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King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table

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Thomas Malory's life, and his great immortal work - Le Morte d'Arthur

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King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table

  1. 1. THOMAS MALORY
  2. 2. SIR THOMAS MALORY  is the author of Le Morte D’Arthur, said to have been completed in 1469 (or 1470) then revised and printed by William Caxton in 1485.  born in around 1416  son of John Malory and Philippa Chetwynd  lived at Newbold Revell in Warwickshire, England
  3. 3. SIR THOMAS MALORY  married Elizabeth Walsh of Wanlip in Leicestershire, who bore him a son, Robert.  by 1441 he had become a knight, and his life so far suggested a degree of political and social ambition.  In 1443 Malory was charged with wounding and imprisoning a Thomas Smith and stealing his goods, but the charge apparently fell through.
  4. 4. Malory’s Life of Crime  January 4, 1450- he and 26 other armed men were said to have laid an ambush for the Duke of Buckingham in the Abbot of Combe's woods near Newbold Revell.  May 23rd- he allegedly raped Joan Smith at Coventry. The charge was brought by her husband under a statute of Richard II who intended to make elopement into a crime of rape, even when the woman had consented.
  5. 5. Malory’s Life of Crime  May 31- he allegedly extorted money from two residents of Monks Kirby, then on August 6th allegedly raped Joan Smith again and stole money and goods from her husband.  August 31- he again allegedly committed extortion from another resident of Monks Kirby.
  6. 6. Malory’s Life of Crime  On March 5th 1451 a warrant was issued for Malory's arrest and a few weeks later he and various accomplices were alleged to have stolen cattle in Warwickshire. The Duke of Buckingham and 60 men from Warwickshire tried to arrest him but in the meantime Malory apparently raided Buckingham's hunting lodge, killing deer and doing damage to the property.  He was arrested and imprisoned at Coleshill, but soon escaped (by swimming the moat), then reportedly raided Combe Abbey with a band of one hundred men, breaking down doors, insulting the monks, and stealing money.
  7. 7. Malory’s Life of Crime  By January 1452 he was in prison in London, where he spent most of the next eight years waiting for trial. He was bailed out several times and at one point joined a horse-stealing expedition across East Anglia in ended in Colchester jail, from which he escaped too, but was recaptured and taken back to prison in London.
  8. 8. SIR THOMAS MALORY  However, by 1468 Malory was back in Newgate prison, where he would die in 1471. While in Newgate he turned to writing, creating the immortal "Le Morte D'Arthur", which would win him eternal fame. The truth behind the seemingly contradictory nature of Sir Thomas Malory is hotly debated, and may never be fully known.  'The noble and joyous historye of the grete conquerour and excellent kyng, Kyng Arthur.’
  9. 9. SIR THOMAS MALORY  Sir Thomas Malory of Newbold Revel died on the 14th of March 1471, and was buried with adequate splendor in Christ Church Greyfriars, near Newgate Prison.  Malory's tomb read: "HIC JACET DOMINUS THOMAS MALLERE, VALENS MILES OB 14 MAR 1471 DE PAROCHIA DE MONKENKIRBY IN COM WARICINI." Meaning: ~> "Here lies Lord Thomas Mallere, Valiant Soldier. Died 14 March 1471, in the parish of Monkenkirby in the county of Warwick."
  10. 10. Le Morte D’Arthur is a compilation by Sir Thomas Malory of Romance tales about the legendary King Arthur, Guinevere, Lancelot, and the Knights of the Round Table.
  11. 11. King Arthur and The Knights of The Round Table  King Arthur is the figure at the heart of the Arthurian Legends but The Knights of the Round table play an important part in the story and legend of King Arthur.  Code of Chivalry  HONOR, HONESTY, VALOR, and LOYALTY  “Brothers in arms”
  12. 12. CODE OF CHIVALRY by Giovanni Boccaccio • To never lay down arms • To seek after wonders • To called upon, to defend the rights of the weak with all strength • To injure no one • Not to attack one another • To fight for the safety of one’s country • To give one’s life in our country • To seek nothing before honor • Never to break faith for any reason • To practice religion more diligently • To grant hospitality to anyone • Whether in honor or disgrace, to make in report with the greatest fidelity to truth to those who keep the annals
  13. 13. CODE OF CHIVALRY by SIR THOMAS MALORY  To never do outrage nor murder  Always to flee treason  To by no means be cruel but to give mercy unto him who asks for mercy  To always do ladies, gentlewomen and widows succor  To never force ladies, gentlewomen or widows  Not to take up battles in wrongful quarrels for love or worldly goods
  14. 14. The Round Table  The significance of the Round Table was that no one, not even King Arthur, would be able to sit at the head of the table.  According to the Vulgate Cycles, it was a wedding gift from Guinevere’s father, King Leodagan of Carmelide, after Arthur asked her hand in marriage.  The names of the knights were engraved on their chairs.  “PERILOUS”
  15. 15. When they were assembled, Merlin said that “from now on you must love one another and hold one another as dear as brothers, for from the love and sweetness of this table where you will be seated there will be born in your hearts such a great joy and friendship that you will leave your wives and children to be with one another and to spend your youth together.” (translation by Martha Asher).
