Draft 5.0
June 17, 2004
SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942)
NOTICE OF DISCLAIMER AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITY1
The document t...
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Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard1
for Data Centers2
Table of Contents3
FOREW...
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5.3.5.3 Operational parameters...........................................................
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5.11.7.2 Cabinet ventilation.............................................................
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8.3 Redundant access provider services ..................................................
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F.7 Other site selection considerations .................................................
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G.6.1 General mechanical requirements ...................................................
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List of figures1
2
Figure 1: Relationship of spaces in a data center.....................
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FOREWORD1
(This foreword is not considered part of this Standard.)2
Approval of this S...
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• ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B.2, Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard; Part ...
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provide recommended practices and methods by which many of the requirements of this1
...
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Specification of criteria1
In accordance with EIA Engineering Publication, EP-7B, two...
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1 SCOPE1
1.1 General2
This Standard specifies the minimum requirements for telecommun...
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2 DEFINITION OF TERMS, ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS,1
AND UNITS OF MEASURE2
2.1 General...
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common equipment room (telecommunications): An enclosed space used for equipment and1...
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the horizontal cross-connect (in the main distribution area or horizontal distributio...
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plenum: a compartment or chamber to which one or more air ducts are connected and tha...
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wireless: The use of radiated electromagnetic energy (e.g., radio frequency and micro...
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MDA main distribution area1
NEC National Electrical Code2
NEMA National Electrical Ma...
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2.4 Units of measure1
A Ampere2
°C degrees Celsius3
°F degrees Fahrenheit4
ft feet, f...
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3 DATA CENTER DESIGN OVERVIEW1
3.1 General2
The intent of this clause is to provide g...
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Bulding Site
Data Center
Data Center Electrical &
Mechanical Rooms
Support Staff
Offi...
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4 DATA CENTER CABLING SYSTEM INFRASTRUCTURE1
4.1 The basic elements of the data cente...
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5 DATA CENTER TELECOMMUNICATIONS SPACES AND1
RELATED TOPOLOGIES2
5.1 General3
The dat...
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located in a dedicated room within the computer room for additional security. The hor...
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Access Providers
Equip Dist
Area
(Rack/Cabinet)
Computer
Room
Zone Dist
Area
Offices,...
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Primary Entrance
Room
(Carrier Equip &
Demarcation)
Horiz Dist Area
(LAN/SAN/KVM
Swit...
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5.3.2 Location1
When selecting the computer room site, avoid locations that are restr...
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5.3.4.5 Lighting1
Lighting shall be a minimum of 500 lux (50 footcandles) in the hori...
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5.3.5.2 HVAC1
If the computer room does not have a dedicated HVAC system, the compute...
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vibration within the building will exist and will be conveyed to the computer room vi...
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access provider’s responsibility for the circuit typically ends and the customer’s re...
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The access provider and service provider spaces in data center entrance rooms typical...
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  1. 1. Draft 5.0 June 17, 2004 SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) NOTICE OF DISCLAIMER AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITY1 The document to which this Notice is affixed (the “Document”) has been prepared by one or more2 Engineering Committees or Formulating Groups of the Telecommunications Industry Association3 (“TIA”). TIA is not the author of the Document contents, but publishes and claims copyright to the4 Document pursuant to licenses and permission granted by the authors of the contents.5 TIA Engineering Committees and Formulating Groups are expected to conduct their affairs in6 accordance with the TIA Engineering Manual (“Manual”), the current and predecessor versions of7 which are available at http://www.tiaonline.org/standards/sfg/engineering_manual.cfm. TIA’s8 function is to administer the process, but not the content, of document preparation in accordance9 with the Manual and, when appropriate, the policies and procedures of the American National10 Standards Institute (“ANSI”). TIA does not evaluate, test, verify or investigate the information,11 accuracy, soundness, or credibility of the contents of the Document. In publishing the Document,12 TIA disclaims any undertaking to perform any duty owed to or for anyone.13 The use or practice of contents of this Document may involve the use of intellectual property14 rights (“IPR”), including pending or issued patents, or copyrights, owned by one or more parties.15 TIA makes no search or investigation for IPR. When IPR consisting of patents and published16 pending patent applications are claimed and called to TIA’s attention, a statement from the holder17 thereof is requested, all in accordance with the Manual. TIA takes no position with reference to,18 and disclaims any obligation to investigate or inquire into, the scope or validity of any claims of19 IPR. TIA will neither be a party to discussions of any licensing terms or conditions, which are20 instead left to the parties involved, nor will TIA opine or judge whether proposed licensing terms21 or conditions are reasonable or non-discriminatory.22 TIA does not enforce or monitor compliance with the contents of the Document. TIA does not23 certify, inspect, test or otherwise investigate products, designs or services or any claims of24 compliance with the contents of the Document.25 ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, ARE DISCLAIMED, INCLUDING WITHOUT26 LIMITATION, ANY AND ALL WARRANTIES CONCERNING THE ACCURACY OF THE27 CONTENTS, ITS FITNESS OR APPROPRIATENESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR28 USE, ITS MERCHANTABILITY AND ITS NON-INFRINGEMENT OF ANY THIRD PARTY’S29 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS. TIA EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ANY AND ALL30 RESPONSIBILITIES FOR THE ACCURACY OF THE CONTENTS AND MAKES NO31 REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES REGARDING THE CONTENT’S COMPLIANCE WITH32 ANY APPLICABLE STATUTE, RULE OR REGULATION, OR THE SAFETY OR HEALTH33 EFFECTS OF THE CONTENTS OR ANY PRODUCT OR SERVICE REFERRED TO IN THE34 DOCUMENT OR PRODUCED OR RENDERED TO COMPLY WITH THE CONTENTS.35 TIA SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR ANY AND ALL DAMAGES, DIRECT OR INDIRECT, ARISING36 FROM OR RELATING TO ANY USE OF THE CONTENTS CONTAINED HEREIN, INCLUDING37 WITHOUT LIMITATION ANY AND ALL INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR38 CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF BUSINESS, LOSS OF39 PROFITS, LITIGATION, OR THE LIKE), WHETHER BASED UPON BREACH OF CONTRACT,40 BREACH OF WARRANTY, TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE), PRODUCT LIABILITY OR41 OTHERWISE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. THE42 FOREGOING NEGATION OF DAMAGES IS A FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENT OF THE USE OF43 THE CONTENTS HEREOF, AND THESE CONTENTS WOULD NOT BE PUBLISHED BY TIA44 WITHOUT SUCH LIMITATIONS.45 46
  2. 2. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 1 Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard1 for Data Centers2 Table of Contents3 FOREWORD.................................................................................................................................... 84 1 SCOPE................................................................................................................................. 125 1.1 General............................................................................................................................ 126 1.2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 127 2 DEFINITION OF TERMS, ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS, AND UNITS OF8 MEASURE ........................................................................................................................... 139 2.1 General............................................................................................................................ 1310 2.2 Definition of terms............................................................................................................ 1311 2.3 Acronyms and abbreviations ........................................................................................... 1712 2.4 Units of measure ............................................................................................................. 1913 3 DATA CENTER DESIGN OVERVIEW ................................................................................ 2014 3.1 General............................................................................................................................ 2015 3.2 Relationship of data center spaces to other building spaces.......................................... 2016 3.3 Tiering.............................................................................................................................. 2117 3.4 Consideration for involvement of professionals .............................................................. 2118 4 DATA CENTER CABLING SYSTEM INFRASTRUCTURE................................................ 2219 4.1 The basic elements of the data center cabling system structure .................................... 2220 5 DATA CENTER TELECOMMUNICATIONS SPACES AND RELATED TOPOLOGIES ... 2321 5.1 General............................................................................................................................ 2322 5.2 Data center structure....................................................................................................... 2323 5.2.1 Major elements......................................................................................................... 2324 5.2.2 Typical data center topology .................................................................................... 2425 5.2.3 Reduced data center topologies .............................................................................. 2426 5.2.4 Distributed data center topologies............................................................................ 2527 5.3 Computer room requirements ......................................................................................... 2628 5.3.1 General..................................................................................................................... 2629 5.3.2 Location.................................................................................................................... 2730 5.3.3 Access...................................................................................................................... 2731 5.3.4 Architectural design.................................................................................................. 2732 5.3.4.1 Size ................................................................................................................................... 2733 5.3.4.2 Guidelines for other equipment..........................................................................................2734 5.3.4.3 Ceiling height..................................................................................................................... 2735 5.3.4.4 Treatment .......................................................................................................................... 2736 5.3.4.5 Lighting.............................................................................................................................. 2837 5.3.4.6 Doors................................................................................................................................. 2838 5.3.4.7 Floor loading...................................................................................................................... 2839 5.3.4.8 Signage ............................................................................................................................. 2840 5.3.4.9 Seismic considerations...................................................................................................... 2841 5.3.5 Environmental design............................................................................................... 2842 5.3.5.1 Contaminants .................................................................................................................... 2843 5.3.5.2 HVAC................................................................................................................................. 2944 5.3.5.2.1 Continuous operation ..................................................................................................2945 5.3.5.2.2 Standby operation ....................................................................................................... 2946
