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  1. 1. I am Manu of the Past<br /> Presented to : Presented by :<br />Ms. Shweta Dhaliwal AbhimanyuJ Rajpurohit<br /> Group no. – 3<br /> Roll no. – 441<br /> RAJIV GANDHI NATIONAL UNIVERAITY OF LAW, PATIALA, PUNJAB (RGNUL)<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />I am the author of Manusmriti.<br />In the 3rd Century A.D., I drew up the Dharmasashtracode, which was called as Manusmriti.<br />Manusmriti dealt with the duties of a king, the mixed castes, the rules of occupation in relation to caste, occupations in times of distress, expiations of sins, and the rules governing specific forms of rebirth.<br /><ul><li>Manusmriti was the first Indian code of law.
  3. 3. Manusmriti was translated into English by Sir William Jones in the year 1794.</li></li></ul><li>Emergence of Varna System<br />Manusmriti is often blamed for the division of Varnas and restriction of freedom for women.<br />The fourfold (Chaturvarna) classification of the society (without birth right initially) as Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra in Indian scenario, was based on Guna (quality) and Karma (duty).<br />The duty of the different Varnas and Varnashankaras (mixed Varnas: resulted out of sex adultery and illegitimate marriages) is specified in Manusmriti to signify the working cadre and social status of a person in the society.<br /> The intellectuals who guided the society were called Brahmana, the Kshatriyas rendered protection to all concerned, the Vaishyas were to shoulder the economic responsibility in a broader spectrum, such as: agriculture and commerce; and the Shudras being uneducated, without defined livelihood (occupation) were prescribed to serve (support / help) the other three Varnas for the smooth running of the society.<br /> So the Chaturvarna classification was more based on the division of labour and was more a natural system.<br />
  4. 4. Administration of Justice<br />The judges<br />The peril of injustice<br />Judicial Psychology<br />General Principles of law<br />Witnesses<br />
  5. 5. Laws to Which I Stand By<br />A student shall first reverentially salute that teacher from whom he receives knowledge.<br />One must not sit down on a couch or seat which a superior occupies; and he who occupies a couch or seat shall rise to meet a superior, and salute him.<br /><ul><li>It is the nature of women to seduce men in this world, for that reason the wise* never remain unguarded in the company of female.</li></ul>There is no sin in eating meat and in drinking spirituous liquor, for that is the natural way of created beings, but abstention brings great rewards.<br />He who damages the goods of another, be it intentionally or unintentionally, shall give satisfaction to the owner and pay to the king a fine equal to the damage i.e. compensation.<br />
  6. 6. Laws Which I Regret<br />A man can leave a barren woman after eight years and one who only gives birth to daughters.<br />If a woman should happen to merely to overhear recitations of Vedic mantras by chance, hot molten glass should be poured into her ears.<br />When any of the three lower vernas, commit a sin they may be punished by the king on any body part while for a Brahman, if he commits a sin he should be made to depart from the country unhurt.<br />A Shudra who insults a Brahman with gross invective, shall have his tongue cut out; for he is of low origin.<br />If a Shudra mentions the names and castes of the Brahman contumely, an iron nail, ten fingers long, shall be thrust red-hot into his mouth.<br />
  7. 7. Contemporary Relevance<br />In the pre-independent India it was the British who resurrected the Manusmriti and used it to frame the "Hindu Civil Code". <br />My reminiscences in the village justice system is still playing a major role in the dispensation of justice.<br />It made it easier to disenfranchise women in matters of inheritance or introduce legal injunctions against same-gender sexual relations as was the case in Britain during the 18th Century.<br />
  8. 8. CONCLUSION<br />
  9. 9. Sources<br />Olivelle, P. (2004). The Law Code of Manu. USA : Oxford University Press<br />Buhler, G. (1984). The Laws of Manu. Delhi: Banarsidass. (Reprint from Oxford University's 1886-edition)<br />Internet Sources<br />