ghh;it epwk; czu ej;ijf; $L nry; (nrtp) Xyp czu Rug;gp nry; nehjp Ruj;jy 5. nry; Ez;ZWg;Gfs; - irl;Nlhgpshrj;jpy; fhzg;gLk; capUs;s nghUs;fs; - cly;Njitf;F Vw;g nry;gphpjy; %yk; ngUFk; nry; Ez;ZWg;G kw;Wk; gzpfs;nry; Ez;ZWg;G kw;Wk; gzpfs;nry; Ez;ZWg;G kw;Wk; gzpfs;nry; Ez;ZWg;G kw;Wk; gzpfs; 1.1.1.1. vz;Nlhgpsh] tiyvz;Nlhgpsh] tiyvz;Nlhgpsh] tiyvz;Nlhgpsh] tiy - tiygpd;dy; kw;Wk; ,ilntspNahL $ba Fkpo; mikg;G - 1945y; Nghh;l;lh; fz;lwpe;jhh;. 1952y; ngahpl;lhh; - cl;fU rt;tpy; ,Ue;J Njhd;Wk; - ,U tifg;gLk; (m) Jfs; mw;w vz;Nlhgpsh] tiy (totog;ghd mfg;gpshrJfs; mw;w vz;Nlhgpsh] tiy (totog;ghd mfg;gpshrJfs; mw;w vz;Nlhgpsh] tiy (totog;ghd mfg;gpshrJfs; mw;w vz;Nlhgpsh] tiy (totog;ghd mfg;gpshr tiy)tiy)tiy)tiy) – iuNghNrhk; mw;wJ. - Gujk; mw;w nry;ypy; ,Uf;Fk; (fy;yPuy; nry;, ypA+f;Nfhirl;) (M) Jfs; nfhz;Jfs; nfhz;Jfs; nfhz;Jfs; nfhz;l tiy (nrhunrhug;Gl tiy (nrhunrhug;Gl tiy (nrhunrhug;Gl tiy (nrhunrhug;G mfg;gpsh]mfg;gpsh]mfg;gpsh]mfg;gpsh]tiy)tiy)tiy)tiy) – iuNghNrhk; xl;bf; nfhz;bUf;Fk;. - Guj cw;gj;jp eilngWk; nry;ypy; cs;sJ (fizanry;, gpsh];khnry,; fy;yPuy;) gzpfs; m) xU rl;lfkhf mike;J cUtk; nfhLf;fpwJ M) er;Rj; jd;ikapy; ,Ue;J nry;iy ghJfhf;f ,) nfhOg;gpid cw;gj;jp nra;a fpisf;Nfh[id cilf;f (totog;ghd vz;Nlhgpshr tiy) 2.2.2.2. iuNghNrhk;iuNghNrhk;iuNghNrhk;iuNghNrhk; - vz;Nlhgpsh] tiyapy; xl;bf; nfhz;bUf;fk; Nfhs tbt Jfs; - claude vd;gth; fz;lwpe;J ikf;NuhNrhk; vd ngahpl;lhh; (1941) - palade vd;gth; iuNghNrhk; vd ngahpl;lhh; (1955) - ];igufps; tbtk; nfhz;lit - cl;fU kzpapy; ,Ue;J cUthFk; - nghpa Jiz myF rpwpa Jiz myF vd xt;nthU iuNghNrhKk; ngw;Ws;sd - mjpfkhd iuNghNrhk;fs; ,ize;jpUe;jhy; mJ ghypiuNghNrhk; (m) ghypNrhk; - tif : 70s, 80s, 55s (s- ];ntl;ngh;f; myF) - mkpNdh mkpyk; kw;Wk; Guj cw;gj;jp nra;fpwJ - iuNghNrhk; Muha;r;rpapy; Nehgy; ghpRngw;wth;fs; (2009) Ntq;fl;uhkd; uhkfpU~;zd (,e;jpah-mnkhpf;fh) jhk]; ];nla;]; (mnkhpf;fh) Mlhaj; (,];Nuy;) 3.Nfhy;if cWg;Gfs;3.Nfhy;if cWg;Gfs;3.Nfhy;if cWg;Gfs;3.Nfhy;if cWg;Gfs; - %d;W tpjkhd rt;tikg;gpy; cs;sJ - jl;ilahd ig(rp];lh;Nd), rpwpa Ez;Foy;fs;, nghpa Ez;Fkpo;fs; - irNkh[d; Jfs; Nghd;w Ruf;Fk; Foy;fis cUthf;Fk; - Cirl;Lfspy; kQ;rs; fUit cUthf;Fk; - tpop epwkp nry;iy cUthf;f cjTfpd;wd - tpe;jZ mf;NuhNrhik cUthf;f cjTfpd;wd 4.iyNrhNrhk4.iyNrhNrhk4.iyNrhNrhk4.iyNrhNrhk; - bLtp vd;gth; 1955y; fz;Lgpbj;jhh; - tpyq;F kw;Wk; jhtu nry;fspy; cs;sJ - nry;ypy; cs;s fopTg; nghUs;fis ntspNaw;Wk; cUz;il tbt mikg;G. - Nfhy;if cWg;G my;yJ mfg;gpshr tiyapy; ,Ue;J Njhd;Wk; gzpfs; - nry;Yf;Fs; tUk; nghUs; iyNrhNrhkpd; nehjpahy; rPuzkhFk; - ,we;J Nghd nry; gFjpfis rpijj;J ntspNaw;w cjTfpwJ - xU nry; rpijtilAk; NghJ mjpy; cs;s iynrhNrhk; ntbj;J ntspNaWk;. mg;NghJ mJ nehjpfis Rue;J rpijtile;j gFjpia [Puzpf;Fk;. jhd; ,Uf;Fk; nry;iy jhNd [Puzpg;gjhy; ,J nry;ypd; jw;nfhiyg; igfs; vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ. - mz;lr;Rug;gpapd; glyq;fis [Puzpj;J tpe;J nry; cs;Ns nrd;W fUTWjy; elf;f cjTk;. www.kalvisolai.com - 20 of 29.