  3. 3. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 2 5.3.5.3 Operational parameters..................................................................................................... 291 5.3.5.4 Batteries ............................................................................................................................ 292 5.3.5.5 Vibration ............................................................................................................................ 293 5.3.6 Electrical design ....................................................................................................... 304 5.3.6.1 Power ................................................................................................................................ 305 5.3.6.2 Standby power................................................................................................................... 306 5.3.6.3 Bonding and grounding (earthing) ..................................................................................... 307 5.3.7 Fire protection .......................................................................................................... 308 5.3.8 Water infiltration ....................................................................................................... 309 5.4 Entrance room requirements........................................................................................... 3010 5.4.1 General..................................................................................................................... 3011 5.4.2 Location.................................................................................................................... 3112 5.4.3 Quantity .................................................................................................................... 3113 5.4.4 Access...................................................................................................................... 3114 5.4.5 Entrance conduit routing under access floor............................................................ 3115 5.4.6 Access provider and service provider spaces.......................................................... 3116 5.4.7 Building entrance terminal........................................................................................ 3217 5.4.7.1 General.............................................................................................................................. 3218 5.4.8 Architectural design.................................................................................................. 3219 5.4.8.1 General.............................................................................................................................. 3220 5.4.8.2 Size ................................................................................................................................... 3221 5.4.8.3 Plywood backboards ......................................................................................................... 3322 5.4.8.4 Ceiling height..................................................................................................................... 3323 5.4.8.5 Treatment .......................................................................................................................... 3324 5.4.8.6 Lighting.............................................................................................................................. 3325 5.4.8.7 Doors................................................................................................................................. 3326 5.4.8.8 Signage ............................................................................................................................. 3327 5.4.8.9 Seismic considerations...................................................................................................... 3328 5.4.8.10 HVAC............................................................................................................................. 3429 5.4.8.10.1 Continuous operation ................................................................................................ 3430 5.4.8.10.2 Standby operation ..................................................................................................... 3431 5.4.8.11 Operational parameters.................................................................................................3432 5.4.8.12 Power ............................................................................................................................ 3433 5.4.8.13 Standby Power .............................................................................................................. 3534 5.4.8.14 Bonding and grounding ................................................................................................. 3535 5.4.9 Fire protection .......................................................................................................... 3536 5.4.10 Water infiltration .......................................................................................................3537 5.5 Main distribution area ...................................................................................................... 3538 5.5.1 General..................................................................................................................... 3539 5.5.2 Location.................................................................................................................... 3540 5.5.3 Facility requirements ................................................................................................ 3541 5.6 Horizontal distribution area.............................................................................................. 3642 5.6.1 General..................................................................................................................... 3643 5.6.2 Location.................................................................................................................... 3644 5.6.3 Facility requirements ................................................................................................ 3645 5.7 Zone distribution area...................................................................................................... 3646 5.8 Equipment distribution areas........................................................................................... 3747 5.9 Telecommunications room .............................................................................................. 3748 5.10 Data center support areas............................................................................................... 3749 5.11 Racks and cabinets .........................................................................................................3850 5.11.1 General..................................................................................................................... 3851 5.11.2 "Hot" and "cold" aisles.............................................................................................. 3852 5.11.3 Equipment placement............................................................................................... 3853 5.11.4 Placement relative to floor tile grid........................................................................... 3954 5.11.5 Access floor tile cuts................................................................................................. 3955 5.11.6 Installation of racks on access floors ....................................................................... 3956 5.11.7 Specifications ........................................................................................................... 4057 5.11.7.1 Clearances .................................................................................................................... 4058
  4. 4. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 3 5.11.7.2 Cabinet ventilation......................................................................................................... 401 5.11.7.3 Cabinet and rack height................................................................................................. 402 5.11.7.4 Cabinet depth ................................................................................................................ 403 5.11.7.5 Adjustable rails .............................................................................................................. 414 5.11.7.6 Rack and cabinet finishes..............................................................................................415 5.11.7.7 Power strips................................................................................................................... 416 5.11.7.8 Additional cabinet and rack specifications ..................................................................... 417 5.11.8 Racks & cabinets in entrance room, main distribution areas and horizontal8 distribution areas .................................................................................................................... 419 6 DATA CENTER CABLING SYSTEMS................................................................................ 4310 6.1 General............................................................................................................................ 4311 6.2 Horizontal Cabling ........................................................................................................... 4312 6.2.1 General..................................................................................................................... 4313 6.2.2 Topology................................................................................................................... 4414 6.2.3 Horizontal cabling distances .................................................................................... 4415 6.2.3.1 Maximum lengths for copper cabling................................................................................. 4516 6.2.4 Recognized media.................................................................................................... 4517 6.3 Backbone cabling ............................................................................................................ 4618 6.3.1 General..................................................................................................................... 4619 6.3.2 Topology................................................................................................................... 4720 6.3.2.1 Star topology ..................................................................................................................... 4721 6.3.2.2 Accommodation of non-star configurations ....................................................................... 4722 6.3.3 Redundant cabling topologies.................................................................................. 4823 6.3.4 Recognized media.................................................................................................... 4824 6.3.5 Backbone cabling distances..................................................................................... 4825 6.4 Choosing media............................................................................................................... 4926 6.5 Centralized optical fiber cabling ...................................................................................... 5027 6.5.1 Introduction............................................................................................................... 5028 6.5.2 Guidelines ................................................................................................................ 5029 6.6 Cabling transmission performance and test requirements.............................................. 5130 7 DATA CENTER CABLING PATHWAYS ............................................................................ 5231 7.1 General............................................................................................................................ 