Augmented Reality: Beyond Usability

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Presentation to WorldComp12: Engagement is the new standard of usability. Identity project as task-based versus experientially-based, then design for Flow and Narrative Transportation using research-based techniques. Introduces the Positive Engagement Evaluation Model.

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  • Today I’m going to talk about the psychology of engagement. First, the role of the brain in achieving psychological engagement. Second, I’ll map brain behavior onto the theory of optimal engagement from positive psychology called FLOW. And finally, I’ll explain why using story is the best way to achieve optimal engagement.
  • The differences between hugely successful ventures, like the iPad, Angry Birds, or the Conspiracy for Good, and ones that fail, like the N-Gage combo phone and gaming system are grounded in the principles of psychology.
  • Engagement is psychological commitment. Engagement is what makes experience meaningful. It’s not a coincidence that we use the word ‘engaged’ when people decide to get married. Engagement is a relationship, an exchange of intangibles that creates a larger experience. A friend of mine finally got her an iPhone. She sat there looking at it, let out a big sigh looking at it and said “I’d marry it if I could.”That’s psychological commitment. That’s engagement
  • Engagement starts here, in the brain, because the brain controls attention and motivation.  
  • Let’s look at the brain’s three parts. First the subconscious stuff: The reptilian or old brain was first to develop and is located in the brain stem. Your reptilian brain is a primitive organ and is driven by instincts. It controls breathing, hunger, sex drive, and basic emotions like aggression. Your reptilian brain has only one prime directive: your survival.The second subconscious part is the mammalian brain located in the limbic system. This is the emotional center, it FEELs things like love, happiness, anger and fear. It is in collusion with the reptilian brain and processes emotions that give you those ‘gut’ feelings.  The last or newest part of the brain is conscious part of the brain is the thinking or new brain in the Neocortex. Then new brain is what we think of as our mind and our self. It is why you know you in this room, what you think about yourself, and why you can plan which party to attend tonight.
  • So how does the significantly smaller part of our brain exert such a relatively large influence of a giant reptile?  ClickThe reptilian brain is the gatekeepers of all sensory information. Everything you know about the world enters here It is processed based on one question: pain or gain. Will this enhance or threaten my chance of survival? It doesn’t ponder or evaluate. It is not into text, numbers or analysis. The reptilian brain constantly assesses the environment and responds to images and sensory information, like movement, smell, sounds, and change in patterns.  ClickNow you have a unique opportunity to go where no one has gone before. I want you to step into your reptilian brain.
  • Getting and keeping the attention of all parts of the brain is a little like walking a tightrope. How do we achieve balance?
  • All of you gamers and storytellers will recognize the characteristics of FLOW:We often hear it described as being in the ‘zone.’ The loss of self-awareness and time with total clarity, complete focus, and deep enjoyment
  • This chart shows the balance between the challenge of a task on the left and the person’s skills across the bottom. To remain in the FLOW zone, challenge and skill must constantly adjust to one another.
  • This chart shows the balance between the challenge of a task on the left and the person’s skills across the bottom. To remain in the FLOW zone, challenge and skill must constantly adjust to one another.
  • This chart shows the balance between the challenge of a task on the left and the person’s skills across the bottom. To remain in the FLOW zone, challenge and skill must constantly adjust to one another.
  • We can map the brain onto the FLOW model:Because balancing challenge and skill levels allows the reptilian brain to achieve control, safety and order and maintains arousal for attention without going over the limit into fight or flight. Balancing skill and challenge levels allows the new brain, that seat of our ego, to build confidence and receive self-validation. If the challenge exceeds the skills required by too much, the new brain will begin to feel incompetent. If it’s a choice between feeling good about ourselves or blaming game mechanics, your game’s gonna suck.
  • This chart shows the balance between the challenge of a task on the left and the person’s skills across the bottom. To remain in the FLOW zone, challenge and skill must constantly adjust to one another.
  • Today I’m going to talk about the psychology of engagement. First, the role of the brain in achieving psychological engagement. Second, I’ll map brain behavior onto the theory of optimal engagement from positive psychology called FLOW. And finally, I’ll explain why using story is the best way to achieve optimal engagement.
  • Augmented Reality: Beyond Usability