  21. 21. 5.ikl;Nlhfhz;l;hpah5.ikl;Nlhfhz;l;hpah5.ikl;Nlhfhz;l;hpah5.ikl;Nlhfhz;l;hpah - ngz;lh vd;gth; ikl;Nlhfhz;l;hpah vd ngahpl;lhh; (1898) - ghyhl; kw;Wk; N[h];uhz;l; cs;SWg;ig Muha;e;jdh; - irl;Nlhgpshrj;jpy; cs;s kzpfs; Nghd;w (m) Fr;rp mikg;G - ,U Gujj;jhy; Md ,ul;ilr; rt;thy;; MdJ. - cl;rt;thdJ jl;L (m) tpuy; Nghd;W cl;gpJf;fq;fshf ,Uf;Fk; ,J fphp];Nl vdg;gLk;. - ,U rt;tpw;fk; ,ilNaAs;s ,ilntsp nghpikl;Nlhfhz;l;hpay; ,ilntsp vdg;gLk; - ikl;Nlhfhz;l;hpahtpd; mikg;G caphpdq;fspy; fphp];Nlf;fspd; vz;zpf;if mbg;gilapy; NtWgLfpwJ gzpfs; - nry; Rthrj;jpy; ngUk; gq;F tfpf;fpwJ - rf;jpia cUthf;Fk; Mw;wy; ikaq;fshf cs;sJ - A+hpah Row;rpapd; Kjy; epiy ,jd; %yk; eilngWfpwJ - vOk;gpy; cUthFk; fhy;rpaj;ij gyklq;fhf Nrkpj;J itf;fpwJ. - Mw;wiy Nrkpj;J itf;fpd;wJ. Njitg;gLk; NghJ ntsptpLk;. - Mw;wy; (ATP) mbNdhrpd; l;iu gh];Ngl; 6.nrd;l;hpNahy;fs;6.nrd;l;hpNahy;fs;6.nrd;l;hpNahy;fs;6.nrd;l;hpNahy;fs; - n`d;dpif kw;Wk; Yf];nrf; tpsf;fpdhh;fs; (1897) - tpyq;F nry;ypy; cl;fUtpw;F mUfpy; cs;sJ (Fr;rp tbtk;) - nry;gphpAk; NghJ fjph; ,io ehh;fisAk;, M];l;uy; cWg;igAk; cUthf;fp nry; gphpjiy jpl;lkpLfpwJ. 7.cl;fU7.cl;fU7.cl;fU7.cl;fU - nry;ypd; fUtpy; mike;Js;s tl;l tbtr; nry; cWg;G - ,J Kf;fpa 4 gFjpfisf; nfhz;Ls;sJ m) cl;fUglyk; - iyg;NghGNuhl;bdhy; MdJ (,U glyk;) M) epA+f;spNahgpshrk; - cl;fUglyj;jpw;Fk; epA+f;spNahyRf;Fk; ,ilNa cs;s GNuhl;Nlhgpshrj; jputk; ,) FNuhNkhNrhk;fs; - epA+f;spNahgpsh]j;jpy; FNuhNkhl;bd; tiyg;gpd;dy; fhzg;gLk;. nry;gphpAk; NghJ njspthf FNuhNkhNrhkhf khWk; <) cl;fU kzp – nry; mikg;ghsh; vdg;gLfpwJ. epA+f;spNahy]; vd;Wk; $wg;gLfpwJ. ,jDs; iuNghNrhk; GNuhl;bd;fSk;, iuNghNrhk; RNA fhzg;gLfpwJ. RNA %yf;$iw Nrkpf;fpd;wJ gzpfs; - irl;Nlhgpshrj;jpy; eilngWk; nray;fis fl;LgLj;JfpwJ - cl;fU glyk; madpfis ghpkhw;wk; nra;fpwJ jpRf;fs; 1. jpR – Njhw;wk,; tbtk;, nray;fspy; xj;jpUf;Fk; nry;fspd; njhFg;G. 2. tpyq;F jpR (Ntiyapd; mbg;gilapy;) - m) vgpjPypa jpR - M) flj;Jk; jpR - ,) ,izg;G jpr - <) euk;G jpR - c) jir jpR vd 5 tiffshf tifg;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ 3.3.3.3. vgpjPypaj; jpRvgpjPypaj; jpRvgpjPypaj; jpRvgpjPypaj; jpR - cWg;Gfspd; Gwj;NjhypYk; cly; Fop cl;Gwj;jpYk; cs;sJ - ,jd; nry;fs; neUf;fkhf ,Uf;Fk; tiffs;tiffs;tiffs;tiffs; m) jl;il vgpjPyak;jl;il vgpjPyak;jl;il vgpjPyak;jl;il vgpjPyak; - xU thpirapy; mike;j jl;il nry; njhFg;G. nry;ypd; kj;jpapy; cl;fU cs;sJ. fd;dj;jpd; cl;Gw cWg;Gfspd; glyq;fspYk; cs;sJ gzp – ghJfhg;G EiuaPuypy; thAf;fspd; ghpkhw;wj;jpw;F cjtp M) Jhz;Jhz;Jhz;Jhz; vgpjPypak;vgpjPypak;vgpjPypak;vgpjPypak; - caukhd kw;Wk; cUz;il tbt nry;fspd; njhFg;G. Kl;il tbt cl;fU cs;sJ. rpWFlypd; cl;Gw Rthpy; fhzg;gLk; jpR. gzp – tapw;wpd; Rtw;wpy; nehjpfis Ruj;jy; rpWFlypy; nrhpf;fg;gl;l czit cwpQ;rTk; ,) fdrJu vgpjPypak;fdrJu vgpjPypak;fdrJu vgpjPypak;fdrJu vgpjPypak; - ,jpy; cs;s nry;fs; fdrJu tbtk; cilait. Fly; kw;Wk; ehskpy;yh Rug;gpfspd; Rth;fspy; fhzg;gLfpwJ gzp – rpWePuff; Foha;fspd; kW cwpQ;Rjy; %yk; ePiu cwpQ;rg; gad;gLfpwJ www.kalvisolai.com - 21 of 29.