5232 7.2 Security for data center cabling....................................................................................... 5233 7.3 Separation of power and telecommunications cables..................................................... 5234 7.3.1 Separation between electrical power and twisted-pair cables ................................. 5235 7.3.2 Practices to accommodate power separation requirements.................................... 5336 7.3.3 Separation of fiber and copper cabling .................................................................... 5437 7.4 Telecommunications entrance pathways ........................................................................ 5438 7.4.1 Entrance pathway types........................................................................................... 5439 7.4.2 Diversity.................................................................................................................... 5440 7.4.3 Sizing........................................................................................................................ 5441 7.5 Access floor systems....................................................................................................... 5442 7.5.1 General..................................................................................................................... 5443 7.5.2 Cable trays for telecommunications cabling ............................................................ 5544 7.5.3 Access floor performance requirements .................................................................. 5545 7.5.4 Floor tile cut edging.................................................................................................. 5546 7.5.5 Cable types under access floors.............................................................................. 5547 7.6 Overhead cable trays ...................................................................................................... 5548 7.6.1 General..................................................................................................................... 5549 7.6.2 Cable tray support.................................................................................................... 5650 7.6.3 Coordination of cable tray routes ............................................................................. 5651 8 DATA CENTER REDUNDANCY......................................................................................... 5752 8.1 Introduction...................................................................................................................... 5753 8.2 Redundant maintenance holes and entrance pathways ................................................. 5754
  5. 5. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 4 8.3 Redundant access provider services .............................................................................. 581 8.4 Redundant entrance room............................................................................................... 582 8.5 Redundant main distribution area ................................................................................... 583 8.6 Redundant backbone cabling.......................................................................................... 594 8.7 Redundant horizontal cabling.......................................................................................... 595 ANNEX A (INFORMATIVE) CABLING DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS........................................ 606 A.1 Cabling application distances.......................................................................................... 607 A.1.1 T-1, E-1, T-3 and E-3 circuit distances..................................................................... 618 A.1.2 EIA/TIA-232 and EIA/TIA-561 console connections ................................................ 649 A.1.3 Other application distances...................................................................................... 6410 A.2 Cross-connections...........................................................................................................6411 A.3 Separation of functions in the main distribution area ...................................................... 6412 A.3.1 Twisted-pair main cross-connect ............................................................................. 6413 A.3.2 Coaxial main cross-connect..................................................................................... 6514 A.3.3 Optical fiber main cross-connect.............................................................................. 6515 A.4 Separation of functions in the horizontal distribution area .............................................. 6516 A.5 Cabling to telecommunications equipment...................................................................... 6517 A.6 Cabling to end equipment ............................................................................................... 6618 A.7 Fiber design consideration .............................................................................................. 6619 A.8 Copper design consideration........................................................................................... 6620 ANNEX B (INFORMATIVE) TELECOMMUNICATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE21 ADMINISTRATION .............................................................................................................. 6722 B.1 General............................................................................................................................ 6723 B.2 Identification scheme for floor space............................................................................... 6724 B.3 Identification scheme for racks and cabinets .................................................................. 6725 B.4 Identification scheme for patch panels............................................................................ 6826 B.5 Cable and patch cord identifier........................................................................................ 7027 ANNEX C (INFORMATIVE) ACCESS PROVIDER INFORMATION ........................................... 7228 C.1 Access provider coordination .......................................................................................... 7229 C.1.1 General..................................................................................................................... 7230 C.1.2 Information to provide to access providers .............................................................. 7231 C.1.3 Information that the access providers should provide.............................................. 7232 C.2 Access provider demarcation in the entrance room........................................................ 7333 C.2.1 Organization............................................................................................................. 7334 C.2.2 Demarcation of low-speed circuits ........................................................................... 7335 C.2.3 Demarcation of T-1 circuits ...................................................................................... 7636 C.2.4 Demarcation of E-3 & T-3 circuits ............................................................................ 7737 C.2.5 Demarcation of optical fiber circuits ......................................................................... 7738 ANNEX D (INFORMATIVE) COORDINATION OF EQUIPMENT PLANS WITH OTHER39 ENGINEERS ........................................................................................................................ 7840 D.1 General............................................................................................................................ 7841 ANNEX E (INFORMATIVE) DATA CENTER SPACE CONSIDERATIONS................................ 7942 E.1 General............................................................................................................................ 7943 ANNEX F (INFORMATIVE) SITE SELECTION........................................................................... 8044 F.1 General............................................................................................................................ 8045 F.2 Architectural site selection considerations ...................................................................... 8046 F.3 Electrical site selection considerations............................................................................ 8147 F.4 Mechanical site selection considerations ........................................................................ 8148 F.5 Telecommunications site selection considerations ......................................................... 8249 F.6 Security site selection considerations ............................................................................. 8250
  6. 6. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 5 F.7 Other site selection considerations ................................................................................. 821 ANNEX G (INFORMATIVE) DATA CENTER INFRASTRUCTURE TIERS................................. 842 G.1 General................................................................................................................................ 843 G.1.1 Redundancy overview................................................................................................... 844 G.1.2 Tiering overview............................................................................................................ 845 G.2 Redundancy..................................................................................................................... 856 G.2.1 N - Base requirement ............................................................................................... 857 G.2.2 N+1 redundancy....................................................................................................... 858 G.2.3 N+2 redundancy....................................................................................................... 859 G.2.4 2N redundancy......................................................................................................... 8510 G.2.5 2(N+1) redundancy .................................................................................................. 8511 G.2.6 Concurrent maintainability and testing capability..................................................... 8512 G.2.7 Capacity and scalability............................................................................................ 8513 G.2.8 Isolation .................................................................................................................... 8514 G.2.9 Data center tiering.................................................................................................... 8515 G.2.9.1 General.............................................................................................................................. 8516 G.2.9.2 Tier 1 data center – basic .................................................................................................. 8617 G.2.9.3 Tier 2 data center – redundant components...................................................................... 8718 G.2.9.4 Tier 3 data center - concurrently maintainable................................................................... 8719 G.2.9.5 Tier 4 data center - fault tolerant........................................................................................ 8720 G.3 Telecommunications systems requirements ................................................................... 8821 G.3.1 Telecommunications tiering ..................................................................................... 8822 G.3.1.1 Tier 1 (telecommunications) .............................................................................................. 8823 G.3.1.2 Tier 2 (telecommunications) .............................................................................................. 8824 G.3.1.3 Tier 3 (telecommunications) .............................................................................................. 8925 G.3.1.4 Tier 4 (telecommunications) .............................................................................................. 9026 G.4 Architectural and structural requirements........................................................................ 9127 G.4.1 General..................................................................................................................... 9128 G.4.2 Architectural tiering................................................................................................... 9229 G.4.2.1 Tier 1 (architectural) .......................................................................................................... 9230 G.4.2.2 Tier 2 (architectural) .......................................................................................................... 9231 G.4.2.3 Tier 3 (architectural) .......................................................................................................... 9232 G.4.2.4 Tier 4 (architectural) .......................................................................................................... 