    1. 1. Augmented Reality:Beyond UsabilityDr. Pamela RutledgeDirector, Media Psychology Research CenterJuly 16, 2012WORLDCOMP EEE12 - The 2012 International Conference on e-Learning, e-Business, Enterprise Information Systems, and e-Government @pamelarutledge
    2. 2. Augmented Reality: Virtual informationsuperimposed over reality to add value or ‘augment’ experience
    3. 3. Virtual information: Down lines, player number, 3rd & 5arrow added to enhance viewer experience of game
    4. 4. What Drives Success?
    5. 5. Success Depends upon User ExperienceUser Experience > Usability
    6. 6. 1st Wave: Hardware2nd Wave: Software 3rd Wave: Usability 4 th Wave: Engagement Source: HFI International
    7. 7. Usabilityis no longer akey differentiator
    8. 8. The future isengagement
    9. 9. Overview:1. Define engagement2. Need for holistic evaluation3. The 3-brain model4. How brain theory fits with Flow5. Story to achieve optimal engagement6. Flow versus narrative immersion7. The Positive Engagement Evaluation Model
    10. 10. Usability is not what gets acustomer or user to buy or act Engagement Persuasion Trust Motivation Transaction
    11. 11. What isengagement?And why does it matter?
    12. 12. 21st Century Infrastructure: Mobile
    13. 13. You use technology to satisfy your needs. You design technology tofacilitate human behaviors and goals.
    14. 14. People process Goalsexperience Beliefs Emotionsholistically Experience Instincts Senses
    15. 15. Engagement starts here
    16. 16. Three in OneConscious New BrainSubconscious Emotional Brain Reptilian Brain
    17. 17. SightSoundTasteSmellTouch
    18. 18. Goals arenarrative structures
    19. 19. My Store: AR Dressing Room
    20. 20. AR College Recruiting Brochure
    21. 21. Old: Instinct and Emotion • Relevance • Pain or Gain/Threat or Reward • Control • Pattern Recognition • Feelings and Attachment • Creates emotional context • Activates memories
    22. 22. New Brain: Conscious Thought • Identity and sense of self • Skill-building and logic • Social collaboration • Empathy • Planning • Validation
    23. 23. Nature OLD BRAIN NEW BRAIN Emotions Skill-building Visual images Responsive feedback Pain and gain Participation, ownership User-centric, personal Social validation Certainty Empathy Narrative Nurture
    24. 24. Benefit for Designers:Model identifies how totarget each part of thebrain for maximum impact
    25. 25. AR Amplifies Effects• Expands the user’s sensory perceptions• Creates immediacy and relevance• Shifts locus of control• Enhances meaning and engagement• Triggers macro- and micro-persuasive effects
    26. 26. Flow:The theory of optimalengagement • Challenging activity requiring skill • Merging of action and awareness • Clear goals with feedback • Concentration on activity • Sense of control • Loss of self-consciousness and time
    27. 27. Emotional Dimensions of FlowChallenge Arousal Anxiety Flow Worry Control Relaxation Apathy Boredom Skill
    28. 28. Challenge High FlowArousal Anxiety Channel Boredom LowArousal Skill
    29. 29. Challenge HighArousal Anxiety Notional User Path Flow Channel Boredom LowArousal Skill
    30. 30. Challenge HighArousal Anxiety Flow State Increasing Decreasing Skills Challenge Increasing Challenge Less Demanding Skills Boredom LowArousal Skill
    31. 31. Challenge HighArousal Anxiety Flow Exit Point Flow Exit Flow Point Channel Boredom LowArousal Skill
    32. 32. Flow vs. Narrative Identity- Enhancing Overt Narrative Activity Loss Of Sense And Characters Of Time Sense Of Emotion-Enhancing Accomplishment Lack Of Self Activity Consciousness and Physical Empathy Clear Goal Surroundings Experience Of Place FLOW NARRATIVEConscious Directed Focus Conscious Sense of Presence
    33. 33. Design ObjectivesTask-Based FlowExperience-Based Narrative
    34. 34. Evaluation Model Assumptions• Attention comes before engagement• Designers need guidelines to identify psychological drivers underlying Flow and Narrative engagement• Flow increases focus on task-based goals• Narrative increases focus on experiential goals• Engagement is a holistic experience
    35. 35. Device Properties:  Interaction Design  Functionality  Content  Narrative Structure Unconscious ProcessingAttention: Movement, novelty, pattern recognition, threat, rewardPerception: Sensory activation, Sensory stimuli congruent with content Conscious Processing Task-Based Narrative-BasedSelf-Relevance Self-Relevance • Goal importance • Image enhancementConcentration Concentration • Challenge manageable • Creative ambiguity • Feedback • Feedback • Action = Expectations • Action = Discovery • Self-efficacy • Self-efficacyImmersion Immersion • Directed focus • Emotional activation • Social validation • Narrative transportation • Social connection OPTIMAL USER EXPERIENCE
    36. 36. 8 Domains:1. Goals2. Attention3. Concentration4. Interaction5. Content6. Identity7. Social Connection8. Emotional Outcome
    37. 37. User ExperienceDesigner Intention
    38. 38. Summary• User experience = engagement• Usability is no longer a differentiator• Singularly focused assessment approaches aren’t enough• 3-brain model applies neuroscience to design• Flow is a framework for optimal engagement in task-based projects• Narrative theory is a framework for optimal engagement in experiential-based projects• AR amplifies the impact of design decisions (better & worse)• The distinction between task and narrative based product goals makes a difference• Evaluation must embrace a holistic, user-centric approach
    39. 39. ResourcesThis presentation was based on the following papers.Neal, M. (2012). Creating and Maintaining a Psychological Flow State in Augmented Reality Applications. Paper presented at the 2012 EEE International Conference on e-Learning, e- Business, Enterprise Information Systems, and e-Government, Las Vegas, NV.Rutledge, P. B. (2012). Augmented Reality: Brain-based Persuasion Model. Paper presented at the 2012 EEE International Conference on e-Learning, e-Business, Enterprise Information Systems, and e-Government, Las Vegas, NV.Rutledge, P. B., & Neal, M. (2012). A New Model for the Evaluation of Interactive and Immersive Media. Paper presented at the 2012 EEE International Conference on e-Learning, e-Business, Enterprise Information Systems, and e-Government, Las Vegas, NV.
    40. 40. Thank YouDr. Pamela RutledgeDirector, Media Psychology Research CenterFor copies of the slides or papers, please emailpamelarutledge@gmail.com or send me an DMvia Twitter @pamelarutledgeJuly 16, 2012

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