  22. 22. <) FW ,io vgpjPypakFW ,io vgpjPypakFW ,io vgpjPypakFW ,io vgpjPypak; - Jhz; vgpjPyak; Nghy; mikg;G. Mdhy; ,jpy; FW,iofs; cs;sJ. fhw;Wf;Foy; (m) l;uf;fpahtpd; cl;Gwk; ,J fhzg;gLk;. gzp – rpypahf;fs; mirtjd; %yk; khR ePf;fg;gLfpwJ c) czh;T vgpjPypak;czh;T vgpjPypak;czh;T vgpjPypak;czh;T vgpjPypak; - njhL czh;Tf;F Jyq;Fk; tz;zk; mike;Js;sd. ehrpf; Foypd; cl;Gwk; cs;s EfUk; vgpjPypa nry;fspy; cs;sJ C) Rug;gp vgpjPypak;Rug;gp vgpjPypak;Rug;gp vgpjPypak;Rug;gp vgpjPypak; ---- v) ,dg;ngUf;f vgpjPypak;,dg;ngUf;f vgpjPypak;,dg;ngUf;f vgpjPypak;,dg;ngUf;f vgpjPypak; - 4. flj;Jk; jpR - ,J xU jput jpR - czTg; nghUs;, Rthr thA, fopTg; nghUl;fs; Nghd;wtw;iwf; flj;Jk; - 55% gpsh];khTk; 45% ,uj;j nry;fSk; cs;sd - ,uj;j nryfs; %d;W tifg;gLk; - m) ,uj;j rptg;G mZ (vhpj;Nuhirl;) - M) ,uj;j nts;isaZ (yPA+Nfhirl;) - ,) ,uj;jj; jl;Lfs; (j;Nuhk;Nghirl;Lfs;) m) ,uj;j rptg;G mZ - ngUksT gFjp ,Uf;Fk; - tl;l tbtk; ,UGwKk; Fope;J ,Uf;Fk; - cl;fU ,y;iy. `PNkhFNshgpd; (epwkp) cs;sJ - vYk;G k[;i[apy; cUthFk; - Mal;fhyk; 100-120 ehl;fs; - Mf;]p[id vLj;J nry;Yk; M) ,uj;j nts;is mZf;fs; - epwkpfsw;wJ - xOq;fw;w tbtk; nfhz;l cl;fU cs;sJ - vYk;G k[;i[ kw;Wk; epzePh; Rug;gpapy; cUthFk; - MAl;fhyk; 2-3 thuk; - clYf;Fs; tUk; fpUkpfis mopf;fpwJ ,) ,uj;j jl;Lfs; - kpfr; rpwpait - ,uj;jk; ciwjYf;F Njit 5. ,izg;G jpR - ,jpy; cs;s nry;fs; xoq;fw;wit - nry;fSf;fpilNa ,ilntsp cz;L - ,ilntspapy; Nkl;hpf;]; ($o;kjputk;) cs;sJ - ,it ,U tifg;gLk; - m) nfhOg;G jpR M) jhq;F jpR m) nfhOg;G jpR - NjhYf;F ,ilapYk; cs;SWg;GfSf;F ,ilapYk; cs;sJ - ,e;j jpRtpy; cs;s nry;fSf;F ,ilaPl;L nghUs; ,y;iy - ,J nfhOg;ig Nrkpf;fpwJ M) jhq;F jpR - cly; KOtijAk; jhq;f gad;gLfpwJ. 3 tifg;gLk; (1) FWj;njYk;G jpR (2) vYk;G jpR (3) tiy ,izk jpR (1) FWj;njYk;G jpR - ,jpy; cs;s nry;fSf;F ,ilNa ngUk; ,ilntsp cz;L - jpl ,ilaPl;Lg; nghUs;fs; cz;L - Gujk;, rh;f;fiu cs;sJ, kpUJthdJ - %l;Lfs;, fhJkly;, %f;F, %r;Rf;Foy;, Fuy;tisapy; cs;sJ (2) vYk;G jpR - cliy jhq;Fjy; kw;Wk; cUtk; nfhLf;Fk; jpR - fhy;rpak; kw;Wk; gh];gu]; $l;Lg; nghUshy; MdJ - jir ehz;fs; cjtpAld; vYk;Gfs; ,izf;fg;gLk; - jir ehz;fs; kPs; jd;ikAilaJ (3) tiy ,izk jpR - jsh;thd ,izg;g jpR - NjhYf;Fk; jirf;Fk; ,ilapy; cs;sJ - ,uj;jf; Foha;fs; euk;gfs; kw;wk; vYk;G k[;i[apid Rw;wp fhzg;gLk; - cWg;Gfspd; cs;sikg;ig jhq;f rpije;j jpRit gOJghh;f;f cjTk; www.kalvisolai.com - 22 of 29.
  23. 23. 6. euk;G jpRf;fs; - euk;G nry; (epA+uhd;) kw;Wk; euk;G ehh;fshy; MdJ - czh;T jpwd; kw;wk; flj;Jk; jpwid ngw;Ws;sJ - kw;w jpRfspy; ,Ue;J khWgl;lJ - %is, jz;Ltlk;, euk;Gfs; Nghd;wit euk;G jpRf;fshy; MdJ. 7. euk;G nry; (epA+uhd;) - euk;G kz;lyj;jpd; nray; myF - Kl;il tbtkhfNth tl;l tbtkhfNth fhzg;gLk; - ,jd; nry; clyk; irl;lhd; vdg;gLk; - irl;lhdpy; eP];N]y; vdg;gLk; fUikahd Jfs; cs;sJ - irl;lhdpy; cs;s fpis Nghd;w mikg;g nld;l;uhd; MFk;. - nld;l;uhd; NkYk; fpisj;J nld;biul;i] cUthf;Fk; - irl;lhdpy; ,Ue;J fpsk;Gk; thy; Nghd;w gFjp Mf;]hd; MFk;. 8. jir jpRf;fs; - ,it ePz;lit vdNt ,it jir ehh;fs; vdg;gLk; - cly; ,af;fj;jpw;F gad;gLk; - RUq;Fk; Gujj;jhy; MdJ - 3 tifg;gLk; m) thpj;jir M) thpaw;wj; jir ,) ,ja jir m) thpj;jir - vYk;GfSld; ,ize;jpUg;gjhy; ,it vYk;G jir vdg;gLk; - ,af;F jir vd;Wk; NtWngah; cz;L - gy cl;fUf;fis nfhz;l nry;fshy; MdJ - ,J ehh; Nghy; ePz;L ,Ug;gjhy; jir ehh; vdg;gLfpwJ - ,jDs; rhh;f;Nfh gpshrk; vDk; ,ilapl;Lg; nghUs; cs;sJ. - ,tw;wpy; FWf;F thp fhzg;gLtjhy; thpj;jir vd;gLfpwJ. M) thpaw;wj; jir - ikaj;jpy; mfd;Wk; xuj;jpy; nkype;Jk; ,Uf;Fk; - ,e;j jir nry;fspy; xNu xU cl;fUTk;, rhh;f;Nfh gpshrKk; cs;sJ - czTg; ghij, Rthr ghij, jkdpfs;, rpiufs;, rpWePh;g;ig Nghd;w cWg;Gfspy; fhzg;gLfpwJ - ,it ,aq;F jirfs; vdg;gLk;. thpfsw;wJ. - ,e;j jirnry;ypd; gpsh];kh glyk; rhh;f;Nfhnyk;kh MFk;. ,) ,jaj; jir - ,jaj;jpd; Rthpy; kl;Lk; fhzg;gLk; - ,ja jirapy; cs;s nry;fspy; gy cl;fU cz;L - rhh;Nfhgpsh]k;, rhh;Nfhnyk;kh cz;L - fUik kw;Wk; ntsphpa thpfs; cz;L - ek; tho;ehs; KOtJk; RUq;fp tphpAk; 9. cWg;Gfs; ,uz;L my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l jpRf;fs; xd;W Nrh;e;J xh; cWg;ig cUthf;Fk;. c.k;. fz; (vgpjPypajpR, ,izg;GjpR, euk;GjpR, jirjpR ,ize;jJ) 10. fz;fs; - Kf;fpa GyDWg;G. kz;ilNahl;bd; fz; Fopfspy; mike;Js;sJ. - fz;Nfhsk; %d;W mLf;Ffshy; (ciw) MdJ m) ntsp mLf;F - ];fpspuhl;bf; ciw (tpopntz; glyk;) M) eL mLf;F – nfhuha;L ciw (tpopabf;fUk;glyk;) ,) cs; mLf;F – nul;bdh ciw (tpopj;jpiu) m) ntsp mLf;Fntsp mLf;Fntsp mLf;Fntsp mLf;F - Kd;gFjpia jtpu kw;w gFjpfspy; ntz;ik epwkhf cs;sJ. - ,J fz;zpw;F tbtj;ijAk; ghJfhg;igAk; mspf;fpwJ. - fz;zpd; Kd; gFjpapy; ,J nky;ypajhfTk; xsp Gff;$bajhfTk; khwpAs;sJ ,J fhh;dpahfhh;dpahfhh;dpahfhh;dpah vdg;gLk; M) eL mLf;FeL mLf;FeL mLf;FeL mLf;F - ,J fz;zpd; eLg;glyk;. ,jpy; fUikepw epwkpfs; cs;sd. - nfhuha;L ciwapd; Kd; Kidapy; ghitghitghitghit vd;w Jis cs;sJ - fhh;dpahit #o;e;Js;s gFjp Ihp];Ihp];Ihp];Ihp]; vdg;gLk;. Ihp]py; epwkpfs; cs;sd. ,) cs; mLf;Fcs; mLf;Fcs; mLf;Fcs; mLf;F - cs; mLf;fpy; tpopj;jpiu cs;sJ. ,jpy; cUiscUiscUiscUis kw;Wk; $k;G nry;fs;$k;G nry;fs;$k;G nry;fs;$k;G nry;fs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. - cUis nry;fs; gytpj xspfisg; ghh;f;f cjTk;. - $k;G nry;fs; epwq;fisg; ghh;f;f cjTk$k;G nry;fs; epwq;fisg; ghh;f;f cjTk$k;G nry;fs; epwq;fisg; ghh;f;f cjTk$k;G nry;fs; epwq;fisg; ghh;f;f cjTk;. www.kalvisolai.com - 23 of 29.