9333 G.5 Electrical systems requirements...................................................................................... 9434 G.5.1 General electrical requirements ............................................................................... 9435 G.5.1.1 Utility service entrance and primary distribution ................................................................ 9436 G.5.1.2 Standby generation ........................................................................................................... 9437 G.5.1.3 Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) .................................................................................. 9538 G.5.1.4 Computer power distribution.............................................................................................. 9739 G.5.1.5 Building grounding and lightning protection systems......................................................... 9840 G.5.1.6 Signal reference grid ......................................................................................................... 9941 G.5.1.7 Computer or Telecommunications rack or frame grounding.............................................. 9942 G.5.1.7.1 The Rack Framework Grounding Conductor ................................................................. 9943 G.5.1.7.2 Rack Grounding Connection Point............................................................................... 10044 G.5.1.7.3 Bonding to the Rack .................................................................................................... 10045 G.5.1.7.4 Bonding to the Data Center’s Grounding Infrastructure ............................................... 10046 G.5.1.7.5 Rack Continuity............................................................................................................ 10047 G.5.1.8 Rack-Mounted Equipment Grounding................................................................................. 10148 G.5.1.8.1 Grounding the Equipment Chassis .............................................................................. 10149 G.5.1.8.2 Grounding through the equipment ac (alternating current) power cables .................... 10250 G.5.1.9 Electro Static Discharge Wrist Straps................................................................................. 10251 G.5.1.10 Building management system........................................................................................... 10252 G.5.2 Electrical tiering...................................................................................................... 10253 G.5.2.1 Tier 1 (electrical).............................................................................................................. 10254 G.5.2.2 Tier 2 (electrical).............................................................................................................. 10355 G.5.2.3 Tier 3 (electrical).............................................................................................................. 10356 G.5.2.4 Tier 4 (electrical).............................................................................................................. 10557 G.6 Mechanical systems requirements................................................................................ 10558
  7. 7. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 6 G.6.1 General mechanical requirements ......................................................................... 1051 G.6.1.1 Environmental air............................................................................................................ 1052 G.6.1.2 Ventilation air.................................................................................................................. 1063 G.6.1.3 Computer room air conditioning...................................................................................... 1064 G.6.1.4 Leak detection system.................................................................................................... 1065 G.6.1.5 Building management system......................................................................................... 1066 G.6.1.6 Plumbing systems .......................................................................................................... 1067 G.6.1.7 Emergency fixtures......................................................................................................... 1068 G.6.1.8 HVAC make-up water.....................................................................................................1079 G.6.1.9 Drainage piping .............................................................................................................. 10710 G.6.1.10 Fire protection systems ...............................................................................................10711 G.6.1.11 Water suppression – pre-action suppression .............................................................. 10812 G.6.1.12 Gaseous suppression - clean agent gaseous suppression ......................................... 10913 G.6.1.13 Hand held fire extinguishers ........................................................................................ 10914 G.6.2 Mechanical tiering .................................................................................................. 10915 G.6.2.1 Tier 1 (mechanical)......................................................................................................... 10916 G.6.2.2 Tier 2 (mechanical)......................................................................................................... 11017 G.6.2.3 Tier 3 (mechanical)......................................................................................................... 11018 G.6.2.4 Tier 4 (mechanical)......................................................................................................... 11119 ANNEX H (INFORMATIVE) DATA CENTER DESIGN EXAMPLES......................................... 12920 H.1 Small data center design example ................................................................................ 12921 H.2 Corporate data center design example ......................................................................... 13022 H.3 Internet data center design example............................................................................. 13123 ANNEX I (INFORMATIVE) BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES ........................................ 13324 25
  8. 8. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 7 List of figures1 2 Figure 1: Relationship of spaces in a data center.......................................................................... 213 Figure 2: Data center topology....................................................................................................... 224 Figure 3: Example of a basic data center topology........................................................................ 245 Figure 4: Example of a reduced data center topology................................................................... 256 Figure 5: Example of a distributed data center topology with multiple entrance rooms. ............... 267 Figure 6: Example of "hot" aisles, "cold" aisles and cabinet placement........................................ 388 Figure 7: Typical horizontal cabling using a star topology............................................................. 449 Figure 8: Typical backbone cabling using a star topology............................................................. 4710 Figure 9: Centralized optical fiber cabling...................................................................................... 5011 Figure 10: Telecommunications infrastructure redundancy........................................................... 5712 Figure 11: Sample floor space identifiers ...................................................................................... 6713 Figure 12: Sample rack / cabinet identifier .................................................................................... 6814 Figure 13: Sample copper patch panel identification schema....................................................... 6915 Figure 14: Sample 8-positioin modular patch panel labeling – Part I ............................................ 7016 Figure 15: Sample 8-position modular patch panel labeling – Part II............................................ 7017 Figure 16: Cross-connection circuits to IDC connecting hardware cabled to modular jacks in the18 T-568A 8-pin sequence................................................................................................ 7419 Figure 17: Cross-connection circuits to IDC connecting hardware cabled to modular jacks in the20 T-568B 8-pin sequence................................................................................................ 7521 Figure 18: American standard internal-external tooth lock washer ............................................. 10122 Figure 19: Typical rack assembly hardware ................................................................................ 10123 Figure 20: Computer Room Layout Showing “hot” and “cold” aisles........................................... 12924 Figure 21: Example for corporate data center ............................................................................. 13025 Figure 22: Example for internet data center ................................................................................ 13126 27 List of tables28 29 Table 1: Maximum length of horizontal and equipment area cables ............................................. 4530 Table 2: Data center separation between twisted-pair and shielded power cables ...................... 5331 Table 3: Maximum circuit distances with no customer DSX panel................................................ 6132 Table 4: Reduction in circuit distances for customer DSX panel................................................... 6233 Table 5: Reduction in circuit distances per patch panel or outlet .................................................. 6234 Table 6: Maximum circuit distances for the typical data center configuration ............................... 6335 Table 7: Maximum backbone for the typical data center configuration ......................................... 6336 Table 8: Tiering reference guide (Telecommunications) ............................................................. 11237 Table 9: Tiering reference guide (Architectural) .......................................................................... 11338 Table 10: Tiering reference guide (Electrical).............................................................................. 12139 Table 11: Tiering reference guide (Mechanical) .......................................................................... 12640 41
  9. 9. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 8 FOREWORD1 (This foreword is not considered part of this Standard.)2 Approval of this Standard3 This Standard was approved by the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA)4 Subcommittee TR 42.2, TIA Technical Engineering Committee TR 42, and the American National5 Standards Institute (ANSI).6 TIA reviews standards every 5 years. At that time, standards are reaffirmed, rescinded, or revised7 according to the submitted updates. Updates to be included in the next revision of this Standard8 should be sent to the committee chair or to TIA.9 Contributing organizations10 More than 60 organizations within the telecommunications industry contributed their expertise to11 the development of this Standard (including manufacturers, consultants, end users, and other12 organizations).13 The TR-42 Committee contains the following subcommittees that are related to this activity.14 • TR-42.1 - Subcommittee on Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling15 • TR-42.2 - Subcommittee on Residential Telecommunications Infrastructure16 • TR-42.3 - Subcommittee on Commercial Building Telecommunications Pathways and Spaces17 • TR-42.4 - Subcommittee on Outside Plant Telecommunications Infrastructure18 • TR-42.5 - Subcommittee on Telecommunications Infrastructure Terms and Symbols19 • TR-42.6 - Subcommittee on Telecommunications Infrastructure and Equipment20 Administration21 • TR-42.7 - Subcommittee on Telecommunications Copper Cabling Systems22 • TR-42.8 - Subcommittee on Telecommunications Optical Fiber Cabling Systems23 • TR-42.9 - Subcommittee on Industrial Telecommunications Infrastructure24 Documents superseded25 This Standard is the first edition.26 Relationship to other TIA standards and documents27 The specifications and recommendations of this Standard will take precedence for use in data28 centers.29 • ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B.1, Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard; Part 130 General Requirements31