  16. 16. CHARACTE RS
  17. 17. King Arthur Legendary King of Britain  was the son of Uther Pendragon and Igraine, whose actual name might have been its Latin version, Arturus
  18. 18. Two Arthurs are present in Arthurian literature. One is an epic hero who is flawless and can do no wrong. The second Arthur is more human. He is depicted as a two-dimensional character, with
  19. 19. Uther Pendragon  a legendary king of sub-Roman Britain and the father of King Arthur.
  20. 20. Igraine  in Arthurian legend, she is the mother of King Arthur.
  21. 21. Guinevere was the legendary Queen consort of King Arthur  said to have had a love affair with Arthur's chief knight Sir Lancelot reputedly the most beautiful woman in Britain
  22. 22. Morgause  the mother of Gawain ,Mordred, Gareth, Agravain, and Gaheris  sister of Morgan le Fay and the wife of King Lot of Orkney
  23. 23. Morgan le Fay  a powerful sorceress in the Arthurian legend  Arthur's half- sister; she is, therefore, the daughter of Igraine and Gorlois
  24. 24. Merlin Arthur's counselor and magician, and in many ways, he is the prime architect of Arthur's reign: Merlin helps Uther Pendragon to become Arthur's father; he guides Arthur to withdraw Excalibur from the Stone; he is the creator of the Round Table and prophet of the Grail; and he helps Arthur attain various goals.
  25. 25. Sir Ector (sometimes Hector, Antor, or Ectorius)  the father of Sir Kay and the foster father of King Arthur in the Arthurian legend
  26. 26. Sir Lancelot du Lac one of the Knights of the Round Table in the Arthurian legend  the most trusted of King Arthur's knights and played a part in many of Arthur's victories  best known for his love affair with Arthur's wife Guinevere and the role he played in the search for the Holy Grail
  27. 27. Sir Kay  Sir Ector's son and King Arthur's foster brother and later seneschal  as well as one of the first Knights of the Round Table is one of the earliest characters associated with Arthur.
  28. 28. Sir Gareth  a Knight of the Round Table in Arthurian Legend  he was the youngest son of Lot and of Morgause, King Arthur's half-sister, thus making him Arthur's nephew  as well as brother to Gawain, Agravain, Gaheris, and half- brother to Mordred
  29. 29. Sir Gawain in most tales, including "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight" he is Arthur's nephew (in some, he's his cousin) an innocent and true knight.
  30. 30. Sir Agravain a lesser-known nephew of King Arthur who serves him as a Knight of the Round Table. he is a son of King Lot of Orkney and Morgause and an accomplice of his evil half-brother Mordred.
  31. 31. Sir Gaheris  nephew of King Arthur and a Knight of the Round Table  son of Arthur's sister or half-sister Morgause and her husband Lot, King of Orkney  he is a brother of Gawain, Agravaine and Gareth and half-brother of Mordred
  32. 32. Sir Perceval is a type of blessed fool, a heroic knight who sees the Grail and visits the Fisher King in his mysterious castle.
  33. 33. Sir Bedivere  friend of Lancelot and Gawain  a loyal knight of King Arthur who is tested at the end of the story as told by Malory. Mortally wounded, the dying Arthur asks Bedivere to cast Excalibur into the lake from which it came.
  34. 34. Mordred or Modredis a character in the Arthurian legend, known as a notorious traitor who fought King Arthur at the Battle of Camlann, where he was killed and Arthur fatally wounded he is best known today as Arthur's illegitimate son by his half-sister Morgause In earlier literature, he was considered the legitimate son of Morgause, also known as Anna, with her husband King Lot of Orkney.  his brothers or half-brothers are Gawain, Agravain, Gaheris, and Gareth.
  35. 35. Elaine “The Fair Maid of Astolat” “The Lady of Shallot” is best known as the unrequited lover of Lancelot
  36. 36. Elaine (also known as Helen) was the mother of Lancelot and wife of King Ban of Brittany who after the death of her husband and the loss of her baby son Lancelot, was stolen by the Lady of the Lake
  37. 37. Lady of the Lake Niviene or Viviane (elsewhere known as Eviene) • is the wise and beautiful step-mother and teacher of Lancelot • first explains the meaning of knighthood to the young man who wishes to become a knight
  38. 38. Elaine of Pelles in other version, Elaine and Lancelot are the parents of Galahad
  39. 39. 25 Knights inscribed on the Winchester Round Table  King Arthur  Sir Galahad  Sir Lancelot du Lac  Sir Gawain  Sir Percivale  Sir Lionell  Sir Bors de Ganis  Sir Kay  Sir Tristram de Lyones  Sir Gareth  Sir Bedivere  Sir Bleoberis  La Cote Male Taile  Sir Lucan  Sir Palomedes  Sir Lamorak  Sir Safer  Sir Pelleas  Sir Ector de Maris  Sir Dagonet  Sir Degore  Sir Brunor le Noir  Le Bel Desconneu  Sir Alymere  Sir Mordred
  40. 40. Other Knights  Sir Aglovale  Sir Agravaine  King Enion  King Bagdemagus  Sir Breunor  Sir Caradoc  Sir Colgrevance  Sir Constantine  Sir Dagonet  Sir Daniel  Sir Ector  Sir Ector de Maris  Sir Elyan the White  Sir Gaheris  Sir Galeshin  Sir Geraint  Sir Gingalain  Sir Lamorak  King Leodegrance  Sir Lionel  Sir Maleagant  Sir Meliant de Lis  Sir Mordred  Sir Pelleas  Sir Sagramore le Desirous  Sir Safir  Sir Segwarides  Sir Tor  King Uriens  Sir Ywain the Bastard  Sir Galehaut

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