  24. 24. - tpopj;jpiuapy; $k;G nry;fs; mjpfk; cs;s gFjp kQrs;kQrs;kQrs;kQrs; jhdk;jhdk;jhdk;jhdk; (/Nghgpah) ,it $h;e;J gbf;f cjTk;. - xsp czh;jd;ikaw;w gFjp FUl;Lj; jhdkFUl;Lj; jhdkFUl;Lj; jhdkFUl;Lj; jhdk; vdg;gLk;. <) tpoptpy;iytpoptpy;iytpoptpy;iytpoptpy;iy (nyd;];)(nyd;];)(nyd;];)(nyd;];) - nyd;]; xsp CLUtf;$ba ,UGwk; Ftpe;j kPs;jd;ikAilaJ. - ,J rpypahpj;jirfSld; ,ize;Js;sJ. - tpop ntz;glyj;jpw;Fk; tpopnyd;Rf;fk; ,ilapy; cs;s jputk; tpop Kd; miw jputk;. - tpopnyd;Rf;Fk; tpopj;jpiuf;Fk; ,ilapy; cs;s jputk; tpop gpd; miw jputk;. ,j;jputk; jpiuapy; gpk;gk; mikg;gjpy; gq;F ngWfpwJ. c) ghh;itf; FiwghL kNahgpah (fpl;lg; ghh;it) – Fop nyd;]; i`g;gh; nkl;Nuhgpah (Jhug;ghh;it) – Ftp nyd;]; V];bf;khl;brk; (xspia nyd;]; gy ,lq;fspy; Ftpf;Fk;) C) ghh;it epwkpfs; Nuhlhg;]pd;Nuhlhg;]pd;Nuhlhg;]pd;Nuhlhg;]pd; - cUis nry;ypy; ,Uf;Fk; ghh;itia czUk; mNahlhg;]pdmNahlhg;]pdmNahlhg;]pdmNahlhg;]pd; - $k;G nry;ypy; cs;sJ. mjpf xspia ngw, epwj;ij mwpa, $h;ikahd ghh;itf;F cjTk; 11. fopT ePf;f kz;lyk; - tsh;rpij khw;wj;jpdhy; cUthfk; foptpid ,uj;jj;jpy; ,Ue;J gphpg;gJ & ntspNaw;wy; - clypy; ,Ue;J iel;u[d; fopitAk; ntspNaw;Wk; 12. rpWePufk; - KJnfYk;gpw;F mUfpy; cs;sJ - tyg;gf;f rpWePufk; rw;W fPopwq;fp cs;sJ - ntspg;Gwk; Ftpe;Jk;, cl;Gwk; Fope;Jk; cs;sJ - Fope;J fhzg;gLk; cl;gFjp i`ny]; vdg;gLk; - rpWePufj;jpy; fUQrptg;G epw ntspg;gFjp fhh;nlf;]; - ntsphpa cl;gFjp nkLy;yh - gpukpL Nghd;w gFjpfSf;F ,ilNaAs;sJ ngy;tpf;]; - ngy;tpf;R ,ilapy; fhzg;gLk; fpz;zk; Nghd;wJ fhypr]; - neg;uhd;fs; - rpWePufj;jpd; mbg;gil myF. Ez;Foy;fshy; MdJ - neg;uhd;fs; fhh;nlf;]; kw;wk; nkLy;yh gFjpapy; mjpfk; cs;sJ. gzpfs; - ,uj;jj;jpd; eLepiyj; jd;ikia guhkhpf;fpwJ - ,uj;jj;jpd; PH msit epiy epWj;JfpwJ - mjpfg;gbahd ePiu clypy; ,Ue;J ntspNaw;wp xOq;fgLj;Jk;. 13. cly; rkepiy – FSNfh]; msT rh;f;fiu msT mjpfhpf;Fk; NghJ - ,d;rypd; Ruf;fg;gLk; rh;f;fiu msT FiwAk; NghJ – FSf;fhd; Ruf;fg;gLk; 14. Rthrpj;jy; - fhpk %yf;$W Ntjp Mw;wyhf khWk;. (Mf;]p[Ndw;wk;) - ,e;j Mw;wy; ATPia cUthf;Fk; - ATP (mbNdhrpd; l;iu gh];Ngl;) - ,U tifg;gLk; fhw;W Rthrk; kw;Wk; fhw;wpy;yh Rthrk; - fhw;w Rthrkfhw;w Rthrkfhw;w Rthrkfhw;w Rthrk; - Mf;]p[d; gad;gLj;jg;gLk; - fhpk %yf;$W rpijf;fg;gl;L CO2 ePUk; fpilf;Fk; - fhw;wpy;yh Rthrk;fhw;wpy;yh Rthrk;fhw;wpy;yh Rthrk;fhw;wpy;yh Rthrk; (nehjpj;jy) - Mf;]p[d; gad;gLj;jg; glhJ - Ez;Zaphpfs; gad;gLj;Jfpd;wd - nehjpj;jy;nehjpj;jy;nehjpj;jy;nehjpj;jy; vd;Wk; miof;fg;gLk; 15. tsh;rpij khw;wk; caphpdq;fspy; eilngwk; Mw;wy; ntspaPL, Mw;wiyg; gad;gLj;Jjy,; Mw;wy; ghpkhw;wk; Nghd;wtw;iw cs;slf;fpa caph; Ntjpapay; epfo;T ,U tifg;gLk; m) tsh;r;rp khw;wk; M) rpij khw;wk; (m) tsh;r;rp khw;wk; - nrhpf;fg;gl;l czTg;nghUspy; ,Ue;J nry;fs; nry;Yl;l nghUs;fis cUthf;Fk; - nray;. Mw;wy; cUthfhJ - FSf;Nfh];, fpisf;Nfh[d; kw;Wk; rh;f;fiuahf khWk; - mkpNdhmkpyk; - nehjpfs;, `hh;Nkhd;fs; kw;wk; Gujq;fshFk;. - nfhOg;G mkpyk; - nfhy];l;uhy; kw;wk; ];Buha;Lfshf khWk;. www.kalvisolai.com - 24 of 29.