  10. 10. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 9 • ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B.2, Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard; Part 21 Balanced Twisted-Pair Cabling Components2 • ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B.3, Optical Fiber Cabling Components Standard3 • ANSI/TIA-569-B, Commercial Building Standard for Telecommunications Pathways and4 Spaces5 • ANSI/TIA/EIA-606-A, Administration Standard for Commercial Telecommunications6 Infrastructure7 • ANSI/TIA/EIA-J-STD-607, Commercial Building Grounding (Earthing) and Bonding8 Requirements for Telecommunications9 • ANSI/TIA-758-A, Customer-Owned Outside Plant Telecommunications Cabling Standard10 This Standard contains references to national and international standards. Where appropriate,11 international standards and other documents are used.12 • National Electrical Safety Code (NESC)13 (IEEE C 2)14 • Life Safety Code (NEC)15 (NFPA 101)16 • National Electrical Code (NEC)17 (NFPA 70)18 • Standard for the Protection of Information Technology Equipment19 (NFPA 75)20 • Engineering Requirements for a Universal Telecommunications Frame21 (ANSI T1.336)22 • Telcordia specifications23 (GR-63-CORE (NEBS)) and (GR-139-CORE)24 • ASHRAE25 Thermal Guidelines for Data Processing Environments26 In Canada, the National Building Code, the National Fire Code, Canadian Electrical Code (CSA27 CEC C22.1), and other documents including CAN/ULC S524, CAN/ULC S531 may be used for28 cross-reference to NFPA 72, NFPA 70 section 725-8 and section 725-54.29 Useful supplements to this Standard are the Building Industry Consulting Service International30 (BICSI) Telecommunications Distribution Methods Manual, the Customer-owned Outside Plant31 Design Manual, and the Telecommunications Cabling Installation Manual. These manuals32
  11. 11. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 10 provide recommended practices and methods by which many of the requirements of this1 Standard may be implemented.2 Other references are listed in annex I.3 Annexes A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H are informative and not considered to be requirements of this4 Standard except when specifically referenced within the main document.5 Purpose of this Standard6 The purpose of this Standard is to provide requirements and guidelines for the design and7 installation of a data center or computer room. It is intended for use by designers who need a8 comprehensive understanding of the data center design including the facility planning, the cabling9 system, and the network design. The standard will enable the data center design to be10 considered early in the building development process, contributing to the architectural11 considerations, by providing information that cuts across the multidisciplinary design efforts;12 promoting cooperation in the design and construction phases. Adequate planning during building13 construction or renovation is significantly less expensive and less disruptive than after the facility14 is operational. Data centers in particular can benefit from infrastructure that is planned in advance15 to support growth and changes in the computer systems that the data centers are designed to16 support.17 This document in particular, presents an infrastructure topology for accessing and connecting the18 respective elements in the various cabling system configurations currently found in the data19 center environment. In order to determine the performance requirements of a generic cabling20 system, various telecommunications services and applications were considered. In addition, this21 document addresses the floor layout topology related to achieving the proper balance between22 security, rack density and manageability.23 The standard specifies a generic telecommunications cabling system for the data center and24 related facilities whose primary function is information technology. Such application spaces may25 be dedicated to a private company or institution, or occupied by one or more service providers to26 host Internet connections, and data storage devices.27 Data centers support a wide range of transmission protocols. Some of these transmission28 protocols impose distance restrictions that are shorter than those imposed by this Standard.29 When applying specific transmission protocols, consult standards, regulations, equipment30 vendors, and system service suppliers for applicability, limitations, and ancillary requirements.31 Consider consolidating standardized and proprietary cabling into a single structured cabling32 system.33 Data centers can be categorized according to whether they serve the private domain (“enterprise”34 data centers) or the public domain (internet data centers, co-location data centers, and other35 service provider data centers). Enterprise facilities include private corporations, institutions or36 government agencies, and may involve the establishment of either intranets or extranets. Internet37 facilities include traditional telephone service providers, unregulated competitive service providers38 and related commercial operators. The topologies proposed in this document, however, are39 intended to be applicable to both in satisfying their respective requirements for connectivity40 (internet access and wide-area communications), operational hosting (web hosting, file storage41 and backup, database management, etc.), and additional services (application hosting, content42 distribution, etc.). Failsafe power, environmental controls and fire suppression, and system43 redundancy and security are also common requirements to facilities that serve both the private44 and public domain.45
  12. 12. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 11 Specification of criteria1 In accordance with EIA Engineering Publication, EP-7B, two categories of criteria are specified;2 mandatory and advisory. The mandatory requirements are designated by the word “shall”;3 advisory requirements are designated by the words “should”, “may” or “desirable” which are used4 interchangeably in this Standard.5 Mandatory criteria generally apply to protection, performance, administration and compatibility;6 they specify the absolute minimum acceptable requirements. Advisory or desirable criteria are7 presented when their attainment will enhance the general performance of the cabling system in8 all its contemplated applications. A note in the text, table, or figure is used for emphasis or for9 offering informative suggestions.10 Metric equivalents of US customary units11 The majority of dimensions in this Standard are metric. Soft conversions from metric to US12 customary units are provided in parenthesis; e.g., 103 millimeters (4 inches).13 Life of this Standard14 This Standard is a living document. The criteria contained in this Standard are subject to revisions15 and updating as warranted by advances in building construction techniques and16 telecommunications technology.17
  13. 13. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 12 1 SCOPE1 1.1 General2 This Standard specifies the minimum requirements for telecommunications infrastructure of data3 centers and computer rooms including single tenant enterprise data centers and multi-tenant4 Internet hosting data centers. The topology proposed in this document is intended to be5 applicable to any size data center.6 1.2 Normative references7 The following standard contain provisions that, through reference in this text, constitute provisions8 of this Standard. At the time of publication, the editions indicated were valid. All standards are9 subject to revision, and parties to agreements based on this Standard are encouraged to10 investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the standards published by them.11 - ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B.1-2001, Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard:12 Part 1: General Requirements;13 - ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B.2-2001, Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard:14 Part 2: Balanced Twisted-Pair Cabling Components;15 - ANSI/TIA/EIA-568.B.3-2000, Optical Fiber Cabling Components Standard;16 - ANSI/TIA-569-B, Commercial Building Standard for Telecommunications Pathways and17 Spaces;18 - ANSI/TIA/EIA-606-A-2002, Administration Standard for Commercial Telecommunications19 Infrastructure;20 - ANSI/TIA/EIA-J-STD-607-2001, Commercial Building Grounding (Earthing) and Bonding21 Requirements for Telecommunications;22 - ANSI/TIA-758-A, Customer-Owned Outside Plant Telecommunications Cabling Standard;23 - ANSI/NEC, National Electrical Code;24 - ANSI/NFPA 70-2002, National Electrical Code;25 - ANSI/NFPA 75-2003, Standard for the protection of information technology equipment;26 - ANSI T1.336, Engineering requirements for a universal telecommunications frame;27 - ANSI T1.404, Network and customer installation interfaces – DS3 and metallic interface28 specification;29 - ASHRAE, Thermal Guidelines for Data Processing Environments;30 - Telcordia GR-63-CORE, NEBS(TM) Requirements: physical protection;31 - Telcordia GR-139-CORE, Generic requirements for central office coaxial cable;32
  14. 14. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 13 2 DEFINITION OF TERMS, ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS,1 AND UNITS OF MEASURE2 2.1 General3 This clause contains the definitions of terms, acronyms, and abbreviations that have special4 technical meaning or that are unique to the technical content of this Standard. Special definitions5 that are appropriate to individual technical clauses are also included.6 2.2 Definition of terms7 The generic definitions in this clause have been formulated for use by the entire family of8 telecommunications infrastructure standards. Specific requirements are found in the normative9 clauses of this Standard. For the purposes of this Standard, the following definitions apply.10 access floor: A system consisting of completely removable and interchangeable floor panels that11 are supported on adjustable pedestals or stringers (or both) to allow access to the area beneath.12 access provider: The operator of any facility that is used to convey telecommunications signals13 to and from a customer premises.14 administration: The method for labeling, identification, documentation and usage needed to15 implement moves, additions and changes of the telecommunications infrastructure.16 backbone: 1) A facility (e.g., pathway, cable or conductors) between any of the following spaces:17 telecommunications rooms, common telecommunications rooms, floor serving terminals,18 entrance facilities, equipment rooms, and common equipment rooms. 2) in a data center, a facility19 (e.g. pathway, cable or conductors) between any of the following spaces: entrance rooms or20 spaces, main distribution areas, horizontal distribution areas, telecommunications rooms.21 backbone cable: See backbone.22 bonding: The permanent joining of metallic parts to form an electrically conductive path that will23 ensure electrical continuity and the capacity to conduct safely any current likely to be imposed.24 cabinet: A container that may enclose connection devices, terminations, apparatus, wiring, and25 equipment.26 cabinet (telecommunications): An enclosure with a hinged cover used for terminating27 telecommunications cables, wiring and connection devices.28 cable: An assembly of one or more insulated conductors or optical fibers, within an enveloping29 sheath.30 cabling: A combination of all cables, jumpers, cords, and connecting hardware.31 centralized cabling: A cabling configuration from the work area to a centralized cross-connect32 using pull through cables, an interconnect, or splice in the telecommunications room.33 channel: The end-to-end transmission path between two points at which application-specific34 equipment is connected.35
  15. 15. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 14 common equipment room (telecommunications): An enclosed space used for equipment and1 backbone interconnections for more than one tenant in a building or campus.2 computer room: An architectural space whose primary function is to accommodate data3 processing equipment.4 conduit: (1) A raceway of circular cross-section. (2) A structure containing one or more ducts.5 connecting hardware: A device providing mechanical cable terminations.6 consolidation point: A location for interconnection between horizontal cables extending from7 building pathways and horizontal cables extending into furniture pathways.8 cross-connect: A facility enabling the termination of cable elements and their interconnection or9 cross-connection.10 cross-connection: A connection scheme between cabling runs, subsystems, and equipment11 using patch cords or jumpers that attach to connecting hardware on each end.12 data center: a building or portion of a building whose primary function is to house a computer room13 and its support areas.14 demarcation point: A point where the operational control or ownership changes.15 Earthing: see grounding16 electromagnetic interference: Radiated or conducted electromagnetic energy that has an17 undesirable effect on electronic equipment or signal transmissions.18 entrance room or space (telecommunications): A space in which the joining of inter or intra19 building telecommunications backbone facilities takes place.20 equipment cable; cord: A cable or cable assembly used to connect telecommunications21 equipment to horizontal or backbone cabling.22 equipment distribution area: the computer room space occupied by equipment racks or23 cabinets.24 equipment room (telecommunications): An environmentally controlled centralized space for25 telecommunications equipment that usually houses a main or intermediate cross-connect.26 fiber optic: See optical fiber.27 ground: A conducting connection, whether intentional or accidental, between an electrical circuit28 (e.g., telecommunications) or equipment and the earth, or to some conducting body that serves in29 place of earth.30 Grounding: The act of creating a ground.grounding conductor: A conductor used to connect31 the grounding electrode to the building's main grounding busbar.32 horizontal cabling: 1) The cabling between and including the telecommunications33 outlet/connector and the horizontal cross-connect. 2) The cabling between and including the34 building automation system outlet or the first mechanical termination of the horizontal connection35 point and the horizontal cross-connect. 3) in a data center, horizontal cabling is the cabling from36
