Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Water and its treatment<br />
Sources of water<br /><ul><li> Surface water: it includes flowing water and still water
Underground water: it includes water from wells and springs
 Rain water
sea water</li></li></ul><li>Hardness of Water<br />• Hardness in Water is that characteristic which<br />prevents the ‘lat...
Temporary Hardness<br />– Temporary Hardness is caused by the presence of dissolved<br />bicarbonate of calcium, magnesium...
Permanent Hardness<br />• Non Carbonate Hardness is due to the presence of chlorides, sulfates of calcium, Magnesium, iron...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

water and its treatment

2,249 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

water and its treatment

  1. 1. Water and its treatment<br />
  2. 2. Sources of water<br /><ul><li> Surface water: it includes flowing water and still water
  3. 3. Underground water: it includes water from wells and springs
  4. 4. Rain water
  5. 5. sea water</li></li></ul><li>Hardness of Water<br />• Hardness in Water is that characteristic which<br />prevents the ‘lathering of soap’ thus water which<br />does not produce lather with soap solution readily,<br />but forms a white curd is called hard water.<br />• Type of Hardness<br />– Temporary or Carbonate Hardness<br />– Permanent Hardness or not carbonate Hardness.<br />
  6. 6. Temporary Hardness<br />– Temporary Hardness is caused by the presence of dissolved<br />bicarbonate of calcium, magnesium and other heavy metals and the carbonate of ion. It is mostly destroyed by more boiling of water, when bicarbonates are decomposed yielding insoluble<br />carbonates.<br />» Ca(HCO3)2 Heat CaCO3 + H2O + CO2 Calcium<br />bicarbonate Calcium Carbonate<br />Mg(HCO3)2 Heat MgCo2 + H2O + CO2<br />Magnesium Bicarbonate Magnesium Carbonate<br />– The Calcium/Magnesium Carbonates thus formed, being almost<br />insoluble, are deposited as a scale at the bottom of vessel, while<br />carbon dioxide escapes out.<br />
  7. 7. Permanent Hardness<br />• Non Carbonate Hardness is due to the presence of chlorides, sulfates of calcium, Magnesium, iron and other heavy metals<br />
  8. 8. Lime-soda process<br />The basic principle of this process is to chemically convert all the soluble hardness causing impurities into insoluble precipitates which may be removed by settling and filtration…<br />
  9. 9. Zeolite process<br />

×