  25. 25. (M) rpij khw;wk; - rpijf;fg;gl;l fhpkg; nghUs;fs; %yk; nry;Yf;F Njitahd Mw;wiy ngWk; nray; - FSf;Nfh]; - fhh;gd; il Mf;i]L, ePh; kw;Wk; ntg;g Mw;wiy cUthf;Fk; - Gujq;fs; mkpNdh mkpyj;ij cUthf;Fk; - nfhOg;G - nfhOg;G mkpyk; kw;Wk; fpspruhiy cUthf;Fk; tdq;fs; kw;Wk; td caphpfis ghJfhj;jy;tdq;fs; kw;Wk; td caphpfis ghJfhj;jy;tdq;fs; kw;Wk; td caphpfis ghJfhj;jy;tdq;fs; kw;Wk; td caphpfis ghJfhj;jy; 1.1.1.1. td caphpfs; - ,aw;if thoplj;jpy; fhzg;gLk; tPl;by; gof;fg;gLj;jg;glhj kw;Wk; tsh;f;fg;glhj caphpfs; 2.2.2.2. td caphptd caphptd caphptd caphp ghJfhg;gpd; NjitghJfhg;gpd; NjitghJfhg;gpd; NjitghJfhg;gpd; Njit - kfpo;r;rp, #o;epiy, fy;tp, tuyhW, mwptpay; kjpg;GilaJ - #o;epiy rkepiyf;F Njit. Rw;Wyh tsh;r;rp ngWk; - kUj;Jtg; nghUl;fis mspf;fpwJ. - kuG nghUSf;fhd Kf;fpa Mjhuk;. 3.3.3.3. fhLfspd; tiffs; (ntg;gk; mbg;gilapy; - ,e;jpah) - ghiytdk;ghiytdk;ghiytdk;ghiytdk; (twz;lgFjp) - ,uh[];jhd;, gQ;rhg;, mhpahdh - ,iyAjph; fhLfs,iyAjph; fhLfs,iyAjph; fhLfs,iyAjph; fhLfs; - jPgfw;f gFjp gRikkhwh fhLfs; - ntntntntg;gkz;ly gRik khwhf; fhLfsg;gkz;ly gRik khwhf; fhLfsg;gkz;ly gRik khwhf; fhLfsg;gkz;ly gRik khwhf; fhLfs; - Nkw;F njhlhr;rp kiy ,e;jpa tlfpof;F kiy gFjp ,ka kiy mbg;gFjp - kiyf;fhLfskiyf;fhLfskiyf;fhLfskiyf;fhLfs; - ,kakiy kw;Wk; njd;dpe;jpah - miyapilf;fhLfs;miyapilf;fhLfs;miyapilf;fhLfs;miyapilf;fhLfs; ---- fq;fh kw;Wk; kfhejp fopKfg;gFjpfq;fh kw;Wk; kfhejp fopKfg;gFjpfq;fh kw;Wk; kfhejp fopKfg;gFjpfq;fh kw;Wk; kfhejp fopKfg;gFjp 4.4.4.4. fhLfs; mopjy; ghjpg;Gfs;fhLfs; mopjy; ghjpg;Gfs;fhLfs; mopjy; ghjpg;Gfs;fhLfs; mopjy; ghjpg;Gfs; - kio msT Fiwjy; - jl;gntg;g epiy khw;wk; - kz; mhpkhdk; - gr;ir tPl;L tpisT (cyf ntg;gkakhjy;) 5.5.5.5. fhLfis ngUf;Fjy; - Gjpa kuq;fs; eLtJ fhlhf;fy; vdg;gLk; - rKjha fhLfs; tsh;j;jy; - Ntshz; fhLfs; cUthf;Fjy; 6.6.6.6. rKjhaf; fhLfs; - 1976y; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ - ,aw;if epyq;fis Nkk;gLj;JtJ kw;Wk; gad;gLj;jg;glhj epyq;fspy; fhLfs; cUthf;FtJ Nehf;fkhFk; 7.7.7.7. Ntshz; fhLfs; - Ntshz;epyq;fspd; vy;iyfspy; gaph;fNshL ,ize;J kuq;fis eLtJ. - Ntshz;gaph;fs;, kuq;fs;, fhy;eilfis ngUf;f cjTk; 8.8.8.8. ,e;jpahtpy; cs;s jhtu tiffs;,e;jpahtpy; cs;s jhtu tiffs;,e;jpahtpy; cs;s jhtu tiffs;,e;jpahtpy; cs;s jhtu tiffs; - rpw;wpdq;fs;rpw;wpdq;fs;rpw;wpdq;fs;rpw;wpdq;fs; ---- 45000450004500045000 - G+f;Fk; jhtuq;fs; - 15000 - ghrpapdq;fs; - 1676 - glh;jhtuq;fs; - 1940 - G+Q;irfs; - 12480 - jpwe;j tpijj; jhtuq;fs; - 64 - gpiuNahigl;Lfs; - 2843 - nlhpNlhigl;Lfs; - 1012 9.9.9.9. tpyq;F tiffs; - rpw;wpdq;fs; - 81251 - G+r;rpapdq;fs; - 60000 - nky;Ylypfs; - 5000 - ghYhl;bfs;ghYhl;bfs;ghYhl;bfs;ghYhl;bfs; ---- 372372372372 - gwitfs; - 1228 - Ch;td – 446 - ,U tho;tpfs; - 204 - kPd;fs; - 2546 - cyf tpyq;fpdq;fspy; 6.67 rjtPjk; ,e;jpahtpy; cs;sJ www.kalvisolai.com - 25 of 29.