  16. 16. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 15 the horizontal cross-connect (in the main distribution area or horizontal distribution area) to the1 outlet in the equipment distribution area or zone distribution area.2 horizontal cross-connect: A cross-connect of horizontal cabling to other cabling, e.g.,3 horizontal, backbone, equipment.4 Horizontal distribution area: a space in a computer room where a horizontal cross-connect is5 located.6 identifier: An item of information that links a specific element of the telecommunications7 infrastructure with its corresponding record.8 infrastructure (telecommunications): A collection of those telecommunications components,9 excluding equipment, that together provide the basic support for the distribution of all information10 within a building or campus.11 interconnection: A connection scheme that employs connecting hardware for the direct12 connection of a cable to another cable without a patch cord or jumper.13 intermediate cross-connect: A cross-connect between first level and second level backbone14 cabling.15 jumper: An assembly of twisted-pairs without connectors, used to join telecommunications16 circuits/links at the cross-connect.17 link: A transmission path between two points, not including terminal equipment, work area18 cables, and equipment cables.19 main cross-connect: A cross-connect for first level backbone cables, entrance cables, and20 equipment cables.21 main distribution area: The space in a computer room where the main cross-connect is located.22 mechanical room: An enclosed space serving the needs of mechanical building systems.23 media (telecommunications): Wire, cable, or conductors used for telecommunications.24 modular jack: A female telecommunications connector that may be keyed or unkeyed and may25 have 6 or 8 contact positions, but not all the positions need be equipped with jack contacts.26 multimode optical fiber: An optical fiber that carries many paths of light.27 multipair cable: A cable having more than four pairs.28 optical fiber: Any filament made of dielectric materials that guides light.29 optical fiber cable: An assembly consisting of one or more optical fibers.30 patch cord: A length of cable with a plug on one or both ends.31 patch panel: A connecting hardware system that facilitates cable termination and cabling32 administration using patch cords.33 pathway: A facility for the placement of telecommunications cable.34
  17. 17. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 16 plenum: a compartment or chamber to which one or more air ducts are connected and that forms1 part of the air distribution system.2 private branch exchange: A private telecommunications switching system.3 pull box: A housing located in a pathway run used to facilitate the placing of wire or cables.4 radio frequency interference: Electromagnetic interference within the frequency band for radio5 transmission.6 screen: An element of a cable formed by a shield.7 screened twisted-pair (ScTP): A balanced cable with an overall screen.8 service provider: The operator of any service that furnishes telecommunications content9 (transmissions) delivered over access provider facilities.10 sheath: See cable sheath.11 shield: A metallic layer placed around a conductor or group of conductors.12 singlemode optical fiber: An optical fiber that carries only one path of light.13 splice: A joining of conductors, meant to be permanent.14 star topology: A topology in which telecommunications cables are distributed from a central15 point.16 telecommunications: Any transmission, emission, and reception of signs, signals, writings,17 images, and sounds, that is, information of any nature by cable, radio, optical, or other18 electromagnetic systems.19 telecommunications entrance point: See entrance point (telecommunications).20 telecommunications entrance room or space: See entrance room or space21 (telecommunications).22 telecommunications equipment room: See equipment room (telecommunications).23 telecommunications infrastructure: See infrastructure (telecommunications).24 telecommunications media: See media (telecommunications).25 telecommunications room: An enclosed architectural space for housing telecommunications26 equipment, cable terminations, and cross-connect cabling.27 telecommunications space: See space (telecommunications).28 topology: The physical or logical arrangement of a telecommunications system.29 uninterruptible power supply: A buffer between utility power or other power source and a load30 that requires continuous precise power.31 wire: An individually insulated solid or stranded metallic conductor.32
  18. 18. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 17 wireless: The use of radiated electromagnetic energy (e.g., radio frequency and microwave1 signals, light) traveling through free space to convey information.2 zone distribution area: A space in a computer room where a zone outlet or a consolidation point is3 located4 zone outlet: a connecting device in the zone distribution area terminating the horizontal cable5 enabling equipment cable connections to the equipment distribution area.6 2.3 Acronyms and abbreviations7 AHJ authority having jurisdiction8 ANSI American National Standards Institute9 AWG American Wire Gauge10 BICSI Building Industry Consulting Service International11 BNC bayonet Neil-Concelman or bayonet navel connector12 CCTV closed-circuit television13 CEC Canadian Electrical Code, Part I14 CER common equipment room15 CPU central processing unit16 CSA Canadian Standards Association International17 DSX digital signal cross-connect18 EDA equipment distribution area19 EIA Electronic Industries Alliance20 EMI electromagnetic interference21 EMS energy management system22 FDDI fiber distributed data interface23 HC horizontal cross-connect24 HDA horizontal distribution area25 HVAC heating, ventilation and air conditioning26 IDC insulation displacement contact27 LAN local area network28 MC main cross-connect29
  19. 19. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 18 MDA main distribution area1 NEC National Electrical Code2 NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association3 NEXT near-end crosstalk4 NESC National Electrical Safety Code5 NFPA National Fire Protection Association6 OC optical carrier7 PBX private branch exchange8 PCB printed circuit board9 PDU power distribution unit10 PVC polyvinyl chloride11 RFI radio frequency interference12 RH relative humidity13 SAN storage area network14 ScTP screened twisted-pair15 SDH synchronous digital hierarchy16 SONET synchronous optical network17 STM synchronous transport model18 TIA Telecommunications Industry Association19 TR telecommunications room20 UL Underwriters Laboratories Inc21 UPS uninterruptible power supply22 UTP unshielded twisted-pair23 WAN wide area network24 ZDA zone distribution area25
  20. 20. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 19 2.4 Units of measure1 A Ampere2 °C degrees Celsius3 °F degrees Fahrenheit4 ft feet, foot5 Gb/s gigabit per second6 Hz hertz7 in inch8 kb/s kilobit per second9 kHz kilohertz10 km kilometer11 kPa kilopascal12 kVA kilovoltamp13 kW kilowatt14 lbf pound-force15 m meter16 Mb/s megabit per second17 MHz megahertz18 mm millimeter19 nm nanometer20 µm micrometer or micron21
  21. 21. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 20 3 DATA CENTER DESIGN OVERVIEW1 3.1 General2 The intent of this clause is to provide general information on the factors that should be considered3 when planning the design of a data center. The information and recommendations are intended to4 enable an effective implementation of a data center design by identifying the appropriate actions5 to be taken in each step of the planning and design process. The design specific details are6 provided in the subsequent clauses and annexes.7 The steps in the design process described below apply to the design of a new data center or the8 expansion of an existing data center. It is essential for either case that the design of the9 telecommunications cabling system, equipment floor plan, electrical plans, architectural plan,10 HVAC, security, and lighting systems be coordinated. Ideally, the process should be:11 a) Estimate equipment telecommunications, space, power, and cooling requirements of the data12 center at full capacity. Anticipate future telecommunications, power, and cooling trends over13 the lifetime of the data center.14 b) Provide space, power, cooling, security, floor loading, and other facility requirements to15 architects and engineers. Provide requirements for operations center, loading dock, storage16 room, staging areas and other support areas.17 c) Coordinate preliminary data center space plans from architect and engineers. Suggest18 changes as required.19 d) Create an equipment floor plan including placement of major rooms and spaces for entrance20 rooms, main distribution areas, horizontal distribution areas, zone distribution areas and21 equipment distribution areas. Provide expected power, cooling, and floor loading22 requirements for equipment to engineers. Provide requirements for telecommunications23 pathways.24 e) Obtain an updated plan from engineers with telecommunications pathways, electrical25 equipment, and mechanical equipment added to the data center floor plan at full capacity.26 f) Design telecommunications cabling system based on the needs of the equipment to be27 located in the data center.28 3.2 Relationship of data center spaces to other building spaces29 Figure 1 illustrates the major spaces of a typical data center and how they relate to each other30 and the spaces outside of the data center. See section 5 for information concerning the31 telecommunications spaces within the data center.32 This Standard addresses telecommunications infrastructure for the data center spaces, which is33 the computer room and its associated support spaces.34 Telecommunications cabling and spaces outside of the computer room and its associated support35 spaces are illustrated in figure 1 to demonstrate their relationships to the data center.36
  22. 22. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 21 Bulding Site Data Center Data Center Electrical & Mechanical Rooms Support Staff Offices Operations Center Telecommunications Room (s) serving data center spaces Storage Rooms & Loading Docks Building Shell General Office Space Entrance Room (s) Telecommunications & Equipment Rooms serving spaces outside data center Computer Room 1 Figure 1: Relationship of spaces in a data center2 3.3 Tiering3 This Standard includes specifications for facility requirements for the data center. The normative4 requirements specified in this Standard are the minimum requirements. However, data centers5 are often designed for much higher levels of availability and security. This Standard includes6 information for four tiers relating to various levels of availability and security of the data center7 facility infrastructure. Higher tiers correspond to higher availability and security. Annex G of this8 Standard provides detailed information for each of the four tiering levels.9 3.4 Consideration for involvement of professionals10 Data centers are designed to handle the requirements of large quantities of computer and11 telecommunications equipment. Therefore, telecommunications and information technology12 professionals and specifiers should be involved in the design of the data center from its inception.13 In addition to the space, environmental, adjacency, and operational requirements for the14 computer and telecommunications equipment, data center designs need to address the15 requirements of the telecommunications pathways and spaces specified in this Standard.16
  23. 23. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 22 4 DATA CENTER CABLING SYSTEM INFRASTRUCTURE1 4.1 The basic elements of the data center cabling system structure2 Figure 2 illustrates a representative model for the various functional elements that comprise a3 cabling system for a data center. It depicts the relationship between the elements and how they4 are configured to create the total system.5 The basic elements of the data center cabling system structure are the following:6 a) Horizontal cabling (clause 6.2)7 b) Backbone cabling (clause 6.3)8 c) Cross-connect in the entrance room or main distribution area9 d) Main cross-connect (MC) in the main distribution area10 e) Horizontal cross-connect (HC) in the telecommunications room, horizontal distribution area or11 main distribution area.12 f) Zone outlet or consolidation point in the zone distribution area13 g) Outlet in the equipment distribution area14 MC Primary Entrance Room Access providers HC HC HC Active Equip interconnect Active Equip interconnect Active Equip interconnect Active Equip Storage Area Devices interconnect Zone Distribution Area Secondary Entrance Room Offices, Operations Center, Support Rooms Data Center Backbone cabling Backbone cabling Backbonecabling Backbonecabling Backbone cabling Horizontalcabling Horizontalcabling Horizontalcabling Horizontal cabling Horizontal cabling Backbone cabling Backbone cabling Horizontal cabling Horizontal Distribution Area Equipment Distribution Area Main Distribution Area Telecom Room HC Access providers Access providers 15 Figure 2: Data center topology16