  26. 26. 10.10.10.10. mr;RWj;jg;gl;l epiy tpyq;Ffs; - kpff; Fiwe;j vz;zpf;ifapy; Kw;wpYk; mope;J tpLk; mghaj;jpy; cs;s rpw;wpdq;fs; mr;RWj;jg;gl;l epiyapYs;s tpyq;fpdq;fs; vdg;gLk; - c.k; fhz;lhkpUfk;c.k; fhz;lhkpUfk;c.k; fhz;lhkpUfk;c.k; fhz;lhkpUfk;, jpkpq;fyq;fs;jpkpq;fyq;fs;jpkpq;fyq;fs;jpkpq;fyq;fs;, xeha;fs;xeha;fs;xeha;fs;xeha;fs;, fOFfs;fOFfs;fOFfs;fOFfs; - “Nkhdhy;Nkhdhy;Nkhdhy;Nkhdhy;” Kw;wpYk; mopf;fg;gl;l moF gwit (`pkhr;ry; gpuNjrk;) - Njhy;, vYk;G my;yJ ,l Mf;fpukpg;Gf;fhf nfhy;yg;gLfpd;wd 11.11.11.11. Gypfs; ghJfhg;Gj; jpl;lk;Gypfs; ghJfhg;Gj; jpl;lk;Gypfs; ghJfhg;Gj; jpl;lk;Gypfs; ghJfhg;Gj; jpl;lk; - Njrpa tpyq;FNjrpa tpyq;FNjrpa tpyq;FNjrpa tpyq;F - 1973 Vg;uy; 1y; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ 12.12.12.12. ahidfs; ghJfhg;Gj; jpl;lk; - Njrpa ghuk;ghpa tpyq;FNjrpa ghuk;ghpa tpyq;FNjrpa ghuk;ghpa tpyq;FNjrpa ghuk;ghpa tpyq;F - Rw;Wr;#oy; kw;wk; tdj;Jiw mikr;rfj;jhy; Vw;gLj;jg;gl;lJ 13.13.13.13. fhz;lhkpUf ghJfhg;G jpl;lk; - Jj;th Njrpa G+q;fhtpy; Gduikg;Gj; jpl;lk; cs;sJJj;th Njrpa G+q;fhtpy; Gduikg;Gj; jpl;lk; cs;sJJj;th Njrpa G+q;fhtpy; Gduikg;Gj; jpl;lk; cs;sJJj;th Njrpa G+q;fhtpy; Gduikg;Gj; jpl;lk; cs;sJ 14.14.14.14. rpq;fq;fs; ruzhyak;rpq;fq;fs; ruzhyak;rpq;fq;fs; ruzhyak;rpq;fq;fs; ruzhyak; - 1972y; fph;td tpyq;F ruzhyak; (F[uhj;)1972y; fph;td tpyq;F ruzhyak; (F[uhj;)1972y; fph;td tpyq;F ruzhyak; (F[uhj;)1972y; fph;td tpyq;F ruzhyak; (F[uhj;) – 5Mz;L jpl;lk; cUthdJ5Mz;L jpl;lk; cUthdJ5Mz;L jpl;lk; cUthdJ5Mz;L jpl;lk; cUthdJ - thopl Rw;Wr; #oy; rkepiy ghJfhf;fg;gl;ljhy; rpq;f vz;zpf;if mjpfhpj;jJ. 15.15.15.15. Kjiyfs; tsh;g;G jpl;lk;Kjiyfs; tsh;g;G jpl;lk;Kjiyfs; tsh;g;G jpl;lk;Kjiyfs; tsh;g;G jpl;lk; - ed;dPh; tho; Kjiyfs; (FNuhNfhily;]; ghY];l;hp];) - cth;ePh Kjiyfs; (fphp]pily;]; NghNuh]];) - fhhpay; (fpuhtpahyp]; Nfq;fbf;f];) Nghd;w Kjiyapdq;fis fhf;f Kjiy tsh;g;g kw;Wk; guhkhpg;Gj; jpl;lk; Jtq;fg;gl;lJ (1975) 16.16.16.16. rptg;Gg; Gs;sp tptug; Gj;jfk; - ,aw;if kw;wk; ,aw;if tsq;fis ghJfhf;Fk; rh;tNjr $l;likg;G ,e;j Gj;jfj;ij guhkuj;J tUfpwJ - ,J mr;RWj;jg;gl;l rpw;wpdq;fs; my;yJ mopAk; epiyapd; tpspk;gpy; cs;s tpyq;Ffs; gw;wpa Fwpg;G ,Uf;Fk; - 253 tif tpyq;Ffs; kw;Wk; 2000 tif jhtuq;fs; gw;wpa jfty; jw;rkak; cs;sd. 17.17.17.17. ,e;jpahtpy; mopAk; epiyapy; cs;s tpyq;Ffs; - ,e;jpa xw;iw nfhk;gd;, ePyfphp Fuq;F, rpq;fthy; Fuq;F, Mrpa rpq;fk;, ,e;jpa Gyp, Mypt; hpl;yp Mik, Nkhdhy;, fhl;Lf; Nfhop, ,e;jpa ehiu. 18.18.18.18. 1950y; ,Ue;J mope;j ,dkhf cs;sJ - rpWj;ij 19.19.19.19. Mypth; hpl;yp Mik ,dtpUj;jp ,lk; - xhp]h flw;fiu gUe;gUe;gUe;gUe;J myF Mik ,dtpUj;jp ,lk;J myF Mik ,dtpUj;jp ,lk;J myF Mik ,dtpUj;jp ,lk;J myF Mik ,dtpUj;jp ,lk; ---- jkpo;ehL flw;fiujkpo;ehL flw;fiujkpo;ehL flw;fiujkpo;ehL flw;fiu 20.20.20.20. ek; Njrpa gok; - khq;fdp 21.21.21.21. Kjypy; epyj;jpw;F te;j caphpdk; - ,U tho;tpfs; 22.22.22.22. iiiilaNdhrh;laNdhrh;laNdhrh;laNdhrh; ---- nghUs; (gaq;fukhd gy;ypfs;)nghUs; (gaq;fukhd gy;ypfs;)nghUs; (gaq;fukhd gy;ypfs;)nghUs; (gaq;fukhd gy;ypfs;) 23.23.23.23. tyirNghjy;tyirNghjy;tyirNghjy;tyirNghjy; - gwitfs; jhk; thOk; ,lj;jpy; ,Ue;J Fsph;fhy Gfyplj;jpw;F nrd;W kPz;Lk; Nfhilfhyq;fspy; jk; ,Ug;gplj;jpw;F jpUk;Gjy; - ,dg;ngUf;fk; nra;a czT+l;lk; ngw tpUk;gpa #o; epiy ngw nry;fpd;wd. - tyir nry;y ,uT Neuq;fisNa Njh;e;njLf;Fk; - mjpfgl;rk; 17600 fp.kP tiu tyir nry;Yk; - Barn swallows vd;w gwit 14400 fp.kP tiu tyir nry;Yk; - Nfhilfhy ghh;itahsh;fs; (rpl;Lf; FUtp, ehiu, iel;bq;Nfy;, Fapy;) - G+kpapd; fhe;j tpiriaf; nfhz;L ,Ug;gpLk; mwpAk; gwit (Gwh) 24.24.24.24. ruzhyaq;fs; - ekJ ehl;by; Rkhh; 500 ruzhyaq;fs; cs;sd - tpyq;Ffs; guhkhf;fg;gLfpd;wd - kf;fSf;F tpyq;Ffs; gw;wp mwpTWj;jy; Kz;le;jiw (jpUney;Ntyp) Gyp rpl;lhy; rpWj;ij fsf;fhL (jpUney;Ntyp) Gypfs; rpq;fthy; Fuq;F jpUtpy;ypGj;Jhh; ruzhyak; (tpUJefh;) fhl;L mzpy; Fuit khd; Ntle;jhq;fs; ruzhyak; (fhQ;rpGuk;) kQ;rs; ehiu flw;gwit rhk;gy; ehiu KJkiy ruzhyak; (ePyfhp) ahid fhl;L vUik Gyp rpWj;ij gwf;Fk; mzpy; tpuhyp kiy ruzhyak; (jpUr;rp) fhl;L kapy; Nfhbahf;fiu ruzhyak; (ehfg;gl;bdk;) Gs;spkhd; fub www.kalvisolai.com - 26 of 29.
  27. 27. 25.25.25.25. caphp gd;ikak;caphp gd;ikak;caphp gd;ikak;caphp gd;ikak; - caphpfspy; gy ,dq;fs; xd;whf fhzg;gLtJ - cyfpy; 12 gpukhz;l gd;ikaplq;fs; cs;sd - gd;ika moptpw;F fhuzk; kdpjd; - xU rpw;wpdk; moptJ kw;w rpw;wpdq;fspd; njhlh; mopTf;F fhuzkhFk; - tPL fl;Ljy; , ghyk;, tptrhak;, rhiyfs;, ,Ug;Gg;ghij Nghd;witfspd; tphpthf;fk; moptpw;F fhuzk; MFk; 26.26.26.26. Njrpag; G+q;fhf;fs;Njrpag; G+q;fhf;fs;Njrpag; G+q;fhf;fs;Njrpag; G+q;fhf;fs; - ,aw;if #oNyhL tdcaph;fis ghJfhf;Fk; epyg;gug;G Njrpag; G+q;fhf;fs; vdg;gLk; ge;jpg;G+h; Njrpag; G+q;fh, ik#h;, fh;ehlf khepyk; ahid, rpWj;ij, Fuitkhd;, Gyp, kpshkhd; fhh;ngl; Njrpag;G+q;fh, cj;jpugpuNjrk; ehw;nfhk;G khd;, ahid, Gs;spkhd;, Gyp, ntspkhd; fph; Njrpag;G+q;fh, [_dhfh;, F[uhj; Mrpar; rpq;fk;, rpWj;ij, fhl;Lg;gd;wp, rpq;fhuh fhrpnuq;fh Njrpag; G+q;fh, N[hh;`hl;, m];]hk; ahid, xw;iw nfhk;G fhz;lhkpUfk,; fhl;nlUik, Gyp, rpWj;ijg;Gyp Gyp ruzhyak;, ,Lf;fp, Nfush ahid, Gs;spkhd;, kpshkhd;, rhk;gh; khd;, Gyp, Fuitkhd; 27.27.27.27. Gdpjr; Nrhiyfs;Gdpjr; Nrhiyfs;Gdpjr; Nrhiyfs;Gdpjr; Nrhiyfs; - xU Fwpgpl;l rKjhaj;jhy; ghJfhf;fg;gLk; tdk; - xU tdj;jpw;Fwpa flTs; ,Uf;Fk; - nkhj;j rKjhaKk; mij ghJfhg;gjpy; <LgLk; - ghukghpa goq;fbapduhy; mq;F thOk; rpw;wpdq;fs; ghJfhf;fg;gLfpwJ. 28.28.28.28. ghiytd ntl;Lf; fpspg;G+r;rpfs; $l;lkhf tyir nry;Yk; (50000kpy;ypad;fs;) 29.29.29.29. rhykd; kPd;fs; ,dtpUj;jpf;fhf flypy; ,Ue;J ed;dPh; Nehf;fp 1500 iky;fs; tiu nry;Yk; 30.30.30.30. gpNurpy; Mikfs; ,dtpUj;jpf;fhf 1250iky;fs; 8 thuq;fspy; gazpf;fpd;wd. 31.31.31.31. tl mnkhpf;fh ghud; ikjhd khd;fs; 3700 iky;fSf;F tyir nry;Yk; (ghYl;b ,dq;fspy; ,JNt ePzl; Jhu tyirg; gazk;) 32.32.32.32. khepy rpd;dq;fs; (jkpo;ehL) kuk; - gidkuk; gwit – gr;irg;Gwh kyh; - nrq;fhe;jhs; kyh; tpyq;F – tiuahL 33.33.33.33. gwit kdpjd; vd miof;fg;gLgth; - ryPk; myp (gwit epGzh;) 34.34.34.34. gRik mikjp mikg;G – jpkpq;fyk; Ntl;ilahlg;gLtij jilnra;a fhuzkhf ,Ue;j mikg;G 35.35.35.35. rpg;Nfh ,af;fk; - Re;jh; yhy; gFFzhthy; mikf;fg;gl;l ,af;fk; - ,kakiyapy; kuq;fs; moptij jLf;f fhuzkha; ,Ue;jJ fhw;W ePh; kw;Wk; epyk; khRgLjy; 1. fhw;W khRgLjy; - fhw;wpd; Nrh;kk; ,aw;gpay; kw;Wk; Ntjpapay; Nrh;kq;fshy; ghjpg;gilAk; epfo;T. - ,U tifg;gLk; m),aw;if epfo;T M) kdpj nray;ghL 2. ,aw;if %yq;fs; - vhpkiy ntg;gk; kw;Wk; fhl;L jP - fly; cg;G ePh; njspj;jy; kw;Wk; caphdq;fs; mopjy; - kfue;jj;Jhs; kw;Wk; GtpNkyLf;F fjphpaf;fj; jhJf;fs; 3. kdpj nray;ghl;L %yq;fs; (Md;j;uNgh[pdpf;) - njhopw;r; rhiy Gif - thfdq;fspy; ,Ue;J ntsptUk; Gif - kpd; cw;gj;jp epiyaj;jpy; ,Ue;J ntspahFk; Gif www.kalvisolai.com - 27 of 29.