  24. 24. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 23 5 DATA CENTER TELECOMMUNICATIONS SPACES AND1 RELATED TOPOLOGIES2 5.1 General3 The data center requires spaces dedicated to supporting the telecommunications infrastructure.4 Telecommunications spaces shall be dedicated to support telecommunications cabling and5 equipment. Typical spaces found within a data center generally include the entrance room, main6 distribution area (MDA), horizontal distribution area (HDA), zone distribution area (ZDA) and7 equipment distribution area (EDA). Depending upon the size of the data center, not all of these8 spaces may be used within the structure. These spaces should be planned to provide for growth9 and transition to evolving technologies. These spaces may or may not be walled off or otherwise10 separated from the other computer room spaces.11 5.2 Data center structure12 5.2.1 Major elements13 The data center telecommunications spaces include the entrance room, main distribution area14 (MDA), horizontal distribution area (HDA), zone distribution area (ZDA) and equipment15 distribution area (EDA).16 The entrance room is the space used for the interface between data center structured cabling17 system and inter-building cabling, both access provider and customer-owned. This space18 includes the access provider demarcation hardware and access provider equipment. The19 entrance room may be located outside the computer room if the data center is in a building that20 includes general purpose offices or other types of spaces outside the data center. The entrance21 room may also be outside the computer room for improved security, as it avoids the need for22 access provider technicians to enter the computer room. Data centers may have multiple23 entrance rooms to provide additional redundancy or to avoid exceeding maximum cable lengths24 for access provider-provisioned circuits. The entrance room interfaces with the computer room25 through the main distribution area. The entrance room may be adjacent to or combined with the26 main distribution area.27 The main distribution area includes the main cross-connect (MC), which is the central point of28 distribution for the data center structured cabling system and may include horizontal cross-29 connect (HC) when equipment areas are served directly from the main distribution area. This30 space is inside the computer room; it may be located in a dedicated room in a multi-tenant data31 center for security. Every data center shall have at least one main distribution area. The computer32 room core routers, core LAN switches, core SAN switches, and PBX are often located in the main33 distribution area, because this space is the hub of the cabling infrastructure for the data center.34 Access provider provisioning equipment (for example the M13 multiplexers) is often located in the35 main distribution area rather than in the entrance room to avoid the need for a second entrance36 room due to circuit length restrictions.37 The main distribution area may serve one or more horizontal distribution areas or equipment38 distribution areas within the data center and one or more telecommunications rooms located39 outside the computer room space to support office spaces, operations center and other external40 support rooms.41 The horizontal distribution area is used to serve equipment areas when the HC is not located in42 the main distribution area. Therefore, when used, the horizontal distribution area may include the43 horizontal cross-connect (HC), which is the distribution point for cabling to the equipment44 distribution areas. The horizontal distribution area is inside the computer room, but may be45
  25. 25. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 24 located in a dedicated room within the computer room for additional security. The horizontal1 distribution area typically includes LAN switches, SAN switches, and Keyboard/Video/Mouse2 (KVM) switches for the end equipment located in the equipment distribution areas. A data center3 may have computer room spaces located on multiple floors with each floor being serviced by its4 own HC. A small data center may require no horizontal distribution areas, as the entire computer5 room may be able to be supported from the main distribution area. However, A typical data center6 will have several horizontal distribution areas.7 The equipment distribution area (EDA) is the space allocated for end equipment, including8 computer systems and telecommunications equipment. These areas shall not serve the purposes9 of an entrance room, main distribution area or horizontal distribution area.10 There may be an optional interconnection point within the horizontal cabling, called a zone11 distribution area. This area is located between the horizontal distribution area and the equipment12 distribution area to allow frequent reconfiguration and flexibility.13 5.2.2 Typical data center topology14 The typical data center includes a single entrance room, possibly one or more15 telecommunications rooms, one main distribution area, and several horizontal distribution areas.16 Figure 3 illustrates the typical data center topology.17 Entrance Room (Carrier Equip & Demarcation) Access Providers Horiz Dist Area (LAN/SAN/KVM Switches ) Equip Dist Area (Rack/Cabinet) Computer Room Horiz Dist Area (LAN/SAN/KVM Switches )Zone Dist Area Offices, Operations Center, Support Rooms Telecom Room (Office & Operations Center LAN switches) Main Dist Area (Routers, Backbone LAN/SAN Switches, PBX, M13 Muxes) Horiz Dist Area (LAN/SAN/KVM Switches ) Equip Dist Area (Rack/Cabinet) Equip Dist Area (Rack/Cabinet) Backbone cabling Horizontal cabling Horizontal cabling Horizontal cabling Horizontal cabling Backbone cabling Backbone cabling Horizontal cabling Access Providers Horiz Dist Area (LAN/SAN/KVM Switches ) Equip Dist Area (Rack/Cabinet) Horizontal cabling 18 Figure 3: Example of a basic data center topology19 5.2.3 Reduced data center topologies20 Data center designers can consolidate the main cross-connect, and horizontal cross-connect in a21 single main distribution area, possibly as small as a single cabinet or rack. The22 telecommunications room for cabling to the support areas and the entrance room may also be23 consolidated into the main distribution area in a reduced data center topology. The reduced data24 center topology for a small data center is illustrated in figure 4.25
  26. 26. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 25 Access Providers Equip Dist Area (Rack/Cabinet) Computer Room Zone Dist Area Offices, Operations Center, Support Rooms Equip Dist Area (Rack/Cabinet) Main Dist Area (Carrier Equip, Demarcation, Routers, Backbone LAN/SAN/ KVM Switches, PBX, M13 Muxes) Horizontalcabling Horizontalcabling Horizontal cabling Horizontal cabling 1 Figure 4: Example of a reduced data center topology2 5.2.4 Distributed data center topologies3 Multiple telecommunications rooms may be required for data centers with large or widely4 separated office and support areas.5 Circuit distance restrictions may require multiple entrance rooms for very large data centers.6 Additional entrance rooms may be connected to the main distribution area and horizontal7 distribution areas that they support using twisted-pair cables, optical fiber cables and coaxial8 cables. The data center topology with multiple entrance rooms is shown in figure 5. The primary9 entrance room shall not have direct connections to horizontal distribution areas. Secondary10 entrance rooms are permitted to have direct cabling to horizontal distribution areas if the11 secondary entrance rooms were added to avoid exceeding maximum circuit length restrictions.12
  27. 27. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 26 Primary Entrance Room (Carrier Equip & Demarcation) Horiz Dist Area (LAN/SAN/KVM Switches ) Equip Dist Area (Rack/Cabinet) Computer Room Horiz Dist Area (LAN/SAN/KVM Switches ) Horiz Dist Area (LAN/SAN/KVM Switches )Zone Dist Area Offices, Operations Center, Support Rooms Telecom Room (Office & Operations Center LAN switches) Access Providers Secondary Entrance Room (Carrier Equip & Demarcation) Main Dist Area (Routers, Backbone LAN/SAN Switches, PBX, M13 Muxes) Horiz Dist Area (LAN/SAN/KVM Switches ) Equip Dist Area (Rack/Cabinet) Equip Dist Area (Rack/Cabinet) Equip Dist Area (Rack/Cabinet) Backbone cabling Backbone cabling Backbonecabling Backbone cabling Backbone cabling Backbonecabling Backbone cabling Backbone cabling Backbone cabling Horizontal cablingHorizontal cablingHorizontal cabling Horizontal cabling Horizontal cabling Horizontal cabling Access Providers Access Providers 1 2 Figure 5: Example of a distributed data center topology with multiple entrance rooms.3 5.3 Computer room requirements4 5.3.1 General5 The computer room is an environmentally controlled space that serves the sole purpose of6 housing equipment and cabling directly related to the computer systems and other7 telecommunications systems. The computer room should meet the NFPA 75 standard.8 The floor layout should be consistent with equipment and facility providers’requirements, such as:9 - floor loading requirements including equipment, cables, patch cords, and media (static10 concentrated load, static uniform floor load, dynamic rolling load);11 - service clearance requirements (clearance requirements on each side of the equipment12 required for adequate servicing of the equipment);13 - air flow requirements;14 - mounting requirements;15 - DC power requirements and circuit length restrictions;16 - equipment connectivity length requirements (for example, maximum channel lengths to17 peripherals and consoles).18
  28. 28. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 27 5.3.2 Location1 When selecting the computer room site, avoid locations that are restricted by building2 components that limit expansion such as elevators, core, outside walls, or other fixed building3 walls. Accessibility for the delivery of large equipment to the equipment room should be provided4 (see ANSI/TIA-569-B annex B.3).5 The room shall be located away from sources of electromagnetic interference. Examples of such6 noise sources include electrical power supply transformers, motors and generators, x-ray7 equipment, radio or radar transmitters, and induction sealing devices.8 The computer room should not have exterior windows, as exterior windows increase heat load9 and reduce security.10 5.3.3 Access11 Computer room doors should provide access to authorized personnel only. Additionally, access to12 the room shall comply with the requirements of the AHJ. For additional information on monitoring13 computer room access, see annex G.14 5.3.4 Architectural design15 5.3.4.1 Size16 The computer room shall be sized to meet the known requirements of specific equipment17 including proper clearances; this information can be obtained from the equipment provider(s).18 Sizing should include projected future as well as present requirements. See annex E regarding19 guidelines on sizing of computer rooms.20 5.3.4.2 Guidelines for other equipment21 Electrical control equipment, such as power distribution or conditioner systems, and UPS up to22 100 kVA shall be permitted in the computer room, with the exception of flooded-cell batteries.23 UPS larger than 100 kVA and any UPS containing flooded-cell batteries should be located in a24 separate room except as required by the AHJ.25 Equipment not related to the support of the computer room (e.g., piping, ductwork, pneumatic26 tubing, etc.) shall not be installed in, pass through, or enter the computer room.27 5.3.4.3 Ceiling height28 The minimum height in the computer room shall be 2.6 m (8.5 ft) from the finished floor to any29 obstruction such as sprinklers, lighting fixtures, or cameras. Cooling requirements or30 racks/cabinets taller than 2.13 m (7 ft) may dictate higher ceiling heights. A minimum of 460 mm31 (18 in) clearance shall be maintained from water sprinkler heads.32 5.3.4.4 Treatment33 Floors, walls, and ceiling shall be sealed, painted, or constructed of a material to minimize dust.34 Finishes should be light in color to enhance room lighting. Floors shall have anti-static properties35 in accordance with IEC 61000-4-2.36
  29. 29. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 28 5.3.4.5 Lighting1 Lighting shall be a minimum of 500 lux (50 footcandles) in the horizontal plane and 200 lux2 (20 footcandles) in the vertical plane, measured 1 m (3 ft) above the finished floor in the middle of3 all aisles between cabinets.4 Lighting fixtures should not be powered from the same electrical distribution panel as the5 telecommunications equipment in the computer room. Dimmer switches should not be used.6 Emergency lighting and signs shall be properly placed per authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) such7 that an absence of primary lighting will not hamper emergency exit.8 5.3.4.6 Doors9 Doors shall be a minimum of 1 m (3 ft) wide and 2.13 m (7 ft) high, without doorsills, hinged to10 open outward (code permitting) or slide side-to-side, or be removable. Doors shall be fitted with11 locks and have either no center posts or removable center posts to facilitate access for large12 equipment. Exit requirements for the computer room shall meet the requirements of the AHJ.13 5.3.4.7 Floor loading14 Floor loading capacity in the computer room shall be sufficient to bear both the distributed and15 concentrated load of the installed equipment with associated cabling and media. The minimum16 distributed floor loading capacity shall be 7.2 kPA (150 lbf/ ft 2 ). The recommended distributed17 floor loading capacity is 12 kPA (250 lbf/ ft 2 ).18 The floor shall also have a minimum of 1.2 kPA (25 lbf/ ft 2 ) hanging capacity for supporting loads19 that are suspended from the bottom of the floor (for example, cable ladders suspended from the20 ceiling of the floor below). The recommended hanging capacity of the floor is 2.4 kPA (50 lbf/ ft 2 ).21 Refer to Telcordia specification GR-63-CORE regarding floor loading capacity measurement and22 test methods.23 5.3.4.8 Signage24 Signage, if used, should be developed within the security plan of the building. Proper exit signage25 shall be placed in accordance with the AHJ.26 5.3.4.9 Seismic considerations27 Specifications for related facilities shall accommodate the applicable seismic zone requirements.28 Refer to Telcordia specification GR-63-CORE for more information regarding seismic29 considerations.30 5.3.5 Environmental design31 5.3.5.1 Contaminants32 The room shall be protected from contaminants in accordance with ANSI/TIA-569-B.33
  30. 30. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 29 5.3.5.2 HVAC1 If the computer room does not have a dedicated HVAC system, the computer room shall be2 located with ready access to the main HVAC delivery system. A computer room is typically not3 recognized as such by the AHJ unless it has a dedicated HVAC, or utilizes the main building4 HVAC and has automatic dampers installed.5 5.3.5.2.1 Continuous operation6 HVAC shall be provided on a 24 hours-per-day, 365 days-per-year basis. If the building system7 cannot assure continuous operation for large equipment applications, a stand-alone unit shall be8 provided for the computer room.9 5.3.5.2.2 Standby operation10 The computer room HVAC system should be supported by the computer room standby generator11 system, if one is installed. If the computer room does not have a dedicated standby generator12 system, the computer room HVAC should be connected to the building standby generator13 system, if one is installed.14 5.3.5.3 Operational parameters15 The temperature and humidity shall be controlled to provide continuous operating ranges for16 temperature and humidity:17 - dry Bulb Temperature: 20 o C (68 o F) to 25 o C (77 o F);18 - relative Humidity: 40% to 55%;19 - maximum Dew Point: 21 o C (69.8 o F);20 - maximum Rate of Change: 5 o C (9 o F) per hour;21 - humidification and dehumidification equipment may be required depending upon local22 environmental conditions.23 The ambient temperature and humidity shall be measured after the equipment is in operation.24 Measurements shall be done at a distance of 1.5 m (5 ft) above the floor level every 3 to 6 m (1025 to 30 ft) along the center line of the cold aisles and at any location at the air intake of operating26 equipment. Temperature measurements should be taken at several locations of the air intake of27 any equipment with potential cooling problems. Refer to ASHRAE for more detailed guidelines for28 measuring and evaluating computer room temperatures.29 A positive pressure differential with respect to surrounding areas should be provided.30 5.3.5.4 Batteries31 If batteries are used for backup, adequate ventilation and spill containment as required shall be32 provided. Refer to applicable electrical codes for requirements.33 5.3.5.5 Vibration34 Mechanical vibration coupled to equipment or the cabling infrastructure can lead to service35 failures over time. A common example of this type of failure would be loosened connections.36 Potential vibration problems should be considered in the design of the computer room, since37
  31. 31. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 30 vibration within the building will exist and will be conveyed to the computer room via the building1 structure. In these cases, the project structural engineer should be consulted to design2 safeguards against excessive computer room vibration. Refer to Telcordia specification GR-63-3 CORE for more information regarding vibration testing.4 5.3.6 Electrical design5 5.3.6.1 Power6 Separate supply circuits serving the computer room shall be provided and terminated in their own7 electrical panel or panels.8 The computer room shall have duplex convenience outlets (120V 20A) for power tools, cleaning9 equipment, and equipment not suitable to plug into equipment cabinet power strips. The10 convenience outlets should not be on the same power distribution units (PDUs) or electrical11 panels as the electrical circuits used for the telecommunications and computer equipment in the12 room. The convenience outlets shall be spaced 3.65 m (12 ft) apart along the computer room13 walls, or closer if specified by local ordinances, and reachable by a 4.5m (15 ft) cord (per NEC14 Articles 210.7(A) and 645.5(B1)).15 5.3.6.2 Standby power16 The computer room electrical panels should be supported by the computer room standby17 generator system, if one is installed. Any generators used should be rated for electronic loads.18 Generators of this capability are often referred to as “Computer Grade”. If the computer room19 does not have a dedicated standby generator system, the computer room electrical panels should20 be connected to the building standby generator system, if one is installed. The power shutdown21 requirements for computer room equipment are mandated by the AHJ and varies by jurisdiction.22 5.3.6.3 Bonding and grounding (earthing)23 Access shall be made available to the telecommunications grounding system specified by24 ANSI/TIA/EIA-J-STD-607-A. The computer room should have a signal reference grid (see25 subclause G.5.1.6).26 5.3.7 Fire protection27 The fire protection systems and hand-held fire extinguishers shall comply with NFPA-75.28 Sprinkler systems in computer rooms should be pre-action systems.29 5.3.8 Water infiltration30 Where risk of water ingress exists, a means of evacuating water from the space shall be provided31 (e.g. a floor drain). Additionally, at least one drain or other means for evacuating water for each32 100 m 2 (1000 ft 2 ) area should be provided. Any water and drain pipes that run through the room33 should be located away from and not directly above equipment in the room.34 5.4 Entrance room requirements35 5.4.1 General36 The entrance room is a space, preferably a room, in which access provider-owned facilities37 interface with the data center cabling system. It typically houses telecommunications access38 provider equipment and is the location where access providers typically hand off circuits to the39 customer. This hand-off point is called the demarcation point. It is where the telecommunications40
  32. 32. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 31 access provider’s responsibility for the circuit typically ends and the customer’s responsibility for1 the circuit begins.2 The entrance room will house entrance pathways, protector blocks for copper-pair entrance3 cables, termination equipment for access provider cables, access provider equipment, and4 termination equipment for cabling to the computer room.5 5.4.2 Location6 The entrance room should be located to ensure that maximum circuit lengths from the access7 provider demarcation points to the end equipment are not exceeded. The maximum circuit8 lengths need to include the entire cable route, including patch cords and changes in height9 between floors and within racks or cabinets. Specific circuit lengths (from demarcation point to10 end equipment) to consider when planning entrance room locations are provided in annex A.11 NOTE: Repeaters can be used to extend circuits beyond the lengths specified in12 annex A.13 The entrance rooms may either be located inside or outside the computer room space. Security14 concerns may dictate that the entrance rooms are located outside the computer room to avoid the15 need for access provider technicians to access the computer room. However, in larger data16 centers, circuit length concerns may require that the entrance room be located in the computer17 room.18 Cabling in the entrance rooms should use the same cable distribution (overhead or under floor)19 as used in the computer room; this will minimize cable lengths as it avoids a transition from20 overhead cable trays to under floor cable trays.21 5.4.3 Quantity22 Large data centers may require multiple entrance rooms to support some circuit types throughout23 the computer room space and/or to provide additional redundancy.24 The additional entrance rooms may have their own entrance pathways for dedicated service25 feeds from the access providers. Alternatively, the additional entrance rooms may be subsidiaries26 of the primary entrance room, in which case the access provider service feeds come from the27 primary entrance room.28 5.4.4 Access29 Access to the entrance room shall be controlled by the data center owner or their agent.30 5.4.5 Entrance conduit routing under access floor31 If the entrance room is located in the computer room space, the entrance conduit runs should be32 designed to avoid interfering with airflow, chilled water piping and other cable routing under the33 access floor.34 5.4.6 Access provider and service provider spaces35 Access provider and service provider spaces for data centers are typically located either in the36 entrance room or in the computer room. Refer to ANSI/TIA-569-B for information on access37 provider and service provider spaces.38
  33. 33. SP-3-0092 (to become TIA/EIA–942) 32 The access provider and service provider spaces in data center entrance rooms typically do not1 require partitions because access to the data center entrance rooms is carefully controlled.2 Access and service providers that lease space in the computer room, however, typically require3 secure access to their spaces.4 5.4.7 Building entrance terminal5 5.4.7.1 General6 Listed herein are the requirements for building entrance terminals located at the cabling entrance7 to building facilities where the transition between inside and outside environments occur. Outside8 terminals are typically used when the entrance connection is located in a closure on an outside9 wall of a building. Inside terminals are used when the outside cable will be connected to the10 inside distribution cabling system. Refer to ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B.1 for additional information on11 entrance facilities and entrance facility connections.12 5.4.8 Architectural design13 5.4.8.1 General14 The decision whether a room or open area is provided should be based on security (with15 consideration to both access and incidental contact), the need for wall space for protectors,16 entrance room size, and physical location.17 5.4.8.2 Size18 The entrance room shall be sized to meet known and projected maximum requirements for:19 - entrance pathways for access provider and campus cabling;20 - backboard and frame space for termination of access provider and campus cabling;21 - access provider racks;22 - customer-owned equipment to be located in the entrance room;23 - demarcation racks including termination hardware for cabling to the computer room;24 - pathways to the computer room, the main distribution area and possibly horizontal distribution25 area for secondary entrance rooms;26 - pathways to other entrance rooms if there are multiple entrance rooms.27 The space required is related more closely to the number of access providers, number of circuits,28 and type of circuits to be terminated in the room than to the size of the data center. Meet with all29 access providers to determine their initial and future space requirements. See annex C for more30 information regarding access provider coordination and access provider demarcation.31 Space should also be provided for campus cabling. Cables containing metallic components32 (copper-pair, coaxial, optical fiber cables with metallic components etc.) shall be terminated with33 protectors in the entrance room. The protectors may either be wall-mounted or frame-mounted.34 The space for protectors shall be located as close as practical to the point of entrance of the35 cables into the building. Optical fiber campus cables may be terminated in the main cross-36 connect instead of the entrance room if they have no metallic components (for example, cable37

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