  28. 28. 4. fhw;W khRf;fs; fhh;gd; Nkhdhf;i]L vhpnghUs; vhptjhy; cUthFk; `PNkhFNshgpNdhL ,ize;J fhh;ghf;]p `PNkhFNshgpdhf khwp kuzk; Nehplyhk; fhh;gd; il Mf;i]L epyf;fhp tpwF vhpjy; cyfk; ntg;gkiljy; iel;u[d; Mf;i]Lfs; thfdq;fspy; ,Ue;J ntspahFk; mkpy kio fe;jf il Mf;i]L fe;jfk; vhpjy; fz;fs; vhpjy; EiuaPuy; Gw;WNeha; M];Jkh 5. mkpy kio - epyf;fhp kw;Wk; ngl;Nuhypag; nghUs;fs; vhpAk; NghJ mjpy; ,Ue;J iel;u[d; fe;jfk; kw;Wk; fhh;gd; ntspNaWk; - ,e;j tha;f;fs; tspkz;ly Mf;]p[NdhL ,ize;J mtw;wpd; Mf;i]Lfis cUthf;Fk; - ,e;j Mf;i]Lfs; tspkz;ly ePuhtpAld; ,ize;J mkpy kio cUthfpwJ (iel;hpf mkpyk;, fe;jf mkpyk;, kw;Wk; fhh;Nghdpf; mkpyk;) - kdpjdpd; fz;, Njhy; vhpr;ry; Vw;gLk; - tpij Kisj;jy; kw;Wk; tsh;r;rp jilgLk; - kz; tsj;ij khw;wptpLk; (jhtuk;, ePhthop caphpdk; ghjpf;Fk;) - fl;llk; mizf;fl;Lfis mhpf;Fk; 6. Gtp ntg;gkiljy; (gRik ,y;y tpisT) - kuq;fis mopg;gjhy; tspkz;lyj;jpy; fhh;gd; il Mf;i]Lfhh;gd; il Mf;i]Lfhh;gd; il Mf;i]Lfhh;gd; il Mf;i]L kw;Wk; kPj;Njd; msT mjpfhpf;fpwJ - ,jdhy; Fiwe;j miyepsk; nfhz;l fjph;tPr;Rfs; kPz;Lk; G+kpia Nehf;fp gpujpgypf;fpd;wd. - ,jdhy; Gtp tofj;ijtpl mjpf mst ntg;gj;jhy; jhf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,J Gtp ntg;giljy; vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ. 7. xN]hd; ghjpg;G - xN]hd; xU epwkw;w thA %d;W Mf;]p[d; (O3) mZf;fshy; MdJ, - tsp kz;lyj;jpd; ];l;Nul;Nlh];gpah; vd;w mLf;fpy; gue;Js;sJ - tspkz;lyj;jpy; fhzg;gLk; rpy khRf;fs; ,e;j xN]hDld; tpidGhptjhy; ,jd; mlh;j;jp FiwfpwJ - ,e;j epfo;it xN]hd; xl;il vd;fpNwhk;. - ,jd; fhuzkhf jPq;F tpistpf;Fk; Gw Cjhf; fjphfs; Gtpia jhf;Ffpd;wd. - xN]hd; ghjpg;g fhuzkhd khr FNshNuh GNshNuh fhh;gd; (CFC) 8. fhw;W khRgLjiy jLj;jy; - frL vz;izfis gad;gLj;jf; $lhJ - thfdq;fis Fiwe;j mst gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lk; - njhopw;rhiy Giffis tbfl;bag; gpd; ntspNaw;w Ntz;Lk; - caphp vhpnghUs;fis mjpfk; gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lk; (caph Bry;) - mjpf kuq;fis eLjy; 9. ePh; khRgLjy; - ePhpd; ,aw;gpay; Ntjpapay; caphpay; jd;ikapy; Vw;gLk; tpUk;gj;jfhj khw;wk; 10. ePh; khRgLjy; fhuzq;fs; - njhopw;rhiy fopTfs; (Hg, Cu, blh;n[d;l,; ngl;Nuhy;, Mh;rdpf;) - tPl;L fopTfs; - G+r;R nfhy;ypfs; (DDT BHC kw;Wk; cuq;fs;) - kpjit caphpfspd; $l;lq;fs; - jhtu nfhy;ypfs; ghf;Bhpah kw;wk; itu];fs; - njhopw;rhiyapy; ,Ue;J ntspNaWk; ntg;gePh; www.kalvisolai.com - 28 of 29.
  29. 29. 11. ePh; khRgLjy; tpisT - kpdNkl;lh vd;Dk; %isia jhf;Fk; Neha; Vw;gLk; - ilNahhpah - kPd;fs; kw;Wk; kpjit caphpfspd; ,wg;G - fhyuh ilgha;L Nghd;w Neha;fs; cUthFk; - kPj;NjNkh FNshgpdpkh vd;w Rthr Neha; tUk; - A+l;NuhgpNf]d; cUthjyhy; gpw ePh; tho; caphpdq;fs; Mf;]p[d; jl;Lghlhy; ,wf;Fk; - 12. ePh; khRgLjy; jLj;jy; - fopT ePhpid Rj;jpfhpj;J ntspNaw;w Ntz;Lk; - Rj;jpfhpf;fg;glhj ePhpid Njhl;lq;fSf;F gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lk; 13. epyk; khRgLjy; - epyj;jpy; Vw;gLk; tpUk;gj;jfhj khw;wk; - G+r;rpf; nfhy;yp kUe;J, fjphpaf;f jdpkq;fs;, tptrha cuq;fs;, tPl;by; ,Ue;J ntspNaw;wg;gLk; Njitaw;wg; nghUs;fs; Nghd;wtw;why; epyk; khrilAk; 14. gNahNghy; - ,aw;ifahd gpsh];bf; my;yJ caphp gpsh];bf; - My;fhyp[d;fs; vDk; Ez;Zaphpfshy; cUthf;fg;gLk; Kw;wpYk; kf;Fk; jd;ikAs;s gpsh];bf; - ,J xU N`hNkhghypkh; tif MFk; (ghyp i`l;uhf;]p gpA+l;bNul;) - fha;fwp, NrhskhT, gl;lhzp khT Nghd;wtw;iw Ez;Zaphpfisf; nfhz;L rpijj;J cUthf;fg;gLk; - A+ikrPl;]; kw;wk; irNrhikrPl;]; vd;w Ez;Zaphp <LgLfpwJ - nraw;if ,Uja thy;Tfs;, gw;rPuikg;G, vYk;G KwpT rPuikg;Gj; jfLfs; Nghd;w kUj;Jt gad;fSf;F cjTk; - tPl;Lg; nghUs;fs; jl;Lfs;, fyd;fs;, rPrhf;fs; jahhpf;f cjTk; 15. fe;jf il Mf;i]L khRthy; ghjpg;gilAk; caphpdk; - iyf;fd;fs; kw;Wk; ghrpfs; 16. ePhpy; cs;s vz;nza; foptpdhy; gwit ,wf;iffspd; nkoF glyk; ghjpf;fg;gLfpwJ. 17. ,aw;iff;F khwhd nky;ypa xLila Kl;ilfis gwitfs; ,l fhuzk; - G+r;rpf;nfhy;ypfs; 18. ePh; khR jLg;G kw;Wk; fl;Lg;ghL rl;lk; - 1974 19. fhw;W khR jLg;G kw;Wk; fl;Lg;ghL rl;lk; - 1981 20. Rw;Wg;Gwr; #oy; ghJfhg;Gr; rl;lk; - 1986 21. fopT ePh; Fl;ilfspd; mUfpy; ijy kuq;fis tsh;g;gJ – fopTePiu tpiuthf cwpQ;rpf; nfhz;L Jha ePuhtpia ntsptpLk;. ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ek;gpf;if tplhKaw;rp fbd ciog;G ntw;wp epr;rak; cq;fSf;F cjt tha;g;G nfhLj;j fy;tpr; Nrhiyf;F ed;wp www.kalvisolai.com - 29 of